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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Reconstructing the origin and evolution of land plants and their algal relatives is a fundamental problem in plant phylogenetics, and is essential for understanding how critical adaptations arose, including the embryo, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers. Despite advances in molecular systematics, some hypotheses of relationships remain weakly resolved. Inferring deep phylogenies with bouts of rapid diversification can be problematic; however, genome-scale data should significantly increase the number of informative characters for analyses. Recent phylogenomic reconstructions focused on the major divergences of plants have resulted in promising but inconsistent results. One limitation is sparse taxon sampling, likely resulting from the difficulty and cost of data generation. To address this limitation, transcriptome data for 92 streptophyte taxa were generated and analyzed along with 11 published plant genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 852 nuclear genes and 1,701,170 aligned sites. Sixty-nine analyses were performed to test the robustness of phylogenetic inferences to permutations of the data matrix or to phylogenetic method, including supermatrix, supertree, and coalescent-based approaches, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, partitioned and unpartitioned analyses, and amino acid versus DNA alignments. Among other results, we find robust support for a sister-group relationship between land plants and one group of streptophyte green algae, the Zygnematophyceae. Strong and robust support for a clade comprising liverworts and mosses is inconsistent with a widely accepted view of early land plant evolution, and suggests that phylogenetic hypotheses used to understand the evolution of fundamental plant traits should be reevaluated.
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Gene silencing via DNA methylation in naturally occurring Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae) allopolyploids.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Hybridization coupled with whole-genome duplication (allopolyploidy) leads to a variety of genetic and epigenetic modifications in the resultant merged genomes. In particular, gene loss and gene silencing are commonly observed post-polyploidization. Here, we investigated DNA methylation as a potential mechanism for gene silencing in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae), a recent and recurrently formed allopolyploid. This species, which also exhibits extensive gene loss, was formed from the diploids T. dubius and T. pratensis.
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Phylogenetic signal detection from an ancient rapid radiation: Effects of noise reduction, long-branch attraction, and model selection in crown clade Apocynaceae.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Crown clade Apocynaceae comprise seven primary lineages of lianas, shrubs, and herbs with a diversity of pollen aggregation morphologies including monads, tetrads, and pollinia, making them an ideal group for investigating the evolution and function of pollen packaging. Traditional molecular systematic approaches utilizing small amounts of sequence data have failed to resolve relationships along the spine of the crown clade, a likely ancient rapid radiation. The previous best estimate of the phylogeny was a five-way polytomy, leaving ambiguous the homology of aggregated pollen in two major lineages, the Periplocoideae, which possess pollen tetrads, and the milkweeds (Secamonoideae plus Asclepiadoideae), which possess pollinia. To assess whether greatly increased character sampling would resolve these relationships, a plastome sequence data matrix was assembled for 13 taxa of Apocynaceae, including nine newly generated complete plastomes, one partial new plastome, and three previously reported plastomes, collectively representing all primary crown clade lineages and outgroups. The effects of phylogenetic noise, long-branch attraction, and model selection (linked versus unlinked branch lengths among data partitions) were evaluated in a hypothesis-testing framework based on Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. Discrimination among alternative crown clade resolutions was affected by all three factors. Exclusion of the noisiest alignment positions and topologies influenced by long-branch attraction resulted in a trichotomy along the spine of the crown clade consisting of Rhabdadenia+the Asian clade, Baisseeae+milkweeds, and Periplocoideae+the New World clade. Parsimony reconstruction on all optimal topologies after noise exclusion unambiguously supports parallel evolution of aggregated pollen in Periplocoideae (tetrads) and milkweeds (pollinia). Our phylogenomic approach has greatly advanced the resolution of one of the most perplexing radiations in Apocynaceae, providing the basis for study of convergent floral morphologies and their adaptive value.
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The polyploidy revolution then…and now: Stebbins revisited.
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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Polyploidy has long been considered a major force in plant evolution. G. Ledyard Stebbins, Jr., an architect of the Modern Synthesis, elegantly addressed a broad range of topics, from genes to chromosomes to deep phylogeny, but some of his most lasting insights came in the study of polyploidy. Here, we review the immense impact of his work on polyploidy over more than 60 years, from his entrance into this fledgling field in the 1920s until the end of his career. Stebbins and his contemporaries developed a model of polyploid evolution that persisted for nearly half a century. As new perspectives emerged in the 1980s and new genetic tools for addressing key aspects of polyploidy have become available, a new paradigm of polyploidy has replaced much of the Stebbinsian framework. We review that paradigm shift and emphasize those areas in which the ideas of Stebbins continue to propel the field forward, as well as those areas in which the field was held back; we also note new directions that plant geneticists and evolutionists are now exploring in polyploidy research. Perhaps the most important conclusion from recent and ongoing studies of polyploidy is that, following Levin and others, polyploidy may propel a population into a new adaptive sphere given the myriad changes that accompany genome doubling.
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The legacy of diploid progenitors in allopolyploid gene expression patterns.
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Allopolyploidization (hybridization and whole-genome duplication) is a common phenomenon in plant evolution with immediate saltational effects on genome structure and gene expression. New technologies have allowed rapid progress over the past decade in our understanding of the consequences of allopolyploidy. A major question, raised by early pioneer of this field Leslie Gottlieb, concerned the extent to which gene expression differences among duplicate genes present in an allopolyploid are a legacy of expression differences that were already present in the progenitor diploid species. Addressing this question necessitates phylogenetically well-understood natural study systems, appropriate technology, availability of genomic resources and a suitable analytical framework, including a sufficiently detailed and generally accepted terminology. Here, we review these requirements and illustrate their application to a natural study system that Gottlieb worked on and recommended for this purpose: recent allopolyploids of Tragopogon (Asteraceae). We reanalyse recent data from this system within the conceptual framework of parental legacies on duplicate gene expression in allopolyploids. On a broader level, we highlight the intellectual connection between Gottlieb's phrasing of this issue and the more contemporary framework of cis- versus trans-regulation of duplicate gene expression in allopolyploid plants.
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Polyploidy and novelty: Gottlieb's legacy.
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Nearly four decades ago, Roose & Gottlieb (Roose & Gottlieb 1976 Evolution 30, 818-830. (doi:10.2307/2407821)) showed that the recently derived allotetraploids Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus combined the allozyme profiles of their diploid parents (T. dubius and T. porrifolius, and T. dubius and T. pratensis, respectively). This classic paper addressed the link between genotype and biochemical phenotype and documented enzyme additivity in allopolyploids. Perhaps more important than their model of additivity, however, was their demonstration of novelty at the biochemical level. Enzyme multiplicity-the production of novel enzyme forms in the allopolyploids-can provide an extensive array of polymorphism for a polyploid individual and may explain, for example, the expanded ranges of polyploids relative to their diploid progenitors. In this paper, we extend the concept of evolutionary novelty in allopolyploids to a range of genetic and ecological features. We observe that the dynamic nature of polyploid genomes-with alterations in gene content, gene number, gene arrangement, gene expression and transposon activity-may generate sufficient novelty that every individual in a polyploid population or species may be unique. Whereas certain combinations of these features will undoubtedly be maladaptive, some unique combinations of newly generated variation may provide tremendous evolutionary potential and adaptive capabilities.
