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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Pluripotent States of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Abstract Since human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were first isolated and successfully cultured in vitro, the pluripotent potential of hESCs has been underestimated. The pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can be categorized as naïve and primed, depending on their corresponding in vivo developing phases. mESC morphology differs at distinct pluripotent states, which differ in signaling dependence, gene expression, epigenetic features, and developmental potential. hESCs resemble mouse stem cells at primed pluripotency, and consequently are believed to correspond to a later developmental stage in vivo than mESCs. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that a naïve state of pluripotency may exist in hESCs, and the pluripotency of hESCs also can be enhanced by genetic modification or optimized culture systems. These findings provide novel insight into the properties and differentiation potential of hESCs. Here, we review the recent advances in characterization of ESC states and investigate the mechanisms regulating hESC pluripotency.
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Silenced suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) enhances the maturation and antifungal immunity of dendritic cells in response to Candida albicans in vitro.
Immunol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play an important role in initiating and orchestrating antimicrobial immunity. Given the fact that candidiasis appears often in immunocompromised patients, it seems plausible that DCs hold the key to new antifungal strategies. One possibility to enhance the potency of DC-based immunotherapy is to silence the negative immunoregulatory pathways through the ablation suppressor of cytokine signaling suppressor 1 (SOCS1). Here, we deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) against SOCS1 into murine bone marrow DCs, and as a consequence, we investigate the maturation/action of DCs and the subsequent T cell response after exposure to C. albicans. Our results show that the maturation of DCs (i.e., expressions of CD80, CD40, CD86, and MHC II) are significantly increased in the silenced SOCS1 treatment group after exposure to C. albicans. As a result, suppression of the SOCS1 promotes the greatest expression of IFN-? and IL-12, and reduces IL-4 secretions, which induce CD4(+) cell Th1 differentiation but inactivate Th2 cell development. The responses of IL-6 and TNF-? consist of up-regulation in the presence of C. albicans, but this is not specific to SOCS1 silencing, suggesting that these cytokines are not regulated by the SOCS1 gene in fungal infections. We find Th17 differentiation is unchanged regardless of SOCS1 inhibition. The increase in phagocytosis and killing of C. albicans in SOCS1 gene-treated DCs indicate a role for this cytokine suppressor in innate immunity as well. In conclusion, our findings support the view that SOCS1 protein is a critical inhibitory molecule for controlling cytokine response and antigen presentation by DCs, thereby regulating the magnitude of innate and adaptive immunities by generating IFN-?-production T cells (Th1)-but not Th17-from naïve CD4(+) T cells. Our study demonstrates that SOCS1 siRNA can serve as a useful vehicle to modulate the function of DCs against C. albicans infection.
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Laser-assisted generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.
Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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This unit describes a procedure for generating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using the Laser-Enabled Analysis and Processing (LEAP®) system, which combines high-throughput cell imaging with laser-mediated cell manipulation. Use of this system should not only improve the quality and uniformity of hiPSCs produced, but ultimately enable a more rapid, efficient, high-throughput, and automated production process. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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[Association between plasma levels of microRNA-126 and coronary collaterals in patients with coronary artery disease].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To explore the relationship between plasma microRNA126 (miR-126) level and coronary collateral circulation (CCC) formation and to determine whether the miR-126 in plasma could serve as a blood-based biomarker for CCC in patients with severely narrowed coronary arteries (CAD).
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Tissue Depletion of Quinocetone and Its Five Major Metabolites in Pigs, Broilers, and Carp Fed Quinocetone Premix.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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A residue depletion study was performed to investigate the tissue kinetics of quinocetone (1) and its major metabolites. Quinocetone and its major metabolites were simultaneously quantitated with a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method. A total of 25 pigs, 30 broilers, and 50 carp were fed 100 mg/kg quinocetone for 90, 42, and 60 days, respectively. Liver, kidney, muscle, and fat (skin) tissues were collected at five different withdrawal times for analysis. Results revealed that quinocetone, 1-desoxyquinocetone (2), carbonyl-reduced 4-desoxyquinocetone (4), 3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (5), and carbonyl-reduced dideoxyquinocetone (6) could be depleted quickly in tissues; by contrast, dideoxyquinocetone, 3, persisted for a long time in the liver. Therefore, the liver is possibly the target tissue of quinocetone, and 3 is the residual marker; the recommended withdrawal times (WDTs) are 0 days in pigs and carp and 3 days in broilers. These results provided clear monitoring tools and technical standards to evaluate the food safety of quinocetone.
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[Correlation analysis of bacterial biofilm formation and bacterial culture in chronic otitis media].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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To study the correlation between the bacterial biofilm formation and bacterial culture in chronic otitis media.
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COX-2 mediated induction of endothelium-independent contraction to bradykinin in endotoxin-treated porcine coronary artery.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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This study examined the vascular effects of bradykinin in health and vascular inflammation comparing responses of isolated pig coronary arteries in the absence and presence of endotoxins. Bradykinin induced contractions in lipopolysaccharide-treated, but not untreated, arterial rings without endothelium. The B2-receptor antagonist HOE140, but not the B1-receptor inhibitor SSR240612, blocked these endothelium-independent contractions in response to bradykinin. The bradykinin-induced contractions were blocked by indomethacin, celecoxib, and terbogrel but not valeryl salicylate, AH6809, AL 8810, or RO1138452. They were attenuated by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid, and by diethyldithiocarbamate plus tiron but not by L-NAME. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed significant upregulations of messenger RNA expressions of B1 receptors, COX-2, and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXAS1) following lipopolysaccharide incubation but not of B2 receptors or COX-1. The present data demonstrate that bradykinin induces contractions mediated by the COX-2 pathway in endotoxin-treated pig coronary arteries. These results support differential roles of bradykinin in health and disease.
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Des-Arg9-bradykinin causes kinin B1 receptor mediated endothelium-independent contractions in endotoxin-treated porcine coronary arteries.
Pharmacol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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This study examined responses of isolated pig coronary arteries after kinin B1 receptor induction by endotoxin. Des-Arg9-bradykinin (DBK) induced concentration-dependent, endothelium-independent contractions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated but not untreated arterial rings. The B1-receptor antagonist SSR240612, but not the B2-receptor antagonist HOE140, prevented the endothelium-independent contractions to DBK. The DBK-induced contractions were blocked by indomethacin (nonselective cyclooxygenase [COX] inhibitor), celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor), and terbogrel (thromboxane-prostanoid [TP] receptor antagonist) but not valeryl salicylate (selective COX-1 inhibitor), AH6809 (an E prostanoid [EP] and PGD2 receptor [DP1] receptor antagonist), AL 8810 (a selective PGF2? [FP] receptor antagonist), or RO1138452 (a selective I prostanoid [IP] receptor antagonist). They were attenuated by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (ACA), and by DETCA plus tiron but not by l-NAME. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed excessive up-regulations of mRNA expressions of B1 receptors, COX-2, and thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXAS1) following LPS incubation, but not of B2 receptors or COX-1. The present data demonstrate that B1 receptors are coupled to COX-2 in causing endothelium-independent contractions in endotoxin-treated pig coronary arteries. Accordingly, kinin B1 receptor induction during inflammation may have a pathological significance in the vasculature, particular in coronary arteries with dysfunctional endothelial cells.
