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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
One-unit versus two-unit cord-blood transplantation for hematologic cancers.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Umbilical-cord blood has been used as the source of hematopoietic stem cells in an estimated 30,000 transplants. The limited number of hematopoietic cells in a single cord-blood unit prevents its use in recipients with larger body mass and results in delayed hematopoietic recovery and higher mortality. Therefore, we hypothesized that the greater numbers of hematopoietic cells in two units of cord blood would be associated with improved outcomes after transplantation.
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Long-term Survival and Late Effects among 1-year Survivors of Second Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Relapsed Acute Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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We analyzed the outcomes of patients who survived disease-free for 1-year or more following second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for relapsed acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes between 1980 and 2009. A total of 1285 patients received a second allogeneic transplant following disease relapse; among these 325 survived relapse-free at 1-year after the second HCT. The median time from first to second HCT was 17 and 24 months for children and adults, respectively. A myeloablative preparative regimen was used in the second transplant in 62% of children and 45% of adult patients. The overall 10-year conditional survival rates after second transplantation in this cohort of patients who had survived disease-free for at least one year were 55% in children and 39% in adults. Relapse was the leading cause of mortality (77% and 54% of deaths in children and adults, respectively). In multivariate analyses, only disease status prior to second HCT was significantly associated with higher risk for overall mortality (HR 1.71 for patients with disease not in complete remission prior to second HCT, P<0.01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in 43% and 75% of children and adults following second transplant. Chronic GVHD was the leading cause of non-relapse mortality followed by organ failure and infection. The cumulative incidence of developing at least one of the studied late effects at 10-years after second HCT was 63% in children and 55% in adults. The most frequent late effects in children were growth disturbance (10-year cumulative incidence 22%) and cataracts (20%), and in adults were cataracts (20%) and avascular necrosis (13%). Among patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes who receive a second allogeneic HCT for relapse and survive disease-free for at least 1-year, many can be expected to survive long term. However, they continue to be at risk for relapse and non-relapse morbidity and mortality. Novel approaches are needed to minimize relapse risk and long-term transplant morbidity in this population.
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TNF receptor inhibitor therapy for the treatment of children with idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS). A joint Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium (PBMTC) and Children's Oncology Group (COG) study (ASCT0521).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is an acute, non-infectious lung disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic cell transplantation. Previous studies have suggested a role for TNF? in the pathogenesis of IPS. We report a multi-center phase II trial investigating a soluble TNF binding protein, etanercept (Enbrel(®), Amgen) for the treatment of pediatric patients with IPS. Eligible patients were <18 years, within 120 days post-transplant, with radiographic evidence of a diffuse pneumonitis. All patients underwent a pre-therapy broncho-alveolor lavage (BAL) to establish the diagnosis of IPS. Systemic corticosteroids (2.0 mg/kg/day) plus etanercept (0.4 mg/kg twice weekly x 8 doses) were administered. Response was defined as survival and discontinuation of supplemental oxygen support by day 28 of study. Thirty-nine patients (median age 11y, range 1-17y) were enrolled, with 11 of 39 patients non-evaluable due to identification of pathogens from their pre-therapy BAL. In the remaining 28 patients, the median FiO2 at study entry was 45%, with 17 of 28 requiring mechanical ventilation. Complete responses were seen in 20 (71%) patients, with a median time to response 10 days (range 1-24). Response rates were higher for patients not requiring mechanical ventilation at study entry (100% vs. 53%,p=0.01). Overall survival at 28 days and 1-year post-therapy were 89% (95% CI:70-96) and 63% (95% CI:42-79) respectively. Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased at onset of therapy, subsequently decreasing in responding patients. The addition of etanercept to high dose corticosteroids was associated with high response rates and survival in children with IPS.
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Current thawing and infusion practice of cryopreserved cord blood: the impact on graft quality, recipient safety, and transplantation outcomes.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Methods of handling, thawing, and infusion of cord blood (CB) products vary substantially among thaw/transplant centers (TCs). This review 1) compares currently available CB product types and thaw methods recommended by CB banks (CBBs), 2) discusses causes of inconsistency in thaw method application at TCs, 3) advises elements to consider in thaw method approval or selection at the TC, 4) provides a procedural template for the traditional thaw methods, and 5) suggests acceptable time from product thaw to infusion and other considerations for safe infusion. It also compares postinfusion adverse reaction and engraftment data as functions of thaw methods. Remarks and suggestions made throughout this review are: 1) not intended to supersede manufacturer's instructions but meant to support the standardization of preparative procedures recommended by CBBs and 2) intended to help TCs to investigate relevant quality issues and handle challenges, especially when the TC is unable to follow recommendations due to foreseeable technical, quality, and/or clinical factors.