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DEF- and GLO-like proteins may have lost most of their interaction partners during angiosperm evolution.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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DEFICIENS (DEF)- and GLOBOSA (GLO)-like proteins constitute two sister clades of floral homeotic transcription factors that were already present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of extant angiosperms. Together they specify the identity of petals and stamens in flowering plants. In core eudicots, DEF- and GLO-like proteins are functional in the cell only as heterodimers with each other. There is evidence that this obligate heterodimerization contributed to the canalization of the flower structure of core eudicots during evolution. It remains unknown as to whether this strict heterodimerization is an ancient feature that can be traced back to the MRCA of extant flowering plants or if it evolved later during the evolution of the crown group angiosperms.
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Population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and natural history of the South American species of Nothofagus subgenus Lophozonia (Nothofagaceae) inferred from nuclear microsatellite data.
Ecol Evol
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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The effect of glaciation on the levels and patterns of genetic variation has been well studied in the Northern Hemisphere. However, although glaciation has undoubtedly shaped the genetic structure of plants in the Southern Hemisphere, fewer studies have characterized the effect, and almost none of them using microsatellites. Particularly, complex patterns of genetic structure might be expected in areas such as the Andes, where both latitudinal and altitudinal glacial advance and retreat have molded modern plant communities. We therefore studied the population genetics of three closely related, hybridizing species of Nothofagus (N. obliqua, N. alpina, and N. glauca, all of subgenus Lophozonia; Nothofagaceae) from Chile. To estimate population genetic parameters and infer the influence of the last ice age on the spatial and genetic distribution of these species, we examined and analyzed genetic variability at seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in 640 individuals from 40 populations covering most of the ranges of these species in Chile. Populations showed no significant inbreeding and exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (H E = 0.502-0.662) and slight, but significant, genetic structure (R ST = 8.7-16.0%). However, in N. obliqua, the small amount of genetic structure was spatially organized into three well-defined latitudinal groups. Our data may also suggest some introgression of N. alpina genes into N. obliqua in the northern populations. These results allowed us to reconstruct the influence of the last ice age on the genetic structure of these species, suggesting several centers of genetic diversity for N. obliqua and N. alpina, in agreement with the multiple refugia hypothesis.
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Horizontal transfer of an adaptive chimeric photoreceptor from bryophytes to ferns.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Ferns are well known for their shade-dwelling habits. Their ability to thrive under low-light conditions has been linked to the evolution of a novel chimeric photoreceptor--neochrome--that fuses red-sensing phytochrome and blue-sensing phototropin modules into a single gene, thereby optimizing phototropic responses. Despite being implicated in facilitating the diversification of modern ferns, the origin of neochrome has remained a mystery. We present evidence for neochrome in hornworts (a bryophyte lineage) and demonstrate that ferns acquired neochrome from hornworts via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Fern neochromes are nested within hornwort neochromes in our large-scale phylogenetic reconstructions of phototropin and phytochrome gene families. Divergence date estimates further support the HGT hypothesis, with fern and hornwort neochromes diverging 179 Mya, long after the split between the two plant lineages (at least 400 Mya). By analyzing the draft genome of the hornwort Anthoceros punctatus, we also discovered a previously unidentified phototropin gene that likely represents the ancestral lineage of the neochrome phototropin module. Thus, a neochrome originating in hornworts was transferred horizontally to ferns, where it may have played a significant role in the diversification of modern ferns.
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From algae to angiosperms-inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Next-generation sequencing has provided a wealth of plastid genome sequence data from an increasingly diverse set of green plants (Viridiplantae). Although these data have helped resolve the phylogeny of numerous clades (e.g., green algae, angiosperms, and gymnosperms), their utility for inferring relationships across all green plants is uncertain. Viridiplantae originated 700-1500 million years ago and may comprise as many as 500,000 species. This clade represents a major source of photosynthetic carbon and contains an immense diversity of life forms, including some of the smallest and largest eukaryotes. Here we explore the limits and challenges of inferring a comprehensive green plant phylogeny from available complete or nearly complete plastid genome sequence data.
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Flower diversity and angiosperm diversification.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The flower itself, which comprises most of the evolutionary innovations of flowering plants, bears special significance for understanding the origin and diversification of angiosperms. The sudden origin of angiosperms in the fossil record poses unanswered questions on both the origins of flowering plants and their rapid spread and diversification. Central to these questions is the role that the flower, and floral diversity, played. Recent clarifications of angiosperm phylogeny provide the foundation for investigating evolutionary transitions in floral features and the underlying genetic mechanisms of stasis and change. The general features of floral diversity can best be addressed by considering key patterns of variation: an undifferentiated versus a differentiated perianth; elaboration of perianth organs in size and color; merosity of the flower; and phyllotaxy of floral organs. Various models of gene expression now explain the regulation of floral organization and floral organ identity; the best understood are the ABC(E) model and its modifications, but other gene systems are important in specific clades and require further study. Furthermore, the propensity for gene and genome duplications in angiosperms provides abundant raw material for novel floral features--emphasizing the importance of understanding the conservation and diversification of gene lineages and functions in studies of macroevolution.
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Another look at the root of the angiosperms reveals a familiar tale.
Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Since the advent of molecular phylogenetics more than 25 years ago, a major goal of plant systematists has been to discern the root of the angiosperms. Although most studies indicate that Amborella trichopoda is sister to all remaining extant flowering plants, support for this position has varied with respect to both the sequence data sets and analyses employed. Recently, Goremykin et al. (2013) questioned the "Amborella-sister hypothesis" using a "noise-reduction" approach and reported a topology with Amborella?+?Nymphaeales (water lilies) sister to all remaining angiosperms. Through a series of analyses of both plastid genomes and mitochondrial genes, we continue to find mostly strong support for the Amborella-sister hypothesis and offer a rebuttal of Goremykin et al. (2013). The major tenet of Goremykin et al. is that the Amborella-sister position is determined by noisy data--that is, characters with high rates of change and lacking true phylogenetic signal. To investigate the signal in these noisy data further, we analyzed the discarded characters from their noise-reduced alignments. We recovered a tree identical to that of the currently accepted angiosperm framework, including the position of Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, as well as all other major clades. Thus, the signal in the "noisy" data is consistent with that of our complete data sets--arguing against the use of their noise-reduction approach. We also determined that one of the alignments presented by Goremykin et al. yields results at odds with their central claim--their data set actually supports Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, as do larger plastid data sets we present here that possess more complete taxon sampling both within the monocots and for angiosperms in general. Previous unpartitioned, multilocus analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data have provided the strongest support for Amborella?+?Nymphaeales as sister to other angiosperms. However, our analysis of third codon positions from mtDNA sequence data also supports the Amborella-sister hypothesis. Finally, we challenge the conclusion of Goremykin et al. that the first flowering plants were aquatic and herbaceous, reasserting that even if Amborella?+?water lilies, or water lilies alone, are sister to the rest of the angiosperms, the earliest angiosperms were not necessarily aquatic and/or herbaceous.