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Saliva as a sampling source for the detection of leukemic fusion transcripts.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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BackgroundSaliva has long been used as a sampling source for clinical diagnosis of oral disease such as oral squamous cell carcinoma, or therapeutic drug monitoring. The aims of this study was to ascertain if saliva RNA could be stored at room temperature and to study if saliva could be a convenient source for fusion transcripts in leukemic patients.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional diagnostic study. We first developed a Saliva RNA tube for stable storage of whole saliva RNA at room temperature. Then we detected the leukemic fusions in the whole saliva from seven leukemic patients and twenty healthy volunteers, and compared with the results obtained from the bone marrow of the patients.ResultsHuman gene transcripts could be reproducibly detected in the whole saliva for at least four weeks when stored in the developed composition at room temperature. Concordant results of the fusion transcripts were obtained between the saliva and the bone marrow in the seven leukemic patients and no fusions were detected in the healthy controls.ConclusionsThe results support our hypothesis that human whole saliva could be a reliable and convenient sampling source for the detection of leukemic fusions.
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A mini-electrochemical system integrated micropipet tip and pencil graphite electrode for detection of anticancer drug sensitivity in vitro.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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Developing a reliable and cost-effective miniaturized electroanalysis tool is of vital importance for cell electrochemical analysis. In this work, a novel mini-electrochemical system has been constructed for trace detection of cell samples. The mini-electrochemical system was constructed by integrating a pencil graphite modified by threonine (PT/PGE) as working electrode, an Ag/AgCl (Sat'd) as reference electrode, platinum wire as counter electrode and a micropipet tip as electrochemical cell. The mini-electrochemical system not only saved dramatically usage of samples from 500?L in traditional electrochemical system to 10?L, but also possessed an adjustable active surface area by changing the length of PT/PGE immersed into the cell suspension from 3mm to 15mm, and the linear equation was ipa=2.25l-2.64 (R(2)=0.990). The system was successfully used in detection of MCF-7 cells, and a nonlinear exponent relationship between peak current and the cell number range from 3.0×l0(3) to 7.0×l0(6)cellsmL(-1) was established firstly with the index equation ipa=59.557e (-C/1.709)-71.486 (R(2)=0.954). Finally, the system was used for evaluating the sensitivity of cyclophosphamide on MCF-7 cell, and the result was corresponded well with that of MTT assay. The proposed system is sufficiently simple, cheap and easy operated, and could be applied in electrochemical detection of other biological samples.
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Inhibiting CB1 receptors improves lipogenesis in an in vitro non-alcoholic fatty liver disease model.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The endocannabinoids system (ECs) mediated mainly by CB1 and CB2 receptors plays an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by regulating lipid metabolism. This study is to further investigate the expression of CB1 and CB2 in the fat accumulation liver cells and to identify possible underlying mechanism by detecting the key lipogenesis factors.
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A genetic variant of miR-148a binding site in the SCRN1 3'-UTR is associated with susceptibility and prognosis of gastric cancer.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'-untranslated regions targeted by putative mircoRNA can change its binding strength, affecting the susceptibility and prognosis of cancer. We aimed to investigate the associations between SNPs within miR-148a binding sites and gastric cancer (GC) risk and prognosis. Using bioinformatics tools, we selected two SNPs (SCRN1 rs6976789 and PDYN rs2235749) located in miR-148a target sites. We genotyped the two SNPs in a case-control study comprising 753 GC patients and 949 cancer-free subjects. We found a significantly increased risk of GC associated with the SCRN1 rs6976789 C>T polymorphism [adjusted OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.53; CT/TT vs. CC]. However, no significant association was found between the PDYN rs2235749 and GC risk in all genetic models. Furthermore, we evaluated whether SCRN1 rs6976789 affected the survival of GC patients. Results showed that individuals with SCRN1 rs6976789 TT genotype had poorer overall survival compared with those carried CC/CT genotypes in intestinal-type GC (adjusted HR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.21-5.05). Luciferase report assay showed that the rs6976789 variant T allele influenced the binding ability of miR-148a. Our results suggested that the SCRN1 rs6976789 polymorphism may play an important role in the GC development and progression.
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Role of NHE1 in the cellular dysfunction of acute metabolic acidosis.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Metabolic acidosis is associated with impaired cellular function. This has been attributed to the accompanying reduction in intracellular and interstitial pH of the myocardium. Recent studies suggest that activation of the cellular Na(+)-H(+) exchanger NHE1 might contribute to myocardial dysfunction. This review examines the experimental evidence which supports the role of NHE1 in the genesis of acidosis-induced cellular dysfunction, the benefits of its inhibition, and the type of acidosis that might benefit from therapy.
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Factors associated with self-concept in adolescent survivors of an 8.0-magnitude earthquake in China.
Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Experiencing a major natural disaster is a stressful event that challenges survival and sense of self. Adolescents are undergoing rapid developmental change in self-concept, and their sense of self is particularly susceptible to such stressful events. Although many studies have investigated adolescent self-concept, few have examined self-concept in relation to experiencing a natural disaster.
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Environmental Equity Research: Review with Focus on Outdoor Air Pollution Research Methods and Analytic Tools.
Arch Environ Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Abstract Objective: To review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution, and specifically methods and tools used in research published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. Methods: English language publications from 2000-2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid Medline and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed, and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. Results: Exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological, and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Conclusion: Higher quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities.
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Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping: Current Status and Future Directions.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a new technique for quantifying magnetic susceptibility. It has already found various applications in quantifying in vivo iron content, calcifications and changes in venous oxygen saturation. The accuracy of susceptibility mapping is dependent on several factors. In this review, we evaluate the entire process of QSM from data acquisition to individual data processing steps. We also show preliminary results of several new concepts introduced in this review in an attempt to improve the quality and accuracy for certain steps. The uncertainties in estimating susceptibility differences using susceptibility maps, phase images, and T2* maps are analyzed and compared. Finally, example clinical applications are presented. We conclude that QSM holds great promise in quantifying iron and becoming a standard clinical tool.
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High Clopidogrel Dose in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Having Clopidogrel Resistance After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
Angiology
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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We evaluated the impact of clopidogrel 150 mg/d in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) having clopidogrel resistance (CR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); 1076 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) having CKD were enrolled. Maximal platelet aggregation (MPA) was assessed before, 24 hours, and 30 days after a 300-mg loading dose of clopidogrel prior to PCI. After PCI, 370 patients with CR were randomized to receive clopidogrel 75 mg/d (n = 184) or 150 mg/d (n = 186) for 30 days. Stent thrombosis (ST), major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), and bleeding were analyzed after 1 month. Patients in the 150 mg group had significant lower rates of ST and MACE. There was no significant difference in major or minor bleeding. Patients in the 150 mg group had lower MPA and greater inhibition of platelet aggregation. One-month administration of 150 mg/d of clopidogrel decreases the rate of ST and MACE without increasing bleeding in patients with CKD having CR after PCI.