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The addition of sirolimus to tacrolimus/methotrexate GVHD prophylaxis in children with ALL: a phase 3 Children's Oncology Group/Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium trial.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Sirolimus has activity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in xenograft models and efficacy in preventing acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). We tested whether addition of sirolimus to GVHD prophylaxis of children with ALL would decrease aGVHD and relapse. Patients were randomized to tacrolimus/methotrexate (standard) or tacrolimus/methotrexate/sirolimus (experimental). The study met futility rules for survival after enrolling 146 of 259 patients. Rate of Grade 2-4 aGVHD was 31% vs 18% (standard vs experimental, P = .04), however, grade 3-4 aGVHD was not different (13% vs 10%, P = .28). Rates of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) were lower in the nonsirolimus arm (9% vs 21% VOD, P = .05; 1% vs 10% TMA, P = .06). At 2 years, event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 56% vs 46%, and 65% vs 55% (standard vs experimental), respectively (P = .28 and .23). Multivariate analysis showed increased relapse risk in children with ?0.1% minimal residual disease (MRD) pretransplant, and decreased risk in patients with grades 1-3 aGVHD (P = .04). Grades 1-3 aGVHD were associated with improved EFS (P = .02), whereas grade 4 aGVHD and extramedullary disease at diagnosis led to inferior OS. Although addition of sirolimus decreased aGVHD, survival was not improved. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT00382109.
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Randomized clinical trial of therapeutic music video intervention for resilience outcomes in adolescents/young adults undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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To reduce the risk of adjustment problems associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for adolescents/young adults (AYAs), we examined efficacy of a therapeutic music video (TMV) intervention delivered during the acute phase of HSCT to: 1) increase protective factors of spiritual perspective, social integration, family environment, courageous coping, and hope-derived meaning; 2) decrease risk factors of illness-related distress and defensive coping; and 3) increase outcomes of self-transcendence and resilience.
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Challenges and opportunities for international cooperative studies in pediatric hematopoeitic cell transplantation: priorities of the Westhafen Intercontinental Group.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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More than 20% of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) are performed in children and adolescents at a large number of relatively small centers. Unlike adults, at least one-third of HCTs in children are performed for rare, nonmalignant indications. Clinical trials to improve HCT outcomes in children have been limited by small numbers and these pediatric-specific features. The need for a larger number of pediatric HCT centers to participate in trials has led to the involvement of international collaborative groups. Representatives of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantations Pediatric Working Group, International Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (iBFm) Stem Cell Transplantation Committee, and Childrens Oncology Groups Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Discipline Committee met on October 3, 2012, in Frankfurt, Germany to develop a consensus on the highest priorities in pediatric HCT. In addition, it explored the creation of an international consortium to develop studies focused on HCT in children and adolescents. This meeting led to the creation of an international HCT network, dubbed the Westhafen Intercontinental Group, to develop worldwide priorities and strategies to address pediatric HCT issues. This review outlines the priorities of need as identified by this consensus group.
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A phase I study of histone deacetylase inhibitor, pracinostat (SB939), in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors: IND203 a trial of the NCIC IND program/C17 pediatric phase I consortium.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Pracinostat (SB939) is a potent oral inhibitor of class 1, 2, and 4 histone deacetylases (HDAC). The adult recommended phase II dose (RP2D) is 60?mg po three times per week (t.i.w.) for 3 weeks every 4 weeks. This study assessed the toxicities and pharmacokinetics of pracinostat and determined the RP2D in children with refractory solid tumors.