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Between two fern genomes.
Gigascience
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ferns are the only major lineage of vascular plants not represented by a sequenced nuclear genome. This lack of genome sequence information significantly impedes our ability to understand and reconstruct genome evolution not only in ferns, but across all land plants. Azolla and Ceratopteris are ideal and complementary candidates to be the first ferns to have their nuclear genomes sequenced. They differ dramatically in genome size, life history, and habit, and thus represent the immense diversity of extant ferns. Together, this pair of genomes will facilitate myriad large-scale comparative analyses across ferns and all land plants. Here we review the unique biological characteristics of ferns and describe a number of outstanding questions in plant biology that will benefit from the addition of ferns to the set of taxa with sequenced nuclear genomes. We explain why the fern clade is pivotal for understanding genome evolution across land plants, and we provide a rationale for how knowledge of fern genomes will enable progress in research beyond the ferns themselves.
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Assembly and validation of the genome of the nonmodel basal angiosperm Amborella.
Science
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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Genome sequencing with next-generation sequence (NGS) technologies can now be applied to organisms pivotal to addressing fundamental biological questions, but with genomes previously considered intractable or too expensive to undertake. However, for species with large and complex genomes, extensive genetic and physical map resources have, until now, been required to direct the sequencing effort and sequence assembly. As these resources are unavailable for most species, assembling high-quality genome sequences from NGS data remains challenging. We describe a strategy that uses NGS, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and whole-genome mapping to assemble a high-quality genome sequence for Amborella trichopoda, a nonmodel species crucial to understanding flowering plant evolution. These methods are applicable to many other organisms with limited genomic resources.
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Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf phenology (evergreen or deciduous), diameter of hydraulic conduits (that is, xylem vessels and tracheids) and climate occupancies (exposure to freezing). To model the evolution of species traits and climate occupancies, we combined these data with an unparalleled dated molecular phylogeny (32,223 species) for land plants. Here we show that woody clades successfully moved into freezing-prone environments by either possessing transport networks of small safe conduits and/or shutting down hydraulic function by dropping leaves during freezing. Herbaceous species largely avoided freezing periods by senescing cheaply constructed aboveground tissue. Growth habit has long been considered labile, but we find that growth habit was less labile than climate occupancy. Additionally, freezing environments were largely filled by lineages that had already become herbs or, when remaining woody, already had small conduits (that is, the trait evolved before the climate occupancy). By contrast, most deciduous woody lineages had an evolutionary shift to seasonally shedding their leaves only after exposure to freezing (that is, the climate occupancy evolved before the trait). For angiosperms to inhabit novel cold environments they had to gain new structural and functional trait solutions; our results suggest that many of these solutions were probably acquired before their foray into the cold.
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A conifer genome spruces up plant phylogenomics.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The Norway spruce genome provides key insights into the evolution of plant genomes, leading to testable new hypotheses about conifer, gymnosperm, and vascular plant evolution.
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Phylogeny and evolutionary history of glycogen synthase kinase 3/SHAGGY-like kinase genes in land plants.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3) genes encode signal transduction proteins with roles in a variety of biological processes in eukaryotes. In contrast to the low copy numbers observed in animals, GSK3 genes have expanded into a multi-gene family in land plants (embryophytes), and have also evolved functions in diverse plant specific processes, including floral development in angiosperms. However, despite previous efforts, the phylogeny of land plant GSK3 genes is currently unclear. Here, we analyze genes from a representative sample of phylogenetically pivotal taxa, including basal angiosperms, gymnosperms, and monilophytes, to reconstruct the evolutionary history and functional diversification of the GSK3 gene family in land plants.
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Complete plastid genome sequencing of Trochodendraceae reveals a significant expansion of the inverted repeat and suggests a Paleogene divergence between the two extant species.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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The early-diverging eudicot order Trochodendrales contains only two monospecific genera, Tetracentron and Trochodendron. Although an extensive fossil record indicates that the clade is perhaps 100 million years old and was widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere during the Paleogene and Neogene, the two extant genera are both narrowly distributed in eastern Asia. Recent phylogenetic analyses strongly support a clade of Trochodendrales, Buxales, and Gunneridae (core eudicots), but complete plastome analyses do not resolve the relationships among these groups with strong support. However, plastid phylogenomic analyses have not included data for Tetracentron. To better resolve basal eudicot relationships and to clarify when the two extant genera of Trochodendrales diverged, we sequenced the complete plastid genome of Tetracentron sinense using Illumina technology. The Tetracentron and Trochodendron plastomes possess the typical gene content and arrangement that characterize most angiosperm plastid genomes, but both genomes have the same unusual ?4 kb expansion of the inverted repeat region to include five genes (rpl22, rps3, rpl16, rpl14, and rps8) that are normally found in the large single-copy region. Maximum likelihood analyses of an 83-gene, 88 taxon angiosperm data set yield an identical tree topology as previous plastid-based trees, and moderately support the sister relationship between Buxaceae and Gunneridae. Molecular dating analyses suggest that Tetracentron and Trochodendron diverged between 44-30 million years ago, which is congruent with the fossil record of Trochodendrales and with previous estimates of the divergence time of these two taxa. We also characterize 154 simple sequence repeat loci from the Tetracentron sinense and Trochodendron aralioides plastomes that will be useful in future studies of population genetic structure for these relict species, both of which are of conservation concern.
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An assessment of karyotype restructuring in the neoallotetraploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae).
Chromosome Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Tragopogon miscellus and Tragopogon mirus are two rare examples of allopolyploids that have formed recently in nature. Molecular cytogenetic studies have revealed chromosome copy number variation and intergenomic translocations in both allotetraploids. Due to a lack of interstitial chromosome markers, there remained the possibility of additional karyotype restructuring in these neopolyploids, via intrachromosomal and intragenomic rearrangements. To address this issue, we searched for additional high-copy tandem repeats in genomic sequences of the diploid progenitor species-Tragopogon dubius, Tragopogon pratensis and Tragopogon porrifolius-for application to the chromosomes of the allotetraploids. Eight novel repeats were localised by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in the diploids; one of these repeats, TTR3, provided interstitial coverage. TTR3 was included in a cocktail with other previously characterised probes, producing better-resolved karyotypes for the three diploids. The cocktail was then used to test a hypothesis of karyotype restructuring in the recent allotetraploid T. miscellus by comparing repeat distributions to its diploid progenitors, T. dubius and T. pratensis. Five individuals of T. miscellus were selected from across the range of karyotypic variation previously observed in natural populations. FISH signal distributions mostly matched those observed in the diploid progenitors, with the exception of several losses or gains of signal at chromosomal subtermini and previously noted intergenomic translocations. Thus, in T. miscellus, we find most changes restricted to the subterminal regions, and although some were recurrent, none of the changes were common to all individuals analysed. We consider these findings in relation to the gene loss reported previously for T. miscellus.