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Incorporating MRI structural information into bioluminescence tomography: system, heterogeneous reconstruction and in vivo quantification.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Combining two or more imaging modalities to provide complementary information has become commonplace in clinical practice and in preclinical and basic biomedical research. By incorporating the structural information provided by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the ill poseness nature of bioluminescence tomography (BLT) can be reduced significantly, thus improve the accuracies of reconstruction and in vivo quantification. In this paper, we present a small animal imaging system combining multi-view and multi-spectral BLT with MRI. The independent MRI-compatible optical device is placed at the end of the clinical MRI scanner. The small animal is transferred between the light tight chamber of the optical device and the animal coil of MRI via a guide rail during the experiment. After the optical imaging and MRI scanning procedures are finished, the optical images are mapped onto the MRI surface by interactive registration between boundary of optical images and silhouette of MRI. Then, incorporating the MRI structural information, a heterogeneous reconstruction algorithm based on finite element method (FEM) with L 1 normalization is used to reconstruct the position, power and region of the light source. In order to validate the feasibility of the system, we conducted experiments of nude mice model implanted with artificial light source and quantitative analysis of tumor inoculation model with MDA-231-GFP-luc. Preliminary results suggest the feasibility and effectiveness of the prototype system.
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Diabetes mellitus potentiates diffuse large B?cell lymphoma via high levels of CCL5.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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There is much evidence suggesting that CCL5 is one of the chemoattractant cytokines involved in diabetes mellitus (DM) with diffuse large B?cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the pathological impact is unclear. In the current study, in order to improve understanding regarding the role of CCL5 in DM with DLBCL, the expression levels of CCL5 mRNA were examined in normal B cells, human DLBCL cell lines (Ly1, Ly8 and Ly10) and a mouse DLBCL cell line (A20), as well as those in cells cultured with either 5 or 30 mmol/l glucose. A20?CCL5+ (CCL5 overexpression) and A20?CCL5? (CCL5 knockdown) subclones were obtained through cell transduction with a lentiviral vector, and were subcutaneously injected into BALB/c DM mice and normal mice. Tumor growth was observed by calculating the tumor volume. The results demonstrated that CCL5 mRNA levels in DLBCL cells were significantly higher than those in the normal cells (P<0.05); and levels in DLBCL cells in 30 mmol/l Glu were significantly higher than in those of DLBCL cells in 5 mmol/l Glu (P<0.05). A20?CCL5+ cells led to tumor formation in DM mice compared with A20 and A20?CCL5? cells. These results indicate that high levels of CCL5 expression may accelerate DLBCL formation in DM.
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Single-molecule study of proteins by biological nanopore sensors.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Nanopore technology has been developed for detecting properties of proteins through monitoring of ionic current modulations as protein passes via a nanosize pore. As a real-time, sensitive, selective and stable technology, biological nanopores are of widespread concern. Here, we introduce the background of nanopore researches in the area of ?-hemolysin (?-HL) nanopores in protein conformation detections and protein-ligand interactions. Moreover, several original biological nanopores are also introduced with various features and functions.
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Generation, Expansion, and Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) Derived From the Umbilical Cords of Newborns.
Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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The umbilical cord is tissue that is normally discarded after the delivery of the infant, but it has been shown to be a rich source of stem cells from the cord blood, Wharton's jelly, and umbilical endothelial cells. Patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed from patient specific human umbilical vein endothelial cells in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) population (specifically, premature neonates) have not been shown in the literature. This unit describes a protocol for the generation and expansion of hiPSCs originating from umbilical cords collected from patients in the NICU. Curr. Protoc. Stem Cell Biol. 29:1C.16.1-1C.16.13. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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In situ electrochemical assessment of cytotoxicity of chlorophenols in MCF-7 and HeLa cells.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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An in situ electrochemical method was used to assess the cytotoxicity of chlorophenols using human breast cancer (MCF-7) and cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells as models. On treatment with different chlorophenols, the electrochemical responses of the selected cells, resulting from the oxidation of guanine and xanthine in the cytoplasm, indicated the cell viability. In addition, the in situ in vitro electrochemical method was further compared with the traditional MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays. Although similar cytotoxicity data were obtained from both methods, the effective concentrations of chlorophenols that inhibited 50% cell growth (EC50 values) from the electrochemical method were only slightly lower than those from the MTT assay. These results indicate that the in situ in vitro electrochemical method paves a simple, rapid, strongly responsive, and label-free way to the cytotoxicity assessment of different chlorophenol pollutants.
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Evaluation of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for 11 ?-agonists in swine feed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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A sensitive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of 11 ?-agonists (clenbuterol, salbutamol, ractopamine, terbutaline, fenoterol, cimaterol, isoxsuprine, mabuterol, mapenterol, clenproperol, and tulobuterol) in swine feed. This rapid, simple, and effective extraction method was based on matrix solid-phase dispersion. The limit of quantification of clenbuterol, cimaterol, mabuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline, mapenterol, clenproperol, and tulobuterol was 1 ?g/kg and that of ractopamine, fenoterol, and isoxsuprine was 2 ?g/kg. The recoveries of ?-agonists spiked in swine feeds at a concentration range of 1-8 ?g/kg were >83.1% with relative standard deviations <9.3%. This rapid and reliable method can be used to efficiently separate, characterize, and quantify the residues of 11 ?-agonists in swine feeds with advantages of simple pretreatment and environmental friendliness.
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A fast schema for parameter estimation in diffusion kurtosis imaging.
Comput Med Imaging Graph
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a new model in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characterizing restricted diffusion of water molecules in living tissues. We propose a method for fast estimation of the DKI parameters. These parameters - apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and apparent kurtosis coefficient (AKC) - are evaluated using an alternative iteration schema (AIS). This schema first roughly estimates a pair of ADC and AKC values from a subset of the DKI data acquired at 3 b-values. It then iteratively and alternately updates the ADC and AKC until they are converged. This approach employs the technique of linear least square fitting to minimize estimation error in each iteration. In addition to the common physical and biological constrains that set the upper and lower boundaries of the ADC and AKC values, we use a smoothing procedure to ensure that estimation is robust. Quantitative comparisons between our AIS methods and the conventional methods of unconstrained nonlinear least square (UNLS) using both synthetic and real data showed that our unconstrained AIS method can significantly accelerate the estimation procedure without compromising its accuracy, with the computational time for a DKI dataset successfully reduced to only 1 or 2min. Moreover, the incorporation of the smoothing procedure using one of our AIS methods can significantly enhance the contrast of AKC maps and greatly improve the visibility of details in fine structures.
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The marine-derived fungal metabolite, terrein, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest in human ovarian cancer cells.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The difficulties faced in the effective treatment of ovarian cancer are multifactorial, but are mainly associated with relapse and drug resistance. Cancer stem-like cells have been reported to be an important contributor to these hindering factors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anticancer activities of a bioactive fungal metabolite, namely terrein, against the human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3, primary human ovarian cancer cells and ovarian cancer stem-like cells. Terrein was separated and purified from the fermentation metabolites of the marine sponge-derived fungus, Aspergillus terreus strain PF26. Its anticancer activities against ovarian cancer cells were investigated by cell proliferation assay, cell migration assay, cell apoptosis and cell cycle assays. The ovarian cancer stem-like cells were enriched and cultured in a serum-free in vitro suspension system. Terrein inhibited the proliferation of the ovarian cancer cells by inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. The underlying mechanisms involved the suppression of the expression of LIN28, an important marker gene of stemness in ovarian cancer stem cells. Of note, our study also demonstrated the ability of terrein to inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer stem-like cells, in which the expression of LIN28 was also downregulated. Our findings reveal that terrein (produced by fermention) may prove to be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer by inhibiting the proliferation of cancer stem-like cells.
