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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Vitamin D status is associated with grip strength in centenarians.
J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) have been associated with poor physical function in older adults, but few, if any, studies have examined this relationship in the very old. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine this relationship in the very old. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were obtained from 194 centenarians and near centenarians (98 years and older). The associations between 25(OH)D concentrations and measures of physical function were evaluated with unadjusted and adjusted regression models. We found that 35% of centenarians had 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L. Adjusted mean grip strength was lower for centenarians with 25(OH)D concentrations less than 75 nmol/L than for centenarians with higher concentrations (P<0.05). However, there were no differences in the Georgia Centenarian Study (GCS) Composite Scale, a global measure of physical function, between those with higher and lower 25(OH)D concentrations. We conclude that low 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with poor grip strength, but not GCS Composite Scale, in the very old. Considering the high burden of poor physical function in older adults, understanding the relationship between vitamin D and different measures of physical function, including strength, becomes increasingly important.
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Quantitative secretome and glycome of primary human adipocytes during insulin resistance.
Clin Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Adipose tissue is both an energy storage depot and an endocrine organ. The impaired regulation of the secreted proteins of adipose tissue, known as adipocytokines, observed during obesity contributes to the onset of whole-body insulin resistance and the pathobiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, the global elevation of the intracellular glycosylation of proteins by O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) via either genetic or pharmacological methods is sufficient to induce insulin resistance in both cultured cells and animal models. The elevation of global O-GlcNAc levels is associated with the altered expression of many adipocytokines. We have previously characterized the rodent adipocyte secretome during insulin sensitive and insulin resistant conditions. Here, we characterize and quantify the secretome and glycome of primary human adipocytes during insulin responsive and insulin resistant conditions generated by the classical method of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia or by the pharmacological manipulation of O-GlcNAc levels. Using a proteomic approach, we identify 190 secreted proteins and report a total of 20 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated proteins that are detected in both insulin resistant conditions. Moreover, we apply glycomic techniques to examine (1) the sites of N-glycosylation on secreted proteins, (2) the structures of complex N- and O-glycans, and (3) the relative abundance of complex N- and O-glycans structures in insulin responsive and insulin resistant conditions. We identify 91 N-glycosylation sites derived from 51 secreted proteins, as well as 155 and 29 released N- and O-glycans respectively. We go on to quantify many of the N- and O-glycan structures between insulin responsive and insulin resistance conditions demonstrating no significant changes in complex glycosylation in the time frame for the induction of insulin resistance. Thus, our data support that the O-GlcNAc modification is involved in the regulation of adipocytokine secretion upon the induction of insulin resistance in human adipocytes.
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Profiles of cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of centenarians using factor mixture analysis.
Exp Aging Res
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The goal of the study was to identify and characterize latent profiles (clusters) of cognitive functioning in centenarians and the psychometric properties of cognitive measures within them.
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Relationship between Serum and Brain Carotenoids, ?-Tocopherol, and Retinol Concentrations and Cognitive Performance in the Oldest Old from the Georgia Centenarian Study.
J Aging Res
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Oxidative stress is involved in age-related cognitive decline. The dietary antioxidants, carotenoids, tocopherols, and vitamin A may play a role in the prevention or delay in cognitive decline. In this study, sera were obtained from 78 octogenarians and 220 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Brain tissues were obtained from 47 centenarian decedents. Samples were analyzed for carotenoids, ?-tocopherol, and retinol using HPLC. Analyte concentrations were compared with cognitive tests designed to evaluate global cognition, dementia, depression and cognitive domains (memory, processing speed, attention, and executive functioning). Serum lutein, zeaxanthin, and ?-carotene concentrations were most consistently related to better cognition (P < 0.05) in the whole population and in the centenarians. Only serum lutein was significantly related to better cognition in the octogenarians. In brain, lutein and ?-carotene were related to cognition with lutein being consistently associated with a range of measures. There were fewer significant relationships for ?-tocopherol and a negative relationship between brain retinol concentrations and delayed recognition. These findings suggest that the status of certain carotenoids in the old may reflect their cognitive function. The protective effect may not be related to an antioxidant effect given that ?-tocopherol was less related to cognition than these carotenoids.
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Protein, lipid, and hematological biomarkers in centenarians: definitions, interpretation and relationships with health.