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Comparative phylogeographic analyses illustrate the complex evolutionary history of threatened cloud forests of northern Mesoamerica.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Comparative phylogeography can elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity and can identify patterns of co-vicariance among unrelated taxa that span the same geographic areas. Here we analyze temporal and spatial divergence patterns of cloud forest plant and animal species and relate them to the evolutionary history of naturally fragmented cloud forests--among the most threatened vegetation types in northern Mesoamerica. We used comparative phylogeographic analyses to identify patterns of co-vicariance in taxa that share geographic ranges across cloud forest habitats and to elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity. We document temporal and spatial genetic divergence of 15 species (including seed plants, birds and rodents), and relate them to the evolutionary history of the naturally fragmented cloud forests. We used fossil-calibrated genealogies, coalescent-based divergence time inference, and estimates of gene flow to assess the permeability of putative barriers to gene flow. We also used the hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation (HABC) method implemented in the program msBayes to test simultaneous versus non-simultaneous divergence of the cloud forest lineages. Our results show shared phylogeographic breaks that correspond to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Los Tuxtlas, and the Chiapas Central Depression, with the Isthmus representing the most frequently shared break among taxa. However, dating analyses suggest that the phylogeographic breaks corresponding to the Isthmus occurred at different times in different taxa. Current divergence patterns are therefore consistent with the hypothesis of broad vicariance across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec derived from different mechanisms operating at different times. This study, coupled with existing data on divergence cloud forest species, indicates that the evolutionary history of contemporary cloud forest lineages is complex and often lineage-specific, and thus difficult to capture in a simple conservation strategy.
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Do global diversity patterns of vertebrates reflect those of monocots?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Few studies of global diversity gradients in plants exist, largely because the data are not available for all species involved. Instead, most global studies have focussed on vertebrates, as these taxa have historically been associated with the most complete data. Here, we address this shortfall by first investigating global diversity gradients in monocots, a morphologically and functionally diverse clade representing a quarter of flowering plant diversity, and then assessing congruence between monocot and vertebrate diversity patterns. To do this, we create a new dataset that merges biome-level associations for all monocot genera with country-level associations for almost all ?70,000 species. We then assess the evidence for direct versus indirect effects of this plant diversity on vertebrate diversity using a combination of linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). Finally, we also calculate overlap of diversity hotspots for monocots and each vertebrate taxon. Monocots follow a latitudinal gradient although with pockets of extra-tropical diversity, mirroring patterns in vertebrates. Monocot diversity is positively associated with vertebrate diversity, but the strength of correlation varies depending on the clades being compared. Monocot diversity explains marginal amounts of variance (<10%) after environmental factors have been accounted for. However, correlations remain among model residuals, and SEMs apparently reveal some direct effects of monocot richness. Our results suggest that collinear responses to environmental gradients are behind much of the congruence observed, but that there is some evidence for direct effects of producer diversity on consumer diversity. Much remains to be done before broad-scale diversity gradients among taxa are fully explained. Our dataset of monocot distributions will aid in this endeavour.
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Living stones reveal alternative petal identity programs within the core eudicots.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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Petals, defined as the showy laminar floral organs in the second floral whorl, have been shown to be under similar genetic control in distantly related core eudicot model organisms. On the basis of these findings, it is commonly assumed that the petal identity program regulated by B-class MADS-box gene homologs is invariant across the core eudicot clade. However, the core eudicots, which comprise >70% of angiosperm species, exhibit numerous instances of petal and sepal loss, transference of petal function between floral whorls, and recurrent petal evolution. In the face of these complex patterns of perianth evolution, the concept of a core eudicot petal identity program has not been tested. We therefore examined the petal identity program in the Caryophyllales, a core eudicot clade in which perianth differentiation into sepals and petals has evolved multiple times. Specifically, we analyzed the expression patterns of B- and C-class MADS-box homologs for evidence of a conserved petal identity program between sepal-derived and stamen-derived petaloid organs in the living stone family Aizoaceae. We found that neither sepal-derived nor stamen-derived petaloid organs exhibit gene expression patterns consistent with the core eudicot petal identity program. B-class gene homologs are not expressed during the development of sepal-derived petals and are not implicated in petal identity in stamen-derived petals, as their transient expression coincides with early expression of the C-class homolog. We therefore provide evidence for petal development that is independent of B-class genes and suggest that different genetic control of petal identity has evolved within this lineage of core eudicots. These findings call for a more comprehensive understanding of perianth variation and its genetic causes within the core eudicots--an endeavor that will have broader implications for the interpretation of perianth evolution across angiosperms.
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Complex pigment evolution in the Caryophyllales.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Carotenoids and flavonoids including anthocyanins are the predominant pigments in flowering plants, where they play important roles in pollination, seed dispersal, protection against stress and signalling. In certain families within the Pentapetalae order Caryophyllales, an unusual class of pigments, known as betalains, replaces the more common anthocyanins. This isolated occurrence of betalains in the Caryophyllales has stimulated over half a century of debate and experimentation. Numerous hypotheses have been suggested to explain the phylogenetically restricted occurrence of betalains and their apparent mutual exclusion with anthocyanins. In this review, we evaluate these hypotheses in the face of a changing interpretation of Caryophyllales phylogeny and new comparative genetic data. Phylogenetic analyses expose substantial gaps in our knowledge of the early evolution of pigments in the Caryophyllales and suggest pigmentation to be much more labile than previously recognized. Reconstructions of character evolution imply multiple switches from betalain to anthocyanin pigmentation, but also allow for possible multiple origins of betalains. Comparative genetic studies propose possible mechanisms underlying switches between pigment types and suggest that transcriptional down-regulation of late-acting enzymes is responsible for a loss of anthocyanins. Given these insights from molecular phylogenetics and comparative genetics, we discuss outstanding questions and define key goals for future research.
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A physical map for the Amborella trichopoda genome sheds light on the evolution of angiosperm genome structure.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Recent phylogenetic analyses have identified Amborella trichopoda, an understory tree species endemic to the forests of New Caledonia, as sister to a clade including all other known flowering plant species. The Amborella genome is a unique reference for understanding the evolution of angiosperm genomes because it can serve as an outgroup to root comparative analyses. A physical map, BAC end sequences and sample shotgun sequences provide a first view of the 870 Mbp Amborella genome.
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Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa.
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Recent analyses employing up to five genes have provided numerous insights into angiosperm phylogeny, but many relationships have remained unresolved or poorly supported. In the hope of improving our understanding of angiosperm phylogeny, we expanded sampling of taxa and genes beyond previous analyses.