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Global gene expression profiling of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne fine particulate matter collected from Wuhan, China.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Many studies have linked ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution to different cardiopulmonary diseases in the general population. However the complex mechanisms underlying PM2.5-induced adverse health effects are not yet to be fully elucidated.
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Curcumin-induced melanoma cell death is associated with mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Here we studied the role of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in curcumin's cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. In cultured WM-115 melanoma cells, curcumin induced mitochondrial membrane potential (MPP) decrease, cyclophilin-D (CyPD)-adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT-1) (two mPTP components) mitochondrial association and cytochrome C release, indicating mPTP opening. The mPTP blocker sanglifehrin A (SfA) and ANT-1 siRNA-depletion dramatically inhibited curcumin-induced cytochrome C release and WM-115 cell death. CyPD is required for curcumin-induced melanoma cell death. The CyPD inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA) or CyPD siRNA-depletion inhibited curcumin-induced WM-115 cell death and apoptosis, while WM-115 cells with CyPD over-expression were hyper-sensitive to curcumin. Finally, we found that C6 ceramide enhanced curcumin-induced cytotoxicity probably through facilitating mPTP opening, while CsA and SfA as well as CyPD and ANT-1 siRNAs alleviated C6 ceramide's effect on curcumin in WM-115 cells. Together, these results suggest that curcumin-induced melanoma cell death is associated with mPTP opening.
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Self-organized molecular films with long-range quasiperiodic order.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Self-organized molecular films with long-range quasiperiodic order have been grown by using the complex potential energy landscape of quasicrystalline surfaces as templates. The long-range order arises from a specific subset of quasilattice sites acting as preferred adsorption sites for the molecules, thus enforcing a quasiperiodic structure in the film. These adsorption sites exhibit a local 5-fold symmetry resulting from the cut by the surface plane through the cluster units identified in the bulk solid. Symmetry matching between the C60 fullerene and the substrate leads to a preferred adsorption configuration of the molecules with a pentagonal face down, a feature unique to quasicrystalline surfaces, enabling efficient chemical bonding at the molecule-substrate interface. This finding offers opportunities to investigate the physical properties of model 2D quasiperiodic systems, as the molecules can be functionalized to yield architectures with tailor-made properties.
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Evaluating the impact of environmental temperature on global highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in domestic poultry.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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The emergence and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus subtype H5N1 in Asia, Europe and Africa has had an enormously socioeconomic impact and presents an important threat to human health because of its efficient animal-to-human transmission. Many factors contribute to the occurrence and transmission of HPAI H5N1 virus, but the role of environmental temperature remains poorly understood. Based on an approach of integrating a Bayesian Cox proportional hazards model and a Besag-York-Mollié (BYM) model, we examined the specific impact of environmental temperature on HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in domestic poultry around the globe during the period from 1 December 2003 to 31 December 2009. The results showed that higher environmental temperature was a significant risk factor for earlier occurrence of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in domestic poultry, especially for a temperature of 25 °C. Its impact varied with epidemic waves (EWs), and the magnitude of the impact tended to increase over EWs.
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Biodegradable nanoparticles for intracellular delivery of antimicrobial agents.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Biodegradable nanoparticles have emerged as a promising strategy for ferrying antimicrobial agents into specific cells due to their unique properties. This review discusses the current progress and challenges of biodegradable nanoparticles for intracellular antimicrobial delivery to understand design principles for the development of ideal nanocarriers. The intracellular delivery performances of biodegradable nanoparticles for diverse antimicrobial agents are first summarized. Second, the cellular internalization and intracellular trafficking, degradation and release kinetics of nanoparticles as well as their relation with intracellular delivery of encapsulated antimicrobial agents are provided. Third, the influences of nanoparticle properties on the cellular internalization and intracellular fate of nanoparticles and their payload antimicrobial agents are discussed. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of nanoparticles for intracellular delivery of antimicrobial agents are addressed. The review will be helpful to the scientists who are interested in searching for more efficient nanosystem strategies for intracellular delivery of antimicrobial agents.
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Kinome-wide functional analysis highlights the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in somatic cell reprogramming.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells by ectopic expression of transcription factors has galvanized the fields of regenerative medicine and developmental biology. Here, we report a kinome-wide RNAi-based analysis to identify kinases that regulate somatic cell reprogramming to iPSCs. We prepared 3,686 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviruses targeting 734 kinase genes covering the entire mouse kinome and individually examined their effects on iPSC generation. We identified 59 kinases as barriers to iPSC generation and characterized seven of them further. We found that shRNA-mediated knockdown of the serine/threonine kinases TESK1 or LIMK2 promoted mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, decreased COFILIN phosphorylation, and disrupted Actin filament structures during reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Similarly, knockdown of TESK1 in human fibroblasts also promoted reprogramming to iPSCs. Our study reveals the breadth of kinase networks regulating pluripotency and identifies a role for cytoskeletal remodeling in modulating the somatic cell reprogramming process.
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Relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia in pregnant Chinese women.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Little is known about the optimal cut-off point of fasting plasma glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant Chinese women. This study investigates the relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and several variables: neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia rate of pregnant women. In this study, we hoped to provide a useful tool to screen gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant Chinese women.
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Paramagnetic hollow silica nanospheres for in vivo targeted ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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A series of hollow silica nanospheres (HSNSs) with sizes ranging from 100 to 400 nm were synthesized and used for primary ultrasound imaging (US) efficiency assessment. The 400 nm HSNSs were chosen as platform for conjugation with Gd-DTPA and cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid c(RGD) peptide to construct US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual-modal contrast agents (CAs): [HSNSs@(DTPA-Gd)-RGD]. The obtained CAs displayed good physiological stability, low cytotoxicity and negligible hemolytic activity in vitro. Furthermore, the passive accumulation and active-targeting of the HSNSs in the tumor site of mice was demonstrated by US and MR imaging, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative biodistribution of the HSNSs showed that they mainly accumulated in the tissues of liver, lung, tumor after intravenous administration and then be excreted from feces. In addition, histological, hematological, blood and biochemical analysis were used to further study toxicity of the HSNSs, and all results indicated that there were no covert toxicity of HSNSs in mice after long exposure times. Findings from this study indicated that the silica-based paramagnetic HSNSs can be used as a platform for long-term targeted imaging and therapy studies safely in vivo.
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A novel electrochemical method to evaluate the cytotoxicity of heavy metals.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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There is an ongoing search to develop techniques for detection of heavy metals which are highly toxic and can cause damaging effects even at very low concentrations. In this present study, we report a label-free electrochemical method based on the direct voltammetric response of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells on a highly sensitive graphene modified electrode. Five heavy metals were tested with the method and the results were validated by the traditional methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The results revealed that the most toxic metal was Cr, followed by Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. A good correlation between the two methods was observed. This work will be beneficial in providing a novel monitoring method to detect hazardous pollutants in the field of environmental toxicology.