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Publication bias is present in blood and marrow transplantation: an analysis of abstracts at an international meeting.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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Publication bias is the preferential publication of research with positive results, and is a threat to the validity of medical literature. Preliminary evidence suggests that research in blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) lacks publication bias. We evaluated publication bias at an international conference, the 2006 Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR)/American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) "tandem" meeting. All abstracts were categorized by type of research, funding status, number of centers, sample size, and direction of the results. Publication status was then determined for the abstracts by searching PubMed. Of 501 abstracts, 217 (43%) were later published as complete manuscripts. Abstracts with positive results were more likely to be published than those with negative or unstated results (P = .001). Furthermore, positive studies were published in journals with a mean impact factor of 6.92, whereas journals in which negative/unstated studies were published had an impact factor of only 4.30 (P = .02). We conclude that publication bias exists in the BMT literature. Full publication of research, regardless of direction of results, should be encouraged and the BMT community should be aware of the existence of publication bias.
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Role of cytotoxic therapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: update of the 2005 evidence-based review.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Clinical research published since the first evidence-based review on the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is presented and critically evaluated in this update. Treatment recommendations are provided by an expert panel. Allogeneic SCT is recommended for children who: are in second complete remission (CR2) after experiencing an early marrow relapse for precursor-B ALL; experienced primary induction failure, but subsequently achieved a CR1; have T-lineage ALL in CR2; or have ALL in third or greater remission. Although the 2005 pediatric ALL evidence-based review (EBR) recommended allogeneic SCT for children with Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) ALL in CR1, preliminary tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) data demonstrate that early outcomes are comparable for allogeneic SCT and chemotherapy + imatinib. Based on the evidence, autologous SCT is not recommended for ALL in CR1. Allogeneic SCT is not recommended for: T-lineage ALL in CR1; mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)+ ALL when it is the sole adverse risk factor; isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse in precursor-B ALL. Based on expert opinion, allogeneic SCT may be considered for hypodiploid ALL and persistent minimal residual disease [corrected] (MRD) positivity in ALL in CR1 or greater, although these are areas that need further study. Treatment recommendations pertaining to various transplantation techniques are also provided, as are areas of needed future research.
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The role of cytotoxic therapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: update of the 2006 evidence-based review.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Clinical research published since the first evidence-based review on the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults is presented and critically evaluated in this update. Treatment recommendations changed or modified based on new evidence include: (1) myeloablative allogeneic SCT is an appropriate treatment for adult (<35 years) ALL in first complete remission for all disease risk groups; and (2) reduced-intensity conditioning may produce similar outcomes to myeloablative regimens. Treatment recommendations unchanged or strengthened by new evidence include: (1) allogeneic SCT is recommended over chemotherapy for ALL in second complete remission or greater; (2) allogeneic is superior to autologous SCT; and (3) there are similar survival outcomes after related and unrelated allogeneic SCT. New treatment recommendations based on new evidence include: (1) in the absence of a suitable allogeneic donor, autologous SCT may be an appropriate therapy, but results in a high relapse rate; (2) it is appropriate to consider cord blood transplantation for patients with no HLA well-matched donor; and (3) imatinib therapy before and/or after SCT (for Ph+ ALL) yields significantly superior survival outcomes. Areas of needed research in the treatment of adult ALL with SCT were identified and presented in the review.
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Randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine for newly diagnosed chronic graft-versus-host disease in children: a Childrens Oncology Group study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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The Childrens Oncology Group conducted a multicenter Phase III trial for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). The double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study evaluated hydroxychloroquine added to standard therapy for children with newly diagnosed cGVHD. The study also used a novel grading and response scoring system and evaluated clinical laboratory correlates of cGVHD. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR) after 9 months of therapy. Fifty-four patients (27 on each arm) were enrolled before closure because of slow accrual. The CR rate was 28% in the hydroxychloroquine arm versus 33% in the placebo arm (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20-2.93, P = .75) for 42 evaluable patients. For 41 patients with severity assessment at enrollment, 20 (49%) were severe and 18 (44%) moderate according to the National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference global scoring system. The CR rate was 15% for severe cGVHD and 44% for moderate cGVHD (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.05-1.06, P = .07). Although the study could not resolve the primary question, it provided important information for future cGVHD study design in this population.
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Comparison of cord blood thawing methods on cell recovery, potency, and infusion.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2010
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Umbilical cord blood (UCB) products have traditionally been thawed using a washing method intended to stabilize the cells, reduce dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) toxicity, and remove potentially ABO-incompatible red blood cell (RBC) stroma and plasma. Concerns with this approach include loss of total nucleated cells (TNCs), bag breakage during centrifugation, and poor reproducibility by transplant centers unfamiliar with this technique. We rationalized that a simple 1:1 dilution without centrifugation would stabilize the product and reduce the DMSO concentration by 50%, allowing for a controlled thaw in the laboratory without the risks of cell loss.