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Multi-gene analysis provides a well-supported phylogeny of Rosales.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Despite many attempts to resolve evolutionary relationships among the major clades of Rosales, some nodes have been extremely problematic and have remained unresolved. In this study, we use two nuclear and 10 plastid loci to infer phylogenetic relationships among all nine families of Rosales. Rosales were strongly supported as monophyletic; within Rosales all family relationships are well-supported with Rosaceae sister to all other members of the order. Remaining Rosales can be divided into two subclades: (1) Ulmaceae are sister to Cannabaceae plus (Urticaceae+Moraceae); (2) Rhamnaceae are sister to Elaeagnaceae plus (Barbeyaceae+Dirachmaceae). One noteworthy result is that we recover the first strong support for a sister relationship between the enigmatic Dirachmaceae and Barbeyaceae. These two small families have distinct morphologies and potential synapomorphies remain unclear. Future studies should try to identify nonDNA synapomorphies uniting Barbeyaceae with Dirachmaceae.
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Microsatellite marker development for the federally listed Prunus geniculata (Rosaceae).
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Prunus geniculata is a federally listed species endemic to the central Florida scrub. To investigate levels and geographic partitioning of genetic variation in this species, we developed microsatellite markers for P. geniculata and its sister species, P. maritima.
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Microsatellite marker development for Galax urceolata (Diapensiaceae).
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Microsatellite markers were developed for Galax urceolata to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and polyploid origins (auto- vs. allopolyploid), and to estimate the minimum number of independent cytotype origins.
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Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Whole-genome duplication (WGD), or polyploidy, followed by gene loss and diploidization has long been recognized as an important evolutionary force in animals, fungi and other organisms, especially plants. The success of angiosperms has been attributed, in part, to innovations associated with gene or whole-genome duplications, but evidence for proposed ancient genome duplications pre-dating the divergence of monocots and eudicots remains equivocal in analyses of conserved gene order. Here we use comprehensive phylogenomic analyses of sequenced plant genomes and more than 12.6 million new expressed-sequence-tag sequences from phylogenetically pivotal lineages to elucidate two groups of ancient gene duplications-one in the common ancestor of extant seed plants and the other in the common ancestor of extant angiosperms. Gene duplication events were intensely concentrated around 319 and 192 million years ago, implicating two WGDs in ancestral lineages shortly before the diversification of extant seed plants and extant angiosperms, respectively. Significantly, these ancestral WGDs resulted in the diversification of regulatory genes important to seed and flower development, suggesting that they were involved in major innovations that ultimately contributed to the rise and eventual dominance of seed plants and angiosperms.
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Transcriptomic shock generates evolutionary novelty in a newly formed, natural allopolyploid plant.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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New hybrid species might be expected to show patterns of gene expression intermediate to those shown by parental species. "Transcriptomic shock" may also occur, in which gene expression is disrupted; this may be further modified by whole genome duplication (causing allopolyploidy). "Shock" can include instantaneous partitioning of gene expression between parental copies of genes among tissues. These effects have not previously been studied at a population level in a natural allopolyploid plant species. Here, we survey tissue-specific expression of 144 duplicated gene pairs derived from different parental species (homeologs) in two natural populations of 40-generation-old allotetraploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae) plants. We compare these results with patterns of allelic expression in both in vitro "hybrids" and hand-crossed F(1) hybrids between the parental diploids T. dubius and T. pratensis, and with patterns of homeolog expression in synthetic (S(1)) allotetraploids. Partitioning of expression was frequent in natural allopolyploids, but F(1) hybrids and S(1) allopolyploids showed less partitioning of expression than the natural allopolyploids and the in vitro "hybrids" of diploid parents. Our results suggest that regulation of gene expression is relaxed in a concerted manner upon hybridization, and new patterns of partitioned expression subsequently emerge over the generations following allopolyploidization.
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Conservation and canalization of gene expression during angiosperm diversification accompany the origin and evolution of the flower.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2010
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The origin and rapid diversification of the angiosperms (Darwins "Abominable Mystery") has engaged generations of researchers. Here, we examine the floral genetic programs of phylogenetically pivotal angiosperms (water lily, avocado, California poppy, and Arabidopsis) and a nonflowering seed plant (a cycad) to obtain insight into the origin and subsequent evolution of the flower. Transcriptional cascades with broadly overlapping spatial domains, resembling the hypothesized ancestral gymnosperm program, are deployed across morphologically intergrading organs in water lily and avocado flowers. In contrast, spatially discrete transcriptional programs in distinct floral organs characterize the more recently derived angiosperm lineages represented by California poppy and Arabidopsis. Deep evolutionary conservation in the genetic programs of putatively homologous floral organs traces to those operating in gymnosperm reproductive cones. Female gymnosperm cones and angiosperm carpels share conserved genetic features, which may be associated with the ovule developmental program common to both organs. However, male gymnosperm cones share genetic features with both perianth (sterile attractive and protective) organs and stamens, supporting the evolutionary origin of the floral perianth from the male genetic program of seed plants.
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Evolutionary trends in the floral transcriptome: insights from one of the basalmost angiosperms, the water lily Nuphar advena (Nymphaeaceae).
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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Current understanding of floral developmental genetics comes primarily from the core eudicot model Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we explore the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm, Nuphar advena (water lily), for insights into the ancestral developmental program of flowers. We identify several thousand Nuphar genes with significantly upregulated floral expression, including homologs of the well-known ABCE floral regulators, deployed in broadly overlapping transcriptional programs across floral organ categories. Strong similarities in the expression profiles of different organ categories in Nuphar flowers are shared with the magnoliid Persea americana (avocado), in contrast to the largely organ-specific transcriptional cascades evident in Arabidopsis, supporting the inference that this is the ancestral condition in angiosperms. In contrast to most eudicots, floral organs are weakly differentiated in Nuphar and Persea, with staminodial intermediates between stamens and perianth in Nuphar, and between stamens and carpels in Persea. Consequently, the predominantly organ-specific transcriptional programs that characterize Arabidopsis flowers (and perhaps other eudicots) are derived, and correlate with a shift towards morphologically distinct floral organs, including differentiated sepals and petals, and a perianth distinct from stamens and carpels. Our findings suggest that the genetic regulation of more spatially discrete transcriptional programs underlies the evolution of floral morphology.
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The age and diversification of the angiosperms re-revisited.
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2010
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• Premise of the study: It has been 8 years since the last comprehensive analysis of divergence times across the angiosperms. Given recent methodological improvements in estimating divergence times, refined understanding of relationships among major angiosperm lineages, and the immense interest in using large angiosperm phylogenies to investigate questions in ecology and comparative biology, new estimates of the ages of the major clades are badly needed. Improved estimations of divergence times will concomitantly improve our understanding of both the evolutionary history of the angiosperms and the patterns and processes that have led to this highly diverse clade. • Methods: We simultaneously estimated the age of the angiosperms and the divergence times of key angiosperm lineages, using 36 calibration points for 567 taxa and a "relaxed clock" methodology that does not assume any correlation between rates, thus allowing for lineage-specific rate heterogeneity. • Key results: Based on the analysis for which we set fossils to fit lognormal priors, we obtained an estimated age of the angiosperms of 167-199 Ma and the following age estimates for major angiosperm clades: Mesangiospermae (139-156 Ma); Gunneridae (109-139 Ma); Rosidae (108-121 Ma); Asteridae (101-119 Ma). • Conclusions: With the exception of the age of the angiosperms themselves, these age estimates are generally younger than other recent molecular estimates and very close to dates inferred from the fossil record. We also provide dates for all major angiosperm clades (including 45 orders and 335 families [208 stem group age only, 127 both stem and crown group ages], sensu APG III). Our analyses provide a new comprehensive source of reference dates for major angiosperm clades that we hope will be of broad utility.