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A label-free electrochemical DNA sensor using methylene blue as redox indicator based on an exonuclease III-aided target recycling strategy.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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In this work, using methylene blue (MB) as a redox marker and exonuclease III (Exo III) as an amplificatory enzyme, we developed a facile and a label-free electrochemical method for sensitive DNA detection. A double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) probe was prepared by hybridizing two single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes. In the ssDNA probes, one ssDNA was guanine bases free and the other one consisted of many unbound guanine bases. MB could be absorbed on the unbound guanine bases owing to the specific interaction between MB and the guanine bases. When the dsDNA probe was challenged with target DNA, it induced a simple Exo III assisted cleavage process, accompanied by the release of the unbound guanine bases. Thus, the amount of MB absorbed on the electrode was much less compared to the initial signal. The detection limit for DNA was found to be as low as 20 fM. Moreover, it could discriminate mismatched DNA from perfectly matched target DNA. This detection method is simple in design, fast in operation and can be applied to detect different DNA sequences.
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Two-signal electrochemical method for evaluation suppression and proliferation of MCF-7 cells based on intracellular purine.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Two electrochemical signals ascribed to xanthine/guanine and hypanthine/adenine in MCF-7 cells were detected at 0.726 and 1.053 V, respectively. Based on the intensity of signals, the genistein-induced proliferation and suppression of MCF-7 cells could be evaluated. The results showed that with the increase of genistein dose at the range of 10(-9) to 10(-6)M, the two electrochemical signals of MCF-7 cell suspension increased due to the proliferation, whereas the tendency at the high dosage range of more than 10(-5)M was decreased. The proliferation and cytotoxicity obtained by the electrochemical method were in agreement with those obtained by cell counting and the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium] method. Thus, the two-signal electrochemical method is an effective way to evaluate the effect of drugs on cell activity based on purine metabolism.
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Escherichia coli Peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis: the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and clinical outcomes in a South China dialysis center.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Escherichia coli (E. coli) peritonitis is a frequent, serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli peritonitis is associated with poorer prognosis and its incidence has been on continuous increase during the last decades. However, the clinical course and outcomes of E. coli peritonitis remain largely unclear.
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Purple sweet potato color ameliorates kidney damage via inhibiting oxidative stress mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in high fat diet mice.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Purple sweet potato color (PSPC) has potential anti-inflammation efficacy. We evaluated the effect of PSPC on kidney injury induced by high fat diet (HFD) and explored the mechanism underlying these effects. The results showed that PSPC (700 mg/kg per day) reduced body weight, ratio of urine albumin to creatinine, inflammatory cell infiltration, and Collagen IV accumulation in mice fed an HFD (60% fat food) for 20 weeks. PSPC significantly reduced the expression level of kidney NLRP3 inflammasome including NLRP3 and ASC and Caspase-1, and resulted in decline of IL-1?. Moreover, PSPC inhibited the activation of I kappa B kinase ? (IKK?) and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-?B). Additionally, PSPC decreased the expression level of oxidative stress-associated AGE receptor (RAGE) and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) in the upstream of NLRP3 inflammasome. These data imply that the beneficial effects of PSPC on HFD-induced kidney dysfunction and damage are mediated through NLRP3 signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for the prevention of obesity.
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Paeoniflorin inhibits the maturation and immunostimulatory function of allergen-induced murine dendritic cells.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Dendritic cells (DCs) as the front lines of defense play a crucial role in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Paeoniflorin (PF) has been clinically proven to be effective in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as ACD. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of PF remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of PF on the maturation and immunostimulatory function of DCs in the murine model of ACD in vitro. Murine bone marrow-derived DCs were stimulated with the contact sensitizer 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenze (DNCB) in vitro. Surface antigen expression of DCs (MHC II, CD40, CD80, and CD86), as an indicator of maturation DCs and cytokines (IL-12, IFN-?, IL-10, and TGF-?) after DNCB stimulation in the absence or presence of PF at different doses, was detected. Then, we detected that PF-treated DCs stimulated T cells in response to DNCB. PF inhibited the up-regulation of MHC II, CD80, CD86, and CD40, decreased IL-12p70 secretion, while increased the production of IL-10 and TGF-?, and had no effect on IFN-? cytokine production by murine bone marrow-derived DCs in response to DNCB. DCs exposed to PF had diminished capacity to stimulate allogeneic T cell proliferation and to activate IFN-?-producing CD4? T cells and induced CD4?CD25?Foxp3? T cells and IL-10-producing T cell expansion from naïve CD4? T cells. These results indicate that PF may be effective in preventing and treating ACD in vitro and other inflammatory responses possibly through inhibiting maturation of DCs and limiting their capacity to stimulate T cell responses.
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Effect of trimetazidine on recurrent angina pectoris and left ventricular structure in elderly multivessel coronary heart disease patients with diabetes mellitus after drug-eluting stent implantation: a single-centre, prospective, randomized, double-blind study at 2-yea
Clin Drug Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Trimetazidine has been shown to improve angina pectoris and left ventricular (LV) function in diabetic patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of trimetazidine on recurrent angina pectoris and LV structure after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in elderly multivessel coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of ? 50 %.
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Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography for the analysis of aldehydes in edible oils.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Oxidation has important effects on the quality of edible oils. In particular, the generation of aldehydes produced by the oxidation of oils is one of the deteriorative factors to their quality. The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine the aldehydes as lipid oxidation markers in edible oils. Seven aldehydes generated from lipid oxidation were studied using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The extraction efficiency of five commercial fibers was investigated and the influence of extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption temperature, and desorption time were optimized. The best result was obtained with 85 ?m carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane, extraction at 50 °C for 15 min and desorption in the gas chromatography injector at 250 °C for 2 min. Under the optimized conditions, the content of hexanal was the highest of the seven aldehydes in all edible oils. The limits of detection for hexanal in the three oils were found to range from 4.6 to 10.2 ng L(-1). The reproducibility of the method was evaluated and the relative standard deviations were less than 8.9%. This developed approach was successfully applied to analyze hexanal in peanut oil, soy oil, and olive oil samples, and these results were compared with those obtained using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) method.
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Coadministration of a Na+-H+ exchange inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest in piglets.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The present study tested the hypothesis that addition of an inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1) to sodium bicarbonate might improve the response to base therapy from prolonged asphyxial cardiac arrest in piglets.
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Metabolic disposition and excretion of quinocetone in rats, pigs, broilers, and carp.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Excretion, disposition, and metabolism of [(3)H]-quinocetone in rats, pigs, broilers, and carp following oral administration were investigated. After a single p.o. dose, total radioactivity was rapidly excreted, with ?94% in all species within 14 days. Fecal excretion of radioactivity was 68% and 65% of the administered dose in rats and pigs, respectively, with the remainder excreted in the urine. Six hours after the last of seven daily oral administrations of (3)H-labeled QCT, radioactivity was found to be distributed throughout all tissues, with the majority of radioactivity cleared within 7 days, and elimination was the slowest from the liver and kidney. QCT was extensively metabolized in all of the species, and the primary changes included N-O group reduction, carbonyl group reduction, double bond reduction, and hydroxylation. The major tissue metabolites of QCT were Q2, Q4, Q5, Q8, and Q9 in rats; Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, and Q5 in pigs; Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, and Q7 in broilers; and Q1, Q2 in carp. This confirmed the potential link between QCT metabolism through N-O group reduction and its organ toxicity. The results of the present study provide important data that could help understand the relationship between the toxicities and metabolic disposition of QCT.