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Identification of the CD34 enumeration on the day before stem cell harvest that best predicts poor mobilization.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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We questioned whether CD34 enumeration in peripheral blood on the day before planned collection would identify a patient population that could benefit from an augmented collection strategy during that mobilization attempt.
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Regulatory issues in cord blood banking and transplantation.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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When selecting a cord blood unit for transplantation a transplant program must, in addition to considering HLA match and cell dose, know that the unit is potent, pure and will not transfer an infectious, hematologic or immunologic disease. While these same issues also apply to adult unrelated donors the fact that cord blood has been processed and stored, often years earlier, at a cell processing facility other than the one affiliated with the transplant program has resulted in a transfer of responsibilities from the transplant program to the cord bank. The transplant programs rely on the cord blood banks for all aspects of collection, screening, testing, processing and storage. Additionally the intermediary registries that are responsible for coordinating communications between the banks and transplant programs are important partners in a comprehensive approach to cord blood quality management. Since cord blood units frequently cross international borders it is critical that international regulatory standards be established and implemented to cover all steps in the production and sharing of cord blood for transplantation. Activities of NetCord/FACT, AABB, CIBMTR, World Marrow Donor Association and others are coming together under the Alliance for Harmonization of Cellular Therapy Accreditation to harmonize practice worldwide.
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Phase I study of tandem high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue for children with recurrent brain tumors: a Pediatric Blood and MarrowTransplant Consortium study.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDC/SCR) has produced responses and prolonged survival for some children with recurrent brain tumors, but is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. A Phase I trial of two cycles of HDC/SCR for recurrent brain tumors in children was performed to determine the maximum tolerated doses for a novel regimen.
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Outcomes of pediatric bone marrow transplantation for leukemia and myelodysplasia using matched sibling, mismatched related, or matched unrelated donors.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Although some trials have allowed matched or single human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched related donors (mmRDs) along with HLA-matched sibling donors (MSDs) for pediatric bone marrow transplantation in early-stage hematologic malignancies, whether mmRD grafts lead to similar outcomes is not known. We compared patients < 18 years old reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing allogeneic T-replete, myeloablative bone marrow transplantation between 1993 and 2006. In total, patients receiving bone marrow from 1208 MSDs, 266 8/8 allelic-matched unrelated donors (URDs), and 151 0-1 HLA-antigen mmRDs were studied. Multivariate analysis showed that recipients of MSD transplants had less transplantation-related mortality, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and chronic GVHD, along with better disease-free and overall survival than the URD and mmRD groups. No differences were observed in transplant-related mortality, acute and chronic GVHD, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival between the mmRD and URD groups. These data show that mmRD and 8/8 URD outcomes are similar, whereas MSD outcomes are superior to the other 2 sources. Whether allele level typing could identify mmRD recipients with better outcomes will not be known unless centers alter practice and type mmRD at the allele level.
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A randomized, controlled study of amiodarone for prevention of atrial fibrillation after transthoracic esophagectomy.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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Atrial fibrillation is common after esophagectomy. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of amiodarone for prevention of atrial fibrillation after transthoracic esophagectomy.
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A phase I/II study of the safety and efficacy of the addition of sirolimus to tacrolimus/methotrexate graft versus host disease prophylaxis after allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Sirolimus has been shown to have activity against human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at serum levels used for immunosuppression. We hypothesized that the addition of sirolimus to a tacrolimus/methotrexate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimen would decrease relapse after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and initiated a phase I/II study to demonstrate safety, feasibility, and efficacy. The study cohort included 18 patients in high-risk (HR) first complete remission (CR1), 16 in HR CR2, 17 in intermediate risk (IR) CR2, and 12 in CR3+. The 2-year event-free survival (EFS) of the cohort was 66% (standard error 6.4). EFS of risk groups was 74%, 81%, 44% and 46% for CR1, IR CR2, HR CR2 and CR3+ patients respectively, and did not differ by stem cell source. Cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grade II-IV and III-IV was 38% and 21% respectively, while the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 32%. Cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality and relapse was 10% and 25% respectively. Significant toxicities included veno-occlusive disease [seven patients (11%)], transplant-associated microangiopathy (three patients), and idiopathic pneumonitis (one patient). In summary, sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis can be given safely in this population and early survival results are promising. A phase III trial to test whether sirolimus decreases relapse and improves outcome after transplantation for ALL is ongoing.