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Similar patterns of rDNA evolution in synthetic and recently formed natural populations of Tragopogon (Asteraceae) allotetraploids.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus are allotetraploids (2n = 24) that formed repeatedly during the past 80 years in eastern Washington and adjacent Idaho (USA) following the introduction of the diploids T. dubius, T. porrifolius, and T. pratensis (2n = 12) from Europe. In most natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus, there are far fewer 35S rRNA genes (rDNA) of T. dubius than there are of the other diploid parent (T. porrifolius or T. pratensis). We studied the inheritance of parental rDNA loci in allotetraploids resynthesized from diploid accessions. We investigate the dynamics and directionality of these rDNA losses, as well as the contribution of gene copy number variation in the parental diploids to rDNA variation in the derived tetraploids.
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Tissue-specific silencing of homoeologs in natural populations of the recent allopolyploid Tragopogon mirus.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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Recent years have seen rapid advances in our knowledge of the transcriptomic consequences of allopolyploidy, primarily through the study of polyploid crops and model systems. However, few studies have distinguished between homoeologs and between tissues, and still fewer have examined young natural allopolyploid populations of independent origin, whose parental species are still present in the same location. Here, we examined the expression of 13 homoeolog pairs in seven tissues of 10 plants of allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus from two natural populations formed by independent polyploidizations between Tragopogon dubius and Tragopogon porrifolius c. 40 generations ago. We compare these with patterns of expression in the diploid parental species from the same locality. Of the 910 assays in T. mirus, 576 (63%) showed expression of both homoeologs, 63 (7%) showed no expression of either homoeolog, 186 (20%) showed nonexpression of one homoeolog across all tissues of a plant, and 72 (8%) showed non-expression of a homoeolog in a particular tissue within a plant. We found two cases of reciprocal tissue-specific expression between homoeologs, potentially indicative of subfunctionalization. Our study shows that tissue-specific silencing, and even apparent subfunctionalization, can arise rapidly in the early generations of natural allopolyploidy.
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Characterization of duplicate gene evolution in the recent natural allopolyploid Tragopogon miscellus by next-generation sequencing and Sequenom iPLEX MassARRAY genotyping.
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae) is an evolutionary model for the study of natural allopolyploidy, but until now has been under-resourced as a genetic model. Using 454 and Illumina expressed sequence tag sequencing of the parental diploid species of T. miscellus, we identified 7782 single nucleotide polymorphisms that differ between the two progenitor genomes present in this allotetraploid. Validation of a sample of 98 of these SNPs in genomic DNA using Sequenom MassARRAY iPlex genotyping confirmed 92 SNP markers at the genomic level that were diagnostic for the two parental genomes. In a transcriptome profile of 2989 SNPs in a single T. miscellus leaf, using Illumina sequencing, 69% of SNPs showed approximately equal expression of both homeologs (duplicate homologous genes derived from different parents), 22% showed apparent differential expression and 8.5% showed apparent silencing of one homeolog in T. miscellus. The majority of cases of homeolog silencing involved the T. dubius SNP homeolog (164/254; 65%) rather than the T. pratensis homeolog (90/254). Sequenom analysis of genomic DNA showed that in a sample of 27 of the homeologs showing apparent silencing, 23 (85%) were because of genomic homeolog loss. These methods could be applied to any organism, allowing efficient and cost-effective generation of genetic markers.
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Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes further resolves the early diversification of eudicots.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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Although Pentapetalae (comprising all core eudicots except Gunnerales) include approximately 70% of all angiosperms, the origin of and relationships among the major lineages of this clade have remained largely unresolved. Phylogenetic analyses of 83 protein-coding and rRNA genes from the plastid genome for 86 species of seed plants, including new sequences from 25 eudicots, indicate that soon after its origin, Pentapetalae diverged into three clades: (i) a "superrosid" clade consisting of Rosidae, Vitaceae, and Saxifragales; (ii) a "superasterid" clade consisting of Berberidopsidales, Santalales, Caryophyllales, and Asteridae; and (iii) Dilleniaceae. Maximum-likelihood analyses support the position of Dilleniaceae as sister to superrosids, but topology tests did not reject alternative positions of Dilleniaceae as sister to Asteridae or all remaining Pentapetalae. Molecular dating analyses suggest that the major lineages within both superrosids and superasterids arose in as little as 5 million years. This phylogenetic hypothesis provides a crucial historical framework for future studies aimed at elucidating the underlying causes of the morphological and species diversity in Pentapetalae.
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Dynamics of polyploid formation in Tragopogon (Asteraceae): recurrent formation, gene flow, and population structure.
Evolution
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2010
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Polyploidy is a major feature of angiosperm evolution and diversification. Most polyploid species have formed multiple times, yet we know little about the genetic consequences of recurrent formations. Among the clearest examples of recurrent polyploidy are Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus (Asteraceae), each of which has formed repeatedly in the last approximately 80 years from known diploid progenitors in western North America. Here, we apply progenitor-specific microsatellite markers to examine the genetic contributions to each tetraploid species and to assess gene flow among populations of independent formation. These data provide fine-scale resolution of independent origins for both polyploid species. Importantly, multiple origins have resulted in considerable genetic variation within both polyploid species; however, the patterns of variation detected in the polyploids contrast with those observed in extant populations of the diploid progenitors. The genotypes detected in the two polyploid species appear to represent a snapshot of historical population structure in the diploid progenitors, rather than modern diploid genotypes. Our data also indicate a lack of gene flow among polyploid plants of independent origin, even when they co-occur, suggesting potential reproductive barriers among separate lineages in both polyploid species.
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Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in Haageocereus (Trichocereeae, Cactaceae).
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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• Premise of the study: Microsatellites were isolated from two species of the genus Haageocereus (H. tenuis and H. pseudomelanostele) to be applied in studies of genetic diversity and population structure. • Methods and Results: Five loci were employed in a preliminary study of genetic diversity and population differentiation in two rare (H. tenuis and H. repens) and two widespread (H. acranthus and H. pseudomelanostele) species, yielding between one and 44 alleles per locus. All five loci were polymorphic, with overall levels of observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.478 to 0.871 and from 0.564 to 0.956, respectively. Three additional loci were scored in H. pseudomelanostele. These eight plus the remaining 11 loci were amplified from putative parents of three hybrids involving Haageocereus and Espostoa. • Conclusions: These markers will facilitate analysis of genetic diversity, hybridization, and population differentiation throughout Haageocereus and Espostoa.