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Fluorescence determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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A simple and rapid fluorescence method has been developed for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed food samples. In the determination, acrylamide is degraded through Hofmann reaction to generate vinyl amine, and pyrrolinone is produced when the vinyl amine reacts with fluorescamine, resulting in a strong fluorescence emission at 480 nm. Hofmann reaction is a key step for the fluorescence determination of acrylaminde, and the reaction conditions are investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity increases with the increase of acrylamide concentrations. The linear range between the fluorescence intensity and the square-root of acrylamide concentrations is from 0.05 ?g mL(-1) to 20 ?g mL(-1) with the correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9935. The detection limit is 0.015 ?g mL(-1) and the recovery for food samples is from 66.0% to 110.6%. In comparison with Specification of Entry&Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of The People?s Republic of China (SN/T 2281-2009), the method showed comparable results and demonstrated the accuracy of the method.
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Sabiporide improves cardiovascular function and attenuates organ injury from severe sepsis.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of orally administered sabiporide, a selective Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibitor on whole body protection from severe sepsis in rats.
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Characterization of Breast Tumors Using Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the role of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in characterizing breast lesions.
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Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells help restore function to ovaries in a premature ovarian failure mouse model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) can differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. For this reason, they are considered a powerful tool for therapeutic cloning and offer new possibilities for tissue therapy. Recent studies showed that skin-derived stem cells can differentiate into cells expressing germ-cell specific markers in vitro and form oocytes in vivo. The idea that SMSCs may be suitable for the treatment of intractable diseases or traumatic tissue damage has attracted attention. To determine the ability of SMSCs to reactivate injured ovaries, a mouse model with ovaries damaged by busulfan and cyclophosphamide was developed and is described here. Female skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (F-SMSCs) and male skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (M-SMSCs) from red fluorescence protein (RFP) transgenic adult mice were used to investigate the restorative effects of SMSCs on ovarian function. Significant increases in total body weight and the weight of reproductive organs were observed in the treated animals. Both F-SMSCs and M-SMSCs were shown to be capable of partially restoring fertility in chemotherapy-treated females. Immunostaining with RFP and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) antibodies demonstrated that the grafted SMSCs survived, migrated to the recipient ovaries. After SMSCs were administered to the treated mice, real-time PCR showed that the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, TGF-?, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1?, and IFN? were significantly lower in the ovaries than in the untreated controls. Consistent with this observation, expression of oogenesis marker genes Nobox, Nanos3, and Lhx8 increased in ovaries of SMSCs-treated mice. These findings suggest that SMSCs may play a role within the ovarian follicle microenvironment in restoring the function of damaged ovaries and could be useful in reproductive health.
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A proteomic study on molecular mechanism of poor grain-filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.) inferior spikelets.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.), especially of the type with large spikelets, often fail to reach the yield potential as expected due to the poor grain-filling on the later flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to the earlier-flowering superior spikelets). The present study showed that the size and grain weight of superior spikelets (SS) was greater than those of inferior spikelets (IS), and the carbohydrate supply should not be the major problem for the poor grain-filling because there was adequate amount of sucrose in IS at the initial grain-filling stage. High resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with Coomassie-brilliant blue (CBB) and Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein fluorescence stain revealed that 123 proteins in abundance and 43 phosphoproteins generated from phosphorylation were significantly different between SS and IS. These proteins and phosphoproteins were involved in different cellular and metabolic processes with a prominently functional skew toward metabolism and protein synthesis/destination. Expression analyses of the proteins and phosphoproteins associated with different functional categories/subcategories indicated that the starch synthesis, central carbon metabolism, N metabolism and cell growth/division were closely related to the poor grain-filling of IS. Functional and expression pattern studies also suggested that 14-3-3 proteins played important roles in IS poor grain-filling by regulating the activity of starch synthesis enzymes. The proteome and phosphoproteome obtained from this study provided a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of the IS poor grain-filling. They were also expected to be highly useful for improving the grain filling of rice.
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A longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and its relationship with coping skill and locus of control in adolescents after an earthquake in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common psychological maladaptation among adolescents after undergoing an earthquake. Knowledge about the prevalence and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and the changes of its predictors over time can help medical providers assist adolescent survivors with mitigating long-term impacts. This study examined the changes in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and its relationship with coping skill and locus of control among adolescent earthquake survivors in China.
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Metabolism, Distribution, and Excretion of Deoxynivalenol with Combined Techniques of Radiotracing, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, and Online Radiometric Detection.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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Dispositions of deoxynivalenol (DON) in rats and chickens were investigated, using a radiotracer method coupled with a novel ?-accurate radioisotope counting (?-ARC) radio-high-performance liquid chromatography ion trap time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (radio-HPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS) system. 3?-(3)H-DON was chemically synthesized and orally administrated to both sexes of rats and chickens as single or multiple doses. The results showed that DON was widely distributed and quickly eliminated in all tissues. The highest concentration was found in the gastrointestinal tract at 6 h post-administration. Substantially lower levels were detected in the kidney, liver, heart, lung, spleen, and brain. Three new metabolites were identified tentatively as 10-deoxynivalenol-sulfonate, 10-deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1)-sulfonate, and deoxynivalenol-3?-sulfate. Deoxynivalenol-3?-sulfate was a major metabolite in chickens, while the major forms in rats were DOM-1 and DON. Additionally, a higher excretion rate in urine was observed in female rats than in male rats. The differences in metabolite profiles and excretion rates, which suggested diverse ways to detoxify, may relate to the different tolerances in different genders or species.
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Acute kidney injury induced by aristolochic acid in patients with primary glomerular nephritis.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Abstract Background: Acute kidney injury induced by aristolochic acid (AA) might occur in patients with chronic glomerular nephritis (CGN). In this study, the clinical and pathological features of patients with acute aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) superimposing CGN (AAN-CGN) were investigated. Methods: Eighteen patients diagnosed as acute AAN were included in this retrospective study, from January 2001 to December 2009. According to the pre-existing CGN, 13 patients were identified as the AAN-CGN group, and 5 isolated AAN patients as the control group. Clinical and pathological features were compared between the two groups. Results: In the AAN-CGN group, six patients complained with gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, or loss of appetite. The rest of seven cases were asymptomatic or minimally uncomfortable, who were found with elevated serum creatinine (Scr) in the follow up of CGN. Compared with the control group, the patients in AAN-CGN group had higher levels of serum uric acid, urine n-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase, and urine protein excretion (366.2?±?122.8 vs. 218.0?±?125.8??mol/L, p?=?0.037; 9.74?±?4.4 vs. 1.38?±?1.01?g/d, p?=?0.001; 61.2?±?21.9 vs. 27.4?±?15.8??/g???cr, p?=?0.007, respectively). In addition to, the AAN-CGN patients had an absolutely prominent percentage of macromolecule substance in the urine protein electrophoresis (25.0?±?6.32 vs. 15.8?±?7.8%, p?=?0.029). The occurrence of hypokalemia and excretion of aminoaciduria were lower than that in the control group. Pathologically, 84.6% of patients were found with tubular brush border dropping, 30.8% with naked tubular basement membrane, and 15.4% with different stages of vascular lesion. There were no statistical differences in the above-mentioned pathological parameters between the two groups. In the follow-up, 10 patients with AAN-CGN recovered with normal Scr, accounting for 76.9%, which was better than the recovery in the control group. Conclusion: Patients with acute AAN-CGN manifested with a great mass of urine protein excretion, low incidence of hypokalemia and aminoaciduria, however, the tubular-interstitial lesions were similar to the isolated AAN.