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Reduced-intensity allogeneic transplantation in pediatric patients ineligible for myeloablative therapy: results of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium Study ONC0313.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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The role of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens in pediatric cancer treatment is unclear. To define the efficacy of a busulfan/fludarabine/antithymocyte globulin RIC regimen in pediatric patients ineligible for myeloablative transplantation, we completed a trial at 23 institutions in the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium. Forty-seven patients with hematologic malignancies were enrolled. Sustained engraftment occurred in 98%, 89%, and 90%, and full donor chimerism was achieved in 88%, 76%, and 78% of evaluable related bone marrow/peripheral blood stem cells (BM/PBSCs), unrelated BM/PBSCs, and unrelated cord blood recipients. With a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 11-53 months), 2-year event-free survival, overall survival (OS), transplantation-related mortality, and relapse were 40%, 45%, 11%, and 43%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed an inferior outcome when patients had undergone previous total body irradiation (TBI)-containing myeloablative transplantation (2-year OS, 23% vs 63% vs 52%, previous TBI transplantation vs no TBI transplantation vs no transplantation, P = .02) and when patients not previously treated with TBI had detectable disease at the time of the RIC procedure (2-year OS, 0% vs 63%, detectable vs nondetectable disease, P = .01). Favorable outcomes can be achieved with RIC approaches in pediatric patients in remission who are ineligible for myeloablative transplantation. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00795132.
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Recent decrease in acute graft-versus-host disease in children with leukemia receiving unrelated donor bone marrow transplants.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Unrelated donor (URD) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is an effective treatment for leukemia in children, but its success is threatened by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse. In this report, we describe the incidence of and risk factors for GVHD over time in children receiving URD BMT. We analyzed outcomes of 638 myeloablative URD BMTs performed between 1990 and 2003 to treat acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome MDS, using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database. All recipients were under age 18 years and had available high-resolution HLA typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1. Overall, 27% of the recipients developed acute GVHD (aGVHD) grade III-IV; the risk was significantly higher in children receiving T cell-replete grafts compared with those receiving T cell-depleted grafts (odds ratio [OR] = 3.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.02 to 4.83; P < .0001). Acute GVHD significantly reduced the risk of relapse in children with ALL (OR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.86; P = .0052), but not in those with AML (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.22 to 2.98; P = .26). The risk of aGVHD was higher in children undergoing transplantation in 1990-1998 (n = 365) compared with those doing so in 1999-2003 (OR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.27 to 2.91; P = .002). We conclude that outcomes have changed significantly over time, with a reduced risk of aGVHD associated with the more recent transplantations.
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Phase I study of paclitaxel with standard dose ifosfamide in children with refractory solid tumors: a Pediatric Oncology Group study (POG 9376).
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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A dose-escalation Phase I study of taxol (paclitaxel) administered in combination with standard dose ifosfamide was conducted in children with relapsed or refractory solid tumors. Primary objectives were to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to describe the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs).
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A randomized trial evaluating amiodarone for prevention of atrial fibrillation after pulmonary resection.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs commonly after anatomic pulmonary resection. In this study, the efficacy of amiodarone for prevention of post-pulmonary resection AF was investigated.