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Homeolog loss and expression changes in natural populations of the recently and repeatedly formed allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae).
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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Although polyploidy has long been recognized as a major force in the evolution of plants, most of what we know about the genetic consequences of polyploidy comes from the study of crops and model systems. Furthermore, although many polyploid species have formed repeatedly, patterns of genome evolution and gene expression are largely unknown for natural polyploid populations of independent origin. We therefore examined patterns of loss and expression in duplicate gene pairs (homeologs) in multiple individuals from seven natural populations of independent origin of Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae), an allopolyploid that formed repeatedly within the last 80 years from the diploids T. dubius and T. porrifolius.
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Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers for Arctium minus (Compositae).
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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• Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the invasive plant Arctium minus to investigate the effects of facultative self-pollination and the biannual habit on population genetic structure, as well as the colonization of the Americas by this Eurasian species. • Methods and Results: Sixteen di- and trinucleotide microsatellite loci were identified in six populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 10, observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.897, and the mean value of F(IS) was 0.316. • Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of these loci in future studies of population genetics in A. minus.
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Recent long-distance dispersal overshadows ancient biogeographical patterns in a pantropical angiosperm family (Simaroubaceae, Sapindales).
Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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Detailed biogeographic studies of pantropical clades are still relatively few, and those conducted to date typically use parsimony or event-based methods to reconstruct ancestral areas. In this study, a recently developed likelihood method for reconstructing ancestral areas (the dispersal-extinction cladogenesis [DEC] model) is applied to the angiosperm family Simaroubaceae, a geographically widespread and ecologically diverse clade of pantropical and temperate trees and shrubs. To estimate divergence dates in the family, Bayesian uncorrelated rates analyses and robust fossil calibrations are applied to the well-sampled and strongly supported phylogeny. For biogeographic analyses, the effects of parameter configurations in the DEC model are assessed for different possible ancestral ranges, and the likelihood method is compared with dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA). Regardless of the parameters used, likelihood analyses show a common pattern of multiple recent range shifts that overshadow reconstruction of events deeper in the familys history. DIVA produced results similar to the DEC model when ancestral ranges were restricted to two areas, but some improbable ancestral ranges were also observed. Simaroubaceae exhibit an early history of range expansion between major continental areas in the Northern Hemisphere, but reconstruction of ancestral areas for lineages diverging in the early Tertiary are sensitive to the parameters of the model used. A North American origin is suggested for the family, with migration via Beringia by ancestral taxa. In contrast to traditional views, long-distance dispersal events are common, particularly in the Late Oligocene and later. Notable dispersals are inferred to have occurred across the Atlantic Ocean in both directions, as well as between Africa and Asia, and around the Indian Ocean basin and Pacific islands.
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Comparison of next generation sequencing technologies for transcriptome characterization.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2009
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We have developed a simulation approach to help determine the optimal mixture of sequencing methods for most complete and cost effective transcriptome sequencing. We compared simulation results for traditional capillary sequencing with "Next Generation" (NG) ultra high-throughput technologies. The simulation model was parameterized using mappings of 130,000 cDNA sequence reads to the Arabidopsis genome (NCBI Accession SRA008180.19). We also generated 454-GS20 sequences and de novo assemblies for the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) and the magnoliid avocado (Persea americana) using a variety of methods for cDNA synthesis.
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Does hybridization between divergent progenitors drive whole-genome duplication?
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Hybridization and whole-genome duplication are both potential mechanisms of rapid speciation which sometimes act in concert. Recent surveys, showing that homoploid hybrid species tend to be derived from parents that are less evolutionarily divergent than parents of polyploid hybrid species (allopolyploids), have been interpreted as supporting a hypothesis that high divergence between hybridizing species drives whole-genome duplication. Here, we argue that such conclusions stem from problems in sampling (especially the omission of autopolyploids) and null model selection, and underestimate the importance of selection. The data simply demonstrate that hybridization between divergent parents has a higher probability of successfully producing a species if followed by polyploidization.
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The role of hybridization in plant speciation.
Annu Rev Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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The importance of hybridization in plant speciation and evolution has been debated for decades, with opposing views of hybridization as either a creative evolutionary force or evolutionary noise. Hybrid speciation may occur at either the homoploid (i.e., between two species of the same ploidy) or the polyploid level, each with its attendant genetic and evolutionary consequences. Whereas allopolyploidy (i.e., resulting from hybridization and genome doubling) has long been recognized as an important mode of plant speciation, the implications of genome duplication have typically not been taken into account in most fields of plant biology. Recent developments in genomics are revolutionizing our views of angiosperm genomes, demonstrating that perhaps all angiosperms have likely undergone at least one round of polyploidization and that hybridization has been an important force in generating angiosperm species diversity. Hybridization and polyploid formation continue to generate species diversity, with several new allopolyploids having originated just within the past century or so. The origins of polyploid species-whether via hybridization between species or between genetically differentiated populations of a single species-and the immediate genetic consequences of polyploid formation are therefore receiving enthusiastic attention. The time is therefore right for a review of the role of hybridization in plant speciation.
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Transcriptional signatures of ancient floral developmental genetics in avocado (Persea americana; Lauraceae).
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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The debate on the origin and evolution of flowers has recently entered the field of developmental genetics, with focus on the design of the ancestral floral regulatory program. Flowers can differ dramatically among angiosperm lineages, but in general, male and female reproductive organs surrounded by a sterile perianth of sepals and petals constitute the basic floral structure. However, the basal angiosperm lineages exhibit spectacular diversity in the number, arrangement, and structure of floral organs, whereas the evolutionarily derived monocot and eudicot lineages share a far more uniform floral ground plan. Here we show that broadly overlapping transcriptional programs characterize the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm Persea americana (avocado), whereas floral gene expression domains are considerably more organ specific in the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings therefore support the "fading borders" model for organ identity determination in basal angiosperm flowers and extend it from the action of regulatory genes to downstream transcriptional programs. Furthermore, the declining expression of components of the staminal transcriptome in central and peripheral regions of Persea flowers concurs with elements of a previous hypothesis for developmental regulation in a gymnosperm "floral progenitor." Accordingly, in contrast to the canalized organ-specific regulatory apparatus of Arabidopsis, floral development may have been originally regulated by overlapping transcriptional cascades with fading gradients of influence from focal to bordering organs.
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On the road to diploidization? Homoeolog loss in independently formed populations of the allopolyploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae).
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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Polyploidy (whole-genome duplication) is an important speciation mechanism, particularly in plants. Gene loss, silencing, and the formation of novel gene complexes are some of the consequences that the new polyploid genome may experience. Despite the recurrent nature of polyploidy, little is known about the genomic outcome of independent polyploidization events. Here, we analyze the fate of genes duplicated by polyploidy (homoeologs) in multiple individuals from ten natural populations of Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae), all of which formed independently from T. dubius and T. pratensis less than 80 years ago.