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A high-throughput quantitative approach reveals more small RNA modifications in mouse liver and their correlation with diabetes.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Studies of RNA modification are usually focused on tRNA. However the modification of other small RNAs, including 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and small RNA sized at 10-60 nt, is still largely unknown. In this study, we established an efficient method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to simultaneously identify and quantify more than 40 different types of nucleosides in small RNAs. With this method, we revealed 23 modified nucleosides of tRNA from mouse liver, and 6 of them were observed for the first time in eukaryotic tRNA. Moreover, 5 and 4 modified nucleosides were detected for the first time in eukaryotic 5.8S and 5S rRNA, respectively, and 22 modified nucleosides were identified in the small RNAs sized at 30-60 or 10-30 nt. Interestingly, two groups of 5S rRNA peaks were observed when analyzed by HPLC, and the abundance of modified nucleosides is significantly different between the two groups of peaks. Further studies show that multiple modifications in small RNA from diabetic mouse liver are significantly increased or decreased. Taken together, our data revealed more modified nucleosides in various small RNAs and showed the correlation of small RNA modifications with diabetes. These results provide new insights to the role of modifications of small RNAs in their stability, biological functions, and correlation with diseases.
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High Risk of Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Placental Transfer of T-2 Toxin and Its Major Metabolite HT-2 Toxin in BeWo Cells.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Though T-2 toxin is the most harmful mycotoxin to the fetuses, it remains unclear whether T-2 toxin and its major metabolite, HT-2 toxin, could pass the placenta into the fetus and which kind of placental transport is involved in the passage. To illustrate their placenta transfer mechanism, the uptake and efflux of T-2 and HT-2 toxins across apical membranes of placenta with BeWo cells as a model were studied at different temperatures, pHs, and in the presence of transporter inhibitors with a developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine the amount of toxins in both fetal and maternal sites. Higher unidirectional transport of T-2 toxin was observed in the apical-to-basolateral direction than basolateral-to-apical one, whereas HT-2 toxin exhibited similar transport rate from the 2 directions. The main ATP-binding cassette transporters had no effect on the efflux of 2 toxins. Initial uptake of T-2 toxin was sodium dependent and saturable, and the apical uptake was temperature dependent and enhanced under acidic condition. The apical uptake of T-2 toxin was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors and the organic anion and organic cation transporter inhibitors. These results suggested that an active transport mechanism was responsible for the uptake of T-2 toxin, whereas passive diffusion was the principal mechanism for HT-2 toxin transport in the placenta. Taken together, these data characterized the placental transfer of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. The present study offered new ways of reducing the risks of T-2 and HT-2 toxins to both mother and fetuses.
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[MicroRNA-10a accelerates endodermal lineage differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human placenta].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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To improve the potential of endodermal differentiation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) by microRNA-10a (miR-10a)-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of its mRNA targets.
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[Immunomodulatory effects of human placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells on immune rejection in mouse allogeneic skin transplantation].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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To investigate the effect of human placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) on immunological rejection in mouse allogeneic skin transplantation.
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Over-expression of fibroblast activation protein alpha increases tumor growth in xenografts of ovarian cancer cells.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP?) is a 95-kDa serine protease of post-prolyl peptidase family on cell surface. FAP? is widely expressed in tumor microenvironment. The wide spread association of FAP? expression with cancer suggests that it has important functions in the disease. However, the nature of FAP?s roles in cancer cell activity is not well-determined. It has been showed that FAP? silencing in SKOV3 cells induces ovarian tumors but significantly reduces tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. To further determine the role of FAP? in epithelial ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3-FAP? and HO8910-FAP? cell lines, which over-expressed FAP? stably, were constructed and then their biological behaviors were investigated. It was found that FAP? promoted ovarian cancer cell proliferation, drug resistance, invasiveness, and migration in vitro. Immunochemistry assay showed that FAP? significantly facilitated tumor growth in xenograft tumor tissues. These results suggested that FAP? might directly promote tumor growth and invasiveness in ovarian cancer cells.
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Protective Role of Statins in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Aged >=75 Years With Low LDL-C Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
Angiology
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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The effect of statins in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) at advanced age with lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unknown. We evaluated the effect of statins in 220 Chinese patients with ACS aged ?75 years with low LDL-C undergoing PCI. Biomarkers were measured before and 6 hours after PCI, and patients were followed up for 1 year. Biomarkers in the statin group at 6 hours post-PCI were lower than controls (creatine kinase-myocardial band 14.2 ± 5.78 vs 47.3 ± 16.4 IU/L, P = .03; cardiac troponin I 0.36 ± 0.12 vs 1.33 ± 0.47 ng/mL, P = .01; and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein 7.6 ± 4.3 vs 13.6 ± 4.5 mg/L, P = .001, respectively). Significant differences were found in major adverse cardiac events at 1 year (P = .02-.01), while target lesion revascularization alone was less at 3 months between the 2 groups (P = .03). This study demonstrates that elderly patients with ACS having low LDL-C benefit from statins regardless of type, dosage, and duration of statin administration prior to PCI.
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Genetic variation rs10484761 on 6p21.1 derived from a genome-wide association study is associated with gastric cancer survival in a Chinese population.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) on esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) among Chinese people has discovered a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10484761 on 6p21.1 region. We hypothesized that SNP rs10484761 T/C is associated with survival of gastric cancer. We genotyped SNP rs10484761 in 940 gastric cancer patients treated with surgical resection. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between the SNP rs10484761 and gastric cancer survival. In the dominant model, those who carry TC/CC genotypes had a significant shorter survival time (log-rank P=0.005), especially in the subgroups of aged male patients, cardia intestinal tumor (HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.08-1.84 for cardia cancer and HR=1.64, 95% CI=1.14-2.37 for intestinal-type), tumor size?5cm (HR=1.41, 95% CI=0.56-0.99), T1 depth invasion (HR=2.34, 95% CI=1.20-4.56), lymph node metastasis (HR=1.51, 95% CI=1.19-1.96), no distant metastasis (HR=1.33, 95% CI=1.05-1.68), TNM stage III+IV (HR=1.50, 95% CI=1.13-1.98), and with chemotherapy (HR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-1.99). The results indicated that SNP rs10484761 was associated with prognosis of gastric cancer, suggesting that this genetic variant may serve as a potential marker to predict the survival of gastric cancer in Chinese population.
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Hsa-miR-196a2 polymorphism increases the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Chinese children.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in childhood, and the causes of ALL are not completely understood. microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various biological processes including organ development, cell growth regulation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. We performed a case-control study with 570 childhood ALL cases and 673 cancer-free controls to investigate the association between hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 T>C polymorphism and ALL risk. The bioinformatics was used to estimate the potential target of hsa-miR-196a2. In the present study, the hsa-miR-196a2 variant TC heterozygote, and CC/TC genotypes were found to be associated with a significantly increased childhood ALL risk, compared with the TT wild-type homozygote (adjusted OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.15-1.95 for TC and OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.09-1.79 for CC/TC). Further, the difference was pronounced in younger (?6) subjects or parental non-drinker. The significance of the increased risk is more obvious than the higher treatment branch. Additionally, we found that the rs11614913 TC genotype can increase B-phenotype ALL risk (OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.07-1.76). Finally, combination of three bioinformatics approaches revealed that HOXC8 may be the target gene of hsa-miR-196a2. Taken together, our finding suggested that hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 T>C may increase the risk of childhood ALL. Large studies with the function of hsa-miR-196a2 are needed in the further study.