Maturitas
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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As increasing numbers of individuals reach very advanced age, it is important to understand the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on both the achievement of exceptional longevity as well as the maintenance of optimal functional capacity. This includes determining the most appropriate biomarkers for monitoring changes in health and nutrition status and response to therapy in oldest old individuals. In an earlier work (Hausman et al., Maturitas 2011;68:203-9), we summarized studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presented the current knowledge regarding vitamin B12, folate, 25(OH) vitamin D and other specific indicators of nutritional status in centenarians. The present review focuses on less specific biochemical indices of health and nutritional status and summarizes studies comparing protein, lipid and hematological biomarkers in centenarians and older adult controls. Such studies, from many countries worldwide, are often small, convenience samples of healthy and/or community-dwelling centenarians, although a few population-based studies including participants with a broader range of physical and cognitive functioning are also presented. Though heterogeneous in design and demographic region, these studies typically show lower levels of protein and hematological indicators and improved levels of some lipid biomarkers in centenarians as compared with regionally matched older adult controls. As these biomarkers can be influenced by many factors interpretation of results must be approached with caution. Importantly, studies examining potential associations of these biomarkers with cognitive, mental and physical function must carefully control for potential confounders including genetics and chronic disease, an increasing burden at advanced age.
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Prevalence and predictors of anemia in a population-based study of octogenarians and centenarians in Georgia.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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Anemia has been associated with increased physical and financial costs and occurs more frequently in older individuals. Therefore, the primary objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence and possible predictors of anemia in the very old.
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Effects of acute sprint interval cycling and energy replacement on postprandial lipemia.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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High postprandial blood triglyceride (TG) levels increase cardiovascular disease risk. Exercise interventions may be effective in reducing postprandial blood TG. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sprint interval cycling (SIC), with and without replacement of the energy deficit, on postprandial lipemia. In a repeated-measures crossover design, six men and six women participated in three trials, each taking place over 2 days. On the evening of the first day of each trial, the participants either did SIC without replacing the energy deficit (Ex-Def), did SIC and replaced the energy deficit (Ex-Bal), or did not exercise (control). SIC was performed on a cycle ergometer and involved four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min active recovery. In the morning of day 2, responses to a high-fat meal were measured. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. There was a trend toward a reduction with treatment in fasting TG (P = 0.068), but no significant treatment effect for fasting insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate (P > 0.05). The postprandial area under the curve (mmol·l(-1)·3 h(-1)) TG response was significantly lower in Ex-Def (21%, P = 0.006) and Ex-Bal (10%, P = 0.044) than in control, and significantly lower in Ex-Def (12%, P = 0.032) than in Ex-Bal. There was no treatment effect (P > 0.05) observed for area under the curve responses of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate. SIC reduces postprandial lipemia, but the energy deficit alone does not fully explain the decrease observed.
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Markers of mineral metabolism are not associated with aortic pulse wave velocity in community-living elderly persons: the Health Aging and Body Composition study.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Disorders in mineral metabolism are associated with risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients with kidney disease as well as in the general population. This risk is thought to be mediated, in part, through the mechanism of stiffening of the arteries.
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Body mass index is associated with dietary patterns and health conditions in georgia centenarians.
J Aging Res
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Associations between body mass index (BMI) and dietary patterns and health conditions were explored in a population-based multiethnic sample of centenarians from northern Georgia. BMI ?20 and ?25 was prevalent in 30.9% and 25.3% of study participants, respectively. In a series of logistic regression analyses controlled for gender and place of residence, the probability of having BMI ?25 was increased by being black versus white and having a low citrus fruit, noncitrus fruit, orange/yellow vegetable or total fruit and vegetable intake. The probability of having BMI ?20 was not associated with dietary intake. When controlled for race, gender, residence, and total fruit and vegetable intake, BMI ?25 was an independent risk factor for diabetes or having a systolic blood pressure ?140?mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ?90?mmHg, whereas BMI ?20 was a risk factor for anemia. Given the many potential adverse consequences of under- and overweight, efforts are needed to maintain a healthy weight, even in the oldest old.
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Change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and physical performance in older adults.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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Vitamin D deficiency is common among older adults and is associated with poor physical performance; however, studies examining longitudinal changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and physical performance are lacking. We examined the association between 25(OH)D and physical performance over 12 months in older adults participating in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P), a multicenter physical activity intervention trial.
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Nutrition in centenarians.
Maturitas
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors.
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Older adults attending Georgia senior centers increase preventive behaviors for falls and fractures following a community-based intervention.
