The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an economically important pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in the United States. Phenological information of A. glycines is limited; specifically, little is known about factors guiding migrating aphids and potential impacts of long distance flights on local population dynamics. Increasing our understanding of A. glycines population dynamics may improve predictions of A. glycines outbreaks and improve management efforts. In 2005 a suction trap network was established in seven Midwest states to monitor the occurrence of alates. By 2006, this network expanded to 10 states and consisted of 42 traps. The goal of the STN was to monitor movement of A. glycines from their overwintering host Rhamnus spp. to soybean in spring, movement among soybean fields during summer, and emigration from soybean to Rhamnus in fall. The objective of this study was to infer movement patterns of A. glycines on a regional scale based on trap captures, and determine the suitability of certain statistical methods for future analyses. Overall, alates were not commonly collected in suction traps until June. The most alates were collected during a 3-wk period in the summer (late July to mid-August), followed by the fall, with a peak capture period during the last 2 wk of September. Alate captures were positively correlated with latitude, a pattern consistent with the distribution of Rhamnus in the United States, suggesting that more southern regions are infested by immigrants from the north.
A phylogeny of the genus Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 was built primarily from specimens collected in the Midwest of the USA. A data matrix was constructed with 68 species and 41 morphological characters with respective character states of alate and apterous viviparous females. Dendrogram topologies of analyses performed using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean), Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I, Elongation Factor 1-? and primary endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola 16S sequences were not congruent. Bayesian analysis strongly supported most terminal nodes of the phylogenetic trees. The phylogeny was strongly supported by EF1-?, and analysis of COI and EF1-? molecular data combined with morphological characters. It was not supported by single analysis of COI or Buchnera aphidicola 16S. Results from the Bayesian phylogeny show four main species groups: asclepiadis, fabae, gossypii and middletonii. Results place Aphis and species of the genera Protaphis Börner, 1952, Toxoptera Koch, 1856 and Xerobion Nevsky, 1928 in a monophyletic clade. Morphological characters support this monophyly as well. The phylogeny shows that the monophyletic clade of the North American middletonii species group belong to the genus Protaphis: P. debilicornis (Gillette & Palmer, 1929), comb. nov., P. echinaceae (Lagos & Voegtlin, 2009), comb. nov., and P. middletonii (Thomas, 1879). The genus Toxoptera should be considered a subgenus of Aphis (stat. nov.). The analysis also indicates that the current genus Iowana Frison, 1954 should be considered a subgenus of Aphis (stat. nov.). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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