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Sirolimus pharmacokinetics in early postmyeloablative pediatric blood and marrow transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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This study examined the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in pediatric allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients in the presence and absence of concomitant fluconazole. Forty pediatric BMT recipients received a daily oral dose of sirolimus and a continuous i.v. infusion of tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Fluconazole was administered i.v. to 19 patients and orally to 6 patients. Full pharmacokinetic profiles of sirolimus within a single dosing interval were collected. Whole-blood sirolimus concentrations were measured by HPLC/mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin. Nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic models were developed using NONMEM following standard procedures. The mean ± SD sirolimus trough level before the dose (C0) was 8.0 ± 4.6 ng/mL (range, 1.8-21.6 ng/mL). The peak concentration was 19.9 ± 11.8 ng/mL (range, 3.9-46.1 ng/mL), and the trough level 24 hours later (C24) was 9.1 ± 5.3 ng/mL (range, 1.0-19.1 ng/mL). The terminal disposition half-life (T1/2) was 24.5 ± 11.2 hours (range, 5.8-53.2 hours), and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC0-24) was 401.1 ± 316.3 ng·h/mL (range, 20.7-1332.3 ng·h/mL). In patients at steady state, C0 and C24 were closely correlated (R(2) = 0.77) with a slope of 0.99, indicating the achievement of steady state. C24 was 1.7-fold greater (P = .036) and AUC0-24 was 2-fold greater (P = .012) in Caucasian patients (n = 22) compared with Hispanic patients (n = 9). The average apparent oral clearance was 3-fold greater (P = .001) and the apparent oral volume of distribution was 2-fold greater (P = .018) in patients age ?12 years compared with those age >12 years. C24 was significantly lower in patients (n = 10) who developed grade III-IV aGVHD (n = 10) than in those with grade 0-II aGVHD (n = 22) (6.1 ± 2.9 ng/mL versus 9.4 ± 5.5 ng/mL; P = .044). Dose-normalized sirolimus trough concentrations were significantly higher in patients receiving concomitant fluconazole therapy compared with those not receiving fluconazole (C0: 3.9 ± 2.5 versus 2.4 ± 1.5 ng/mL/mg, P = .030; C24: 4.8 ± 3.3 versus 2.5 ± 1.7 ng/mL/mg, P = .018). This pharmacokinetic study of sirolimus in pediatric patients documents a large interindividual variability in the exposure of sirolimus. Steady-state trough blood concentrations were correlated with drug exposure. Trough concentrations were higher with a concomitant use of fluconazole and were higher in Caucasian patients than in Hispanic patients. Oral clearance was greater in children age ?12 years than in older children and adolescents. With therapeutic drug monitoring, the majority (79%) of sirolimus trough levels could be maintained within the target range (3-12 ng/mL). This study provides a rationale and support for dose adjustments of sirolimus based on steady-state blood concentrations aimed at achieving a target concentration to minimize toxicity and maximize therapeutic benefits in pediatric BMT recipients.
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Childrens Oncology Groups 2013 blueprint for research: stem cell transplantation.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
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The role of SCT in pediatric oncology has continued to evolve with the introduction of new therapeutic agents and immunological insights into cancer. COG has focused its efforts on the study of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of pediatric malignancies in several major multi-institutional Phase II and Phase III studies. These studies include addressing the impact of allogenicity in ALL (ASCT0431), and establishing autologous stem cell transplant as the standard of care in neuroblastoma. Reducing transplant-associated toxicity was addressed in the ASCT0521 study, where the TNF? inhibitor etanercept was tested for the treatment of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome. Impact of cell dose was explored in the single versus tandem umbilical cord blood study CTN-0501, in close collaboration with the BMT-CTN.
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Clinical pharmacology of etoposide in children undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation for various solid tumours.
Xenobiotica
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1.?The population pharmacokinetics of high-dose etoposide was studied in a group of young children and adolescents. 2.?Twenty-six children and adolescent were administered high-dose etoposide as a continuous infusion over 24?h. Etoposide plasma concentration-time data was modelled using NONMEM® 7. The effect of age, weight, serum creatinine (SCr), and gender on pharmacokinetic parameters (CL and V(d)) were determined by a nonlinear mixed effect model. 3.?The pharmacokinetics of etoposide based on BSA dosing was best described with a 1-compartment structural model which was parameterised in terms of clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V(d)). An exponential error model was used to explain intersubject variability and a proportional error model was used to describe residual or intrapatient variability. The final model parameter estimates for the typical (normalised to 70?kg) values of CL and V(d) were 2.31?L/hr and 17.5?L, respectively. The CL and V(d) allometrically increased with weight with the power of 3/4 and 1, respectively. After accounting for weight dependence using the allometric scaling, age, serum creatinine, and gender did not have any influence on model parameters. 4.?The results of this children and adolescent population pharmacokinetic study indicates that etoposide pharmacokinetics were influenced by body weight on an allometric basis. The pharmacokinetic parameters CL and V(d) increased with increasing weight similar to BSA.