J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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A community-based intervention to reduce risk factors related to falls and fractures administered to Georgians participating in the Older Americans Act (OAA) congregate meal-site program (N = 691, mean age = 75, 84% female, 45% Black and 55% White, convenience sample) was evaluated. The intervention consisted of 16 weekly sessions, with 8 focused on prevention of falls and fractures, and all 16 including a physical activity component. Interviewer-administered pre- and posttests evaluated fall preventive home safety behavior, intakes of calcium- and vitamin D-rich foods, use of calcium- and vitamin D-containing supplements, and five modifiable fall- and fracture-related risk factors. Following the intervention, there were significant increases in the intake of calcium- and vitamin D-rich foods (p < 0.001), the use of calcium- or vitamin D-containing supplements (p < 0.05), days of week with physical activity (p < 0.001) and fall preventive home safety behaviors (p < 0.001), and decreases in overall modifiable fall- and fracture-related risk factors (?4 to 5 risk factors: pre: 32% vs. post: 18%; p < .001). This evaluation provides evidence that a multi-factorial fall prevention intervention offered at senior centers and delivered by trained staff can be beneficial for improving behaviors that may contribute to decreasing the risk of falls and fractures in older adults.
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Cognitive function, physical performance, health, and disease: norms from the georgia centenarian study.
Exp Aging Res
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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This study provides, for the first time, normative data on cognitive functioning and physical performance, health and health behaviors, and diseases from a population-based sample of 244 centenarians and near-centenarians (M age = 100.5 years, range 98-108, 84.8% women, 21.3% African American) from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Data are presented by the four key dimensions of gender, race, residence, and educational attainment. Results illustrate the profound range of functioning in this age group and indicate considerable differences as a function of each dimension. Bivariate models generally suggest that cognitive functioning and physical performance is higher for men than women; whites than African Americans; community than facility residents; and those with more than high school education than those with less than high school education. Multivariate models elaborate that differences in educational attainment generally account for the largest proportion of variance in cognitive functioning and residential status generally accounts for the largest proportion of variance in physical performance measures. Addition of health variables seldom increases variance accounted for in each domain beyond these four dimensions.
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HRAS1 and LASS1 with APOE are associated with human longevity and healthy aging.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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The search for longevity-determining genes in human has largely neglected the operation of genetic interactions. We have identified a novel combination of common variants of three genes that has a marked association with human lifespan and healthy aging. Subjects were recruited and stratified according to their genetically inferred ethnic affiliation to account for population structure. Haplotype analysis was performed in three candidate genes, and the haplotype combinations were tested for association with exceptional longevity. An HRAS1 haplotype enhanced the effect of an APOE haplotype on exceptional survival, and a LASS1 haplotype further augmented its magnitude. These results were replicated in a second population. A profile of healthy aging was developed using a deficit accumulation index, which showed that this combination of gene variants is associated with healthy aging. The variation in LASS1 is functional, causing enhanced expression of the gene, and it contributes to healthy aging and greater survival in the tenth decade of life. Thus, rare gene variants need not be invoked to explain complex traits such as aging; instead rare congruence of common gene variants readily fulfills this role. The interaction between the three genes described here suggests new models for cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying exceptional survival and healthy aging that involve lipotoxicity.
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Common genetic variants associate with serum phosphorus concentration.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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Phosphorus is an essential mineral that maintains cellular energy and mineralizes the skeleton. Because complex actions of ion transporters and regulatory hormones regulate serum phosphorus concentrations, genetic variation may determine interindividual variation in phosphorus metabolism. Here, we report a comprehensive genome-wide association study of serum phosphorus concentration. We evaluated 16,264 participants of European ancestry from the Cardiovascular Heath Study, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Framingham Offspring Study, and the Rotterdam Study. We excluded participants with an estimated GFR <45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) to focus on phosphorus metabolism under normal conditions. We imputed genotypes to approximately 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the HapMap and combined study-specific findings using meta-analysis. We tested top polymorphisms from discovery cohorts in a 5444-person replication sample. Polymorphisms in seven loci with minor allele frequencies 0.08 to 0.49 associate with serum phosphorus concentration (P = 3.5 x 10(-16) to 3.6 x 10(-7)). Three loci were near genes encoding the kidney-specific type IIa sodium phosphate co-transporter (SLC34A1), the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), proteins that contribute to phosphorus metabolism. We also identified genes encoding phosphatases, kinases, and phosphodiesterases that have yet-undetermined roles in phosphorus homeostasis. In the replication sample, five of seven top polymorphisms associate with serum phosphorous concentrations (P < 0.05 for each). In conclusion, common genetic variants associate with serum phosphorus in the general population. Further study of the loci identified in this study may help elucidate mechanisms of phosphorus regulation.
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Physical limitations contribute to food insecurity and the food insecurity-obesity paradox in older adults at senior centers in Georgia.