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Ovarian cancer stem cells enrichment.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) provides a new paradigm for understanding cancer biology. Cancer stem cells are defined as a minority of cancer cells with stem cell properties responsible for maintenance and growth of tumors. The targeting of CSCs is a potential therapeutic strategy to combat ovarian cancer. Ovarian epithelial cancer cells cultured in serum-free medium can form sphere cells. These sphere cells may be enriched for cancer stem cells (CSCs). The isolation of sphere cells from solid tumors is an important technique in studying cancer cell biology. Here we describe the isolation of sphere cells from primary ovarian cancer tissue, ascites fluid, and the cancer cell line SKOV3 with stem cell selection medium.
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Assessing traffic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Montreal, Canada.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as probable carcinogens. This study compares two PAH biomarkers and their relationship with geographic information system (GIS) based traffic density (a proxy of PAH exposure), and explores the determinants of the PAH biomarkers.
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Serum sex hormone binding globulin profile and its association with insulin resistance in Chinese peri-menopausal women.
Endokrynol Pol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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The aim of this study was to measure serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) profile in Chinese peri-menopausal women, and assess its correlation with insulin resistance (IR)-related parameter, namely HOMA-IR, in this special population.
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Nucleoside analog inhibits microRNA-214 through targeting heat-shock factor 1 in human epithelial ovarian cancer.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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The important functions of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in certain malignant cancers have granted it to be an appealing target for developing novel strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we report that higher HSF1 expression is associated with more aggressive malignization in epithelial ovarian tumors, indicating that targeting HSF1 is also a promising strategy against ovarian cancer. We found that a nucleoside analog (Ly101-4B) elicits efficient inhibition on HSF1 expression and potent anticancer activity on epithelial ovarian cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, by targeting HSF1, Ly101-4B inhibits the biogenesis of microRNA-214, which has been revealed to be overexpressed and to promote cell survival in human ovarian epithelial tumors. These findings demonstrate that Ly101-4B is a promising candidate for ovarian cancer therapy, and expand our understanding of HSF1, by revealing that it can regulate microRNA biogenesis in addition to its canonical function of regulating protein-coding RNAs.
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Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the simultaneous determination of sudan dyes and their metabolites in the edible tissues and eggs of food-producing animals.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of sudan I, sudan II, sudan III, sudan IV, and their metabolites such as 4-aminoazobenzene and ortho-aminoazotoluole in 12 animal derived foods (including the muscle and liver of swine, muscle, liver and skin of chicken and duck, muscle and skin of fish, as well as the eggs of hen and duck). Sample preparation procedure included ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile, defatting with n-hexane and final clean-up with solid phase extraction (SPE) on Aluminum B cartridges. The detection and quantification of the 6 sudan dyes and their metabolites were performed by a reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). The CC?s and the CC?s of various samples varied from 0.03?g/kg to 0.12?g/kg, 0.09?g/kg to 0.19?g/kg, respectively. The recoveries of spiked sample from 0.2?g/kg to 0.8?g/kg ranged from 61.9% to 87.4% with the relative standard deviations of less than 19.1%. Performances of the whole analytical procedure meet the criteria established by the European Commission for mass spectrometric detection.
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Susceptibility breakpoint for enrofloxacin against swine Salmonella spp.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Susceptibility breakpoints are crucial for prudent use of antimicrobials. This study has developed the first susceptibility breakpoint (MIC ? 0.25 ?g/ml) for enrofloxacin against swine Salmonella spp. based on wild-type cutoff (COWT) and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) cutoff (COPD) values, consequently providing a criterion for susceptibility testing and clinical usage of enrofloxacin.
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A large-scale screen for coding variants predisposing to psoriasis.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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To explore the contribution of functional coding variants to psoriasis, we analyzed nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) across the genome by exome sequencing in 781 psoriasis cases and 676 controls and through follow-up validation in 1,326 candidate genes by targeted sequencing in 9,946 psoriasis cases and 9,906 controls from the Chinese population. We discovered two independent missense SNVs in IL23R and GJB2 of low frequency and five common missense SNVs in LCE3D, ERAP1, CARD14 and ZNF816A associated with psoriasis at genome-wide significance. Rare missense SNVs in FUT2 and TARBP1 were also observed with suggestive evidence of association. Single-variant and gene-based association analyses of nonsynonymous SNVs did not identify newly associated genes for psoriasis in the regions subjected to targeted resequencing. This suggests that coding variants in the 1,326 targeted genes contribute only a limited fraction of the overall genetic risk for psoriasis.
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Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ultrasound-assisted extraction and auto solid-phase clean-up method for the determination of Fusarium toxins in animal derived foods.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 Fusarium toxins and their metabolites including deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenon-X (F-X), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), monoacetoxyscirpenol (MAS), zearalanone (ZAN), zearalenone (ZON), ?-Zearalenol (?-ZOL), ?-Zearalenol (?-ZOL), a-Zearalanol (?-ZAL), ?-Zearalanol (?-ZAL), T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, deepoxy-deoxynialenol (DOM-1) in the muscle, liver, kidney, fat of swine, bovine and sheep, muscle and liver of chicken, muscle and skin of fish, as well as milk and eggs. Sample preparation procedure includes ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile/water (90/10, v/v), defatting with n-hexane and final clean-up with auto solid phase extraction (SPE) on Bond Elut Mycotoxin cartridges. The detection and quantification of the analytes were performed by a reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). DON, NIV, DOM-1, 3-AcDON, 15-AcDON, F-X, ZON, ZAN, ?-ZOL, ?-ZOL, ?-ZAL, ?-ZAL, T-2 triol and T-2 tetraol were detected in a negative ion mode, while T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, NEO, DAS and MAS were detected in a positive ion mode. The CC? and CC? of the analytes in different samples varied from 0.16 to 1.37?g/kg and 0.33 to 2.34?g/kg, respectively. The recoveries of spiked sample from 0.5?g/kg to 8?g/kg ranged from 64.8% to 108.2% with the relative standard deviations of less than 19.4%. Performances of the whole analytical procedure meet the criteria established by the European Commission for mass spectrometric detection.
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An in situ electrochemical detection method of cell viability.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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An in situ electrochemical method of cell viability, which integrated cell culture, pretreatment and detection in a cell culture dish, was developed. The method significantly improved the electrochemical response of cells, simplified the operation process, reduced the experiment time, avoided the use of trypsin, and was applied in the study of the effectiveness of antitumor drugs on tumor suppression.
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Human amniotic fluid stem cells have a potential to recover ovarian function in mice with chemotherapy-induced sterility.
BMC Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Human amniotic fluid cells (hAFCs) may differentiate into multiple cell lineages and thus have a great potential to become a donor cell source for regenerative medicine. The ability of hAFCs to differentiate into germ cell and oocyte-like cells has been previously documented. Herein we report the potential use of hAFCs to help restore follicles in clinical condition involving premature ovarian failure.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.