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Late effects in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients with acquired severe aplastic anemia: a report from the late effects working committee of the center for international blood and marrow transplant research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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With improvements in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) outcomes for severe aplastic anemia (SAA), there is a growing population of SAA survivors after HCT. However, there is a paucity of information regarding late effects that occur after HCT in SAA survivors. This study describes the malignant and nonmalignant late effects in survivors with SAA after HCT. A descriptive analysis was conducted of 1718 patients post-HCT for acquired SAA between 1995 and 2006 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The prevalence and cumulative incidence estimates of late effects are reported for 1-year HCT survivors with SAA. Of the HCT recipients, 1176 (68.5%) and 542 (31.5%) patients underwent a matched sibling donor (MSD) or unrelated donor (URD) HCT, respectively. The median age at the time of HCT was 20 years. The median interval from diagnosis to transplantation was 3 months for MSD HCT and 14 months for URD HCT. The median follow-up was 70 months and 67 months for MSD and URD HCT survivors, respectively. Overall survival at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years for the entire cohort was 76% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74-78), 73% (95% CI: 71-75), and 70% (95% CI: 68-72). Among 1-year survivors of MSD HCT, 6% had 1 late effect and 1% had multiple late effects. For 1-year survivors of URD HCT, 13% had 1 late effect and 2% had multiple late effects. Among survivors of MSD HCT, the cumulative incidence estimates of developing late effects were all <3% and did not increase over time. In contrast, for recipients of URD HCT, the cumulative incidence of developing several late effects exceeded 3% by 5 years: gonadal dysfunction 10.5% (95% CI: 7.3-14.3), growth disturbance 7.2% (95% CI: 4.4-10.7), avascular necrosis 6.3% (95% CI: 3.6-9.7), hypothyroidism 5.5% (95% CI: 2.8-9.0), and cataracts 5.1% (95% CI: 2.9-8.0). Our results indicated that all patients undergoing HCT for SAA remain at risk for late effects, must be counseled about, and should be monitored for late effects for the remainder of their lives.
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First- and second-line systemic treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease: recommendations of the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Despite prophylaxis with immunosuppressive agents or a variety of other approaches, many patients suffer from acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although consensus has emerged supporting the use of high-dose methylprednisolone or prednisone for initial treatment of aGVHD, practices differ among centers with respect to the initial glucocorticoid dose, the use of additional immunosuppressive agents, and the approach to withdrawal of treatment after initial improvement. Despite many studies, practices vary considerably with respect to the selection of agents for treatment of glucocorticoid-resistant or refractory GVHD. Investigators and clinicians have recognized the lack of progress and lamented the absence of an accepted standard of care for secondary treatment of aGVHD. The American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation has developed recommendations for treatment of aGVHD to be considered by care providers, based on a comprehensive and critical review of published reports. Because the literature provides little basis for a definitive guideline, this review also provides a framework for the interpretation of previous results and the design of future studies.
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Transplantation in patients with SCID: mismatched related stem cells or unrelated cord blood?
Blood
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Pediatric patients with SCID constitute medical emergencies. In the absence of an HLA-identical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donor, mismatched related-donor transplantation (MMRDT) or unrelated-donor umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) are valuable treatment options. To help transplantation centers choose the best treatment option, we retrospectively compared outcomes after 175 MMRDTs and 74 UCBTs in patients with SCID or Omenn syndrome. Median follow-up time was 83 months and 58 months for UCBT and MMRDT, respectively. Most UCB recipients received a myeloablative conditioning regimen; most MMRDT recipients did not. UCB recipients presented a higher frequency of complete donor chimerism (P = .04) and faster total lymphocyte count recovery (P = .04) without any statistically significance with the preparative regimen they received. The MMRDT and UCBT groups did not differ in terms of T-cell engraftment, CD4(+) and CD3(+) cell recoveries, while Ig replacement therapy was discontinued sooner after UCBT (adjusted P = .02). There was a trend toward a greater incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD (P = .06) and more chronic GVHD (P = .03) after UCBT. The estimated 5-year overall survival rates were 62% ± 4% after MMRDT and 57% ± 6% after UCBT. For children with SCID and no HLA-identical sibling donor, both UCBT and MMRDT represent available HSC sources for transplantation with quite similar outcomes.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.