J Nutr Elder
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of obesity and physical limitations with food insecurity among Georgians participating in the Older Americans Act (OAA) congregate meal-site program (N = 621, median age = 76 years, 83% female, 36% Black, and 64% White, convenience sample). Food insecurity was assessed using the modified 6-item US Household Food Security Survey Module; obesity was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) class I or II obesity; and physical limitations (arthritis, joint pain, poor physical function, weight-related disability) were based on the Disablement Process. A series of multivariate logistic regression models found weight-related disability and obesity (WC class II) may be potential risk factors for food insecurity. Thus, obesity and weight-related disability may be risk factors to consider when assessing the risk of food insecurity and the need for food assistance in this vulnerable subgroup of older adults.
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Prevalence and predictors of recommendations to lose weight in overweight and obese older adults in Georgia senior centers.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2010
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To examine the prevalence and predictors of health care professional recommendations to lose weight in Older Americans Act Nutrition Program participants in Georgia senior centers who met professional and/or governmental organization criteria for weight loss recommendation.
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Predicting successful aging in a population-based sample of georgia centenarians.
Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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Used a population-based sample (Georgia Centenarian Study, GCS), to determine proportions of centenarians reaching 100 years as (1) survivors (43%) of chronic diseases first experienced between 0-80 years of age, (2) delayers (36%) with chronic diseases first experienced between 80-98 years of age, or (3) escapers (17%) with chronic diseases only at 98 years of age or older. Diseases fall into two morbidity profiles of 11 chronic diseases; one including cardiovascular disease, cancer, anemia, and osteoporosis, and another including dementia. Centenarians at risk for cancer in their lifetime tended to be escapers (73%), while those at risk for cardiovascular disease tended to be survivors (24%), delayers (39%), or escapers (32%). Approximately half (43%) of the centenarians did not experience dementia. Psychiatric disorders were positively associated with dementia, but prevalence of depression, anxiety, and psychoses did not differ significantly between centenarians and an octogenarian control group. However, centenarians were higher on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) than octogenarians. Consistent with our model of developmental adaptation in aging, distal life events contribute to predicting survivorship outcome in which health status as survivor, delayer, or escaper appears as adaptation variables late in life.
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Effect of clenbuterol on apoptosis, adipogenesis, and lipolysis in adipocytes.
J. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2010
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Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) selective agonist, has been shown to decrease body fat in animals and can induce apoptosis in adipose tissue in mice. We hypothesized that direct actions of a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist on adipocytes could trigger the observed apoptotic effect. The hypothesis was inspected by investigating the direct effect of clenbuterol on apoptosis, adipogenesis, and lipolysis in vitro using the 3T3-L1 cell line and rat primary adipocytes. Cells were treated with 10(-9) to 10(-5) M clenbuterol depending on the experiments. There was no apoptotic effect of clenbuterol both in 3T3-L1 cells and rat primary adipocytes. Adipogenesis monitored by Oil Red O staining and AdipoRed assay was modestly decreased by clenbuterol treatment (p < 0.05). In fully differentiated primary adipocytes, clenbuterol increased basal lipolysis compared with the control (p < 0.01). In summary, direct stimulation of beta(2)-AR by clenbuterol does not cause apoptosis in adipocytes, despite a direct lipolytic stimulation and attenuation of adipogenesis.
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The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the bodys fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and immune systems and play major roles in metabolism. Numerous studies have shown nutrient or hormonal manipulations can greatly influence adipose tissue development. In addition, the associations between various disease states, such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, and disregulation of adipose tissue seen in epidemiological and intervention studies are great. Evaluation of known adipokines suggests these factors secreted from adipose tissue play roles in several pathologies. As the identification of more adipokines and determination of their role in biological systems, and the interactions between adipocytes and other cells types continues, there is little doubt that we will gain a greater appreciation for a tissue once thought to simply store excess energy.
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Regulation of adipogenesis by medium-chain fatty acids in the absence of hormonal cocktail.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
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We report here that octanoate and decanoate, 8-carbon and 10-carbon medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), decreased adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes when treated with standard hormonal cocktail, but increased adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner (with decanoate being more effective) when treated with basal media. Addition of dexamethasone to basal medium with either octanoate or decanoate further increased adipogenesis. In order to understand the adipogenic effects of MCFA in the absence of standard hormonal cocktail, postconfluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with octanoate or decanoate, and the change in the expression of several adipogenic transcription factors and enzymes was investigated using real-time RT-PCR. Octanoate and decanoate up-regulated the mRNA expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) alpha, fatty-acid-binding protein, sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1c, lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase, and the protein expression of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha, with decanoate being more effective. Moreover, the PPARgamma antagonist GW9662 inhibited MCFA-induced lipid accumulation by about 50%. Decanoate and octanoate, to a lesser degree, increased lipid accumulation, which was associated with an increase in glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. These results show that octanoate and decanoate may stimulate differentiation of preadipocytes, at least in part, by their influence on the expression of PPARgamma and other adipocyte-specific factors.
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Genistein inhibits differentiation of primary human adipocytes.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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Genistein, a major soy isoflavone, has been reported to exhibit antiadipogenic and proapoptotic potential in vivo and in vitro. It is also a phytoestrogen which has high affinity to estrogen receptor beta. In this study, we determined the effect of genistein on adipogenesis and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta expression during differentiation in primary human preadipocytes. Genistein inhibited lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 6.25 microM and higher, with 50 microM genistein inhibiting lipid accumulation almost completely. Low concentrations of genistein (3.25 microM) increased cell viability and higher concentrations (25 and 50 microM) decreased it by 16.48+/-1.35% (P<.0001) and 50.68+/-1.34% (P<.0001). Oil Red O staining was used to confirm the effects on lipid accumulation. The inhibition of lipid accumulation was associated with inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and down-regulation of expression of adipocyte-specific genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, perilipin, leptin, lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. These effects of genistein during the differentiation period were associated with down-regulation of ERalpha and ERbeta expression. This study adds to the elucidation of the molecular pathways involved in the inhibition of adipogenesis by phytoestrogens.
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25-hydroxyvitamin D status and change in physical performance and strength in older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
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Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are common among older adults and are associated with poorer physical performance and strength, but results from longitudinal studies have been inconsistent. The 25(OH)D threshold for physical performance and strength was determined, and both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between 25(OH)D and physical performance and strength were examined, in men and women aged 71-80 years from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (n = 2,641). Baseline serum 25(OH)D was measured in 1998-1999, and physical performance and strength were measured at baseline and at 2- and 4-year follow-up. Piecewise regression models were used to determine 25(OH)D thresholds. Linear regression and mixed models were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. The 25(OH)D thresholds were 70-80 nmol/L for physical performance and 55-70 nmol/L for strength. Participants with 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L had poorer physical performance at baseline and at 2- and 4-year follow-up than participants with 25(OH)D ?75 nmol/L (P < 0.01). Although physical performance and strength declined over 4 years of follow-up (P < 0.0001), in general, the rate of decline was not associated with baseline 25(OH)D. Older adults with low 25(OH)D concentrations had poorer physical performance over 4 years of follow-up, but low 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with a faster rate of decline in physical performance or strength.
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25-Hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and mortality in black and white older adults: the health ABC study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
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Previous 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and mortality studies have included mostly individuals of European descent. Whether the relationship is similar in Blacks and to what extent differences in 25(OH)D explain racial disparities in mortality is unclear.
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Bone turnover is not influenced by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pubertal healthy black and white children.
Bone
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Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH) D] is common in healthy children particularly in blacks. However, serum 25 (OH) D concentrations for optimal bone turnover in children is unknown and few data exist that describe effects of increasing serum 25 (OH) D on bone turnover markers during puberty. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between serum 25 (OH) D and changes in serum 25 (OH) D and bone turnover in white and black pubertal adolescents. Bone turnover markers were measured in 318 healthy boys and girls from Georgia (34°N) and Indiana (40°N) who participated in a study of oral vitamin D(3) supplementation (0 to 4000 IU/d). Serum 25 (OH) D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urine N-telopeptide cross-links were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Relationships among baseline 25 (OH) D and bone biomarkers, and between changes over 12 weeks were determined and tested for effects of race, sex, latitude, and baseline 25 (OH) D. Median 25 (OH) D was 27.6 ng/mL (n=318, range 10.1-46.0 ng/mL) at baseline and 34.5 ng/mL (n=302, range 9.7-95.1 ng/mL) at 12 weeks. Neither baseline nor change in 25 (OH) D over 12 weeks was associated with bone turnover. The lack of association was not affected by race, sex, latitude, or baseline serum 25 (OH) D. Serum 25 (OH) D in the range of 10-46 ng/mL appears to be sufficient for normal bone turnover in healthy black and white pubertal adolescents.
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Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicts the onset of mobility limitation and disability in community-dwelling older adults: the Health ABC Study.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
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Although low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is prevalent among older adults and is associated with poor physical function, longitudinal studies examining vitamin D status and physical function are lacking. We examined the association between 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and the onset of mobility limitation and disability over 6 years of follow-up in community-dwelling, initially well-functioning older adults participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study (n = 2,099).
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Diabetes mellitus in centenarians.
J Am Geriatr Soc
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To describe the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in centenarians.
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