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Synthetic polyploids of Tragopogon miscellus and T. mirus (Asteraceae): 60 Years after Ownbeys discovery.
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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In plants, polyploidy has been a significant evolutionary force on both recent and ancient time scales. In 1950, Ownbey reported two newly formed Tragopogon allopolyploids in the northwestern United States. We have made the first synthetic lines of T. mirus and T. miscellus using T. dubius, T. porrifolius, and T. pratensis as parents and colchicine treatment of F(1) hybrids. We also produced allotetraploids between T. porrifolius and T. pratensis, which are not known from nature. We report on the crossability between the diploids, as well as the inflorescence morphology, pollen size, meiotic behavior, and fertility of the synthetic polyploids. Morphologically, the synthetics resemble the natural polyploids with short- and long-liguled forms of T. miscellus resulting when T. pratensis and T. dubius are reciprocally crossed. Synthetic T. mirus was also formed reciprocally, but without any obvious morphological differences resulting from the direction of the cross. Of the 27 original crosses that yielded 171 hybrid individuals, 18 of these lineages have persisted to produce 386 S(1) progeny; each of these lineages has produced S(2) seed that are viable. The successful generation of these synthetic polyploids offers the opportunity for detailed comparative studies of natural and synthetic polyploids within a nonmodel system.
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Inferring phylogenies with incomplete data sets: a 5-gene, 567-taxon analysis of angiosperms.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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Phylogenetic analyses of angiosperm relationships have used only a small percentage of available sequence data, but phylogenetic data matrices often can be augmented with existing data, especially if one allows missing characters. We explore the effects on phylogenetic analyses of adding 378 matK sequences and 240 26S rDNA sequences to the complete 3-gene, 567-taxon angiosperm phylogenetic matrix of Soltis et al.
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The polyploid series of Centaurea toletana: glacial migrations and introgression revealed by nrDNA and cpDNA sequence analyzes.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2009
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The polyploid series of Centaurea toletana comprises diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid cytotypes. Previous studies suggested that the tetraploid was an autopolyploid, while the hexaploid was an allopolyploid and should be considered a different species, C. argecillensis. Sequencing of the ITS and rps4-trnT-trnL, ycf3-trnS, and rpL16 regions, and extensive cloning and sequencing of the ETS region have revealed that many diploid individuals and populations show different ribotypes, likely resulting from ancient hybridization events. Ribotypes found in the diploid populations are also present in tetraploid populations. The extreme difficulties in classifying the tetraploid as auto- or allopolyploid are discussed. The hexaploid C. argecillensis also shows many different ribotypes, including a ribotype not found in the diploids and making an autopolyploid origin unlikely. The pattern of introgression and gene flow implicates several species from the Iberian Peninsula and the High Atlas Mountains in Morocco as genetic donors in ancient hybridization events. This long-reaching network of hybridization may trace its origin to the climatic history of the western Mediterranean during the Neogene.
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Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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The rosid clade (70,000 species) contains more than one-fourth of all angiosperm species and includes most lineages of extant temperate and tropical forest trees. Despite progress in elucidating relationships within the angiosperms, rosids remain the largest poorly resolved major clade; deep relationships within the rosids are particularly enigmatic. Based on parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of separate and combined 12-gene (10 plastid genes, 2 nuclear; >18,000 bp) and plastid inverted repeat (IR; 24 genes and intervening spacers; >25,000 bp) datasets for >100 rosid species, we provide a greatly improved understanding of rosid phylogeny. Vitaceae are sister to all other rosids, which in turn form 2 large clades, each with a ML bootstrap value of 100%: (i) eurosids I (Fabidae) include the nitrogen-fixing clade, Celastrales, Huaceae, Zygophyllales, Malpighiales, and Oxalidales; and (ii) eurosids II (Malvidae) include Tapisciaceae, Brassicales, Malvales, Sapindales, Geraniales, Myrtales, Crossosomatales, and Picramniaceae. The rosid clade diversified rapidly into these major lineages, possibly over a period of <15 million years, and perhaps in as little as 4 to 5 million years. The timing of the inferred rapid radiation of rosids [108 to 91 million years ago (Mya) and 107-83 Mya for Fabidae and Malvidae, respectively] corresponds with the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests and the concomitant diversification of other clades that inhabit these forests, including amphibians, ants, placental mammals, and ferns.
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Polyploidy and angiosperm diversification.
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Polyploidy has long been recognized as a major force in angiosperm evolution. Recent genomic investigations not only indicate that polyploidy is ubiquitous among angiosperms, but also suggest several ancient genome-doubling events. These include ancient whole genome duplication (WGD) events in basal angiosperm lineages, as well as a proposed paleohexaploid event that may have occurred close to the eudicot divergence. However, there is currently no evidence for WGD in Amborella, the putative sister species to other extant angiosperms. The question is no longer "What proportion of angiosperms are polyploid?", but "How many episodes of polyploidy characterize any given lineage?" New algorithms provide promise that ancestral genomes can be reconstructed for deep divergences (e.g., it may be possible to reconstruct the ancestral eudicot or even the ancestral angiosperm genome). Comparisons of diversification rates suggest that genome doubling may have led to a dramatic increase in species richness in several angiosperm lineages, including Poaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Brassicaceae. However, additional genomic studies are needed to pinpoint the exact phylogenetic placement of the ancient polyploidy events within these lineages and to determine when novel genes resulting from polyploidy have enabled adaptive radiations.
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Floral variation and floral genetics in basal angiosperms.
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Recent advances in phylogeny reconstruction and floral genetics set the stage for new investigations of the origin and diversification of the flower. We review the current state of angiosperm phylogeny, with an emphasis on basal lineages. With the surprising inclusion of Hydatellaceae with Nymphaeales, recent studies support the topology of Amborella sister to all other extant angiosperms, with Nymphaeales and then Austrobaileyales as subsequent sisters to all remaining angiosperms. Notable modifications from most recent analyses are the sister relationships of Chloranthaceae with the magnoliids and of Ceratophyllaceae with eudicots. We review "trends" in floral morphology and contrast historical, intuitive interpretations with explicit character-state reconstructions using molecular-based trees, focusing on (1) the size, number, and organization of floral organs; (2) the evolution of the perianth; (3) floral symmetry; and (4) floral synorganization. We provide summaries of those genes known to affect floral features that contribute to much of floral diversity. Although most floral genes have not been investigated outside of a few model systems, sufficient information is emerging to identify candidate genes for testing specific hypotheses in nonmodel plants. We conclude with a set of evo-devo case studies in which floral genetics have been linked to variation in floral morphology.
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Evaluating methods for isolating total RNA and predicting the success of sequencing phylogenetically diverse plant transcriptomes.
PLoS ONE
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Next-generation sequencing plays a central role in the characterization and quantification of transcriptomes. Although numerous metrics are purported to quantify the quality of RNA, there have been no large-scale empirical evaluations of the major determinants of sequencing success. We used a combination of existing and newly developed methods to isolate total RNA from 1115 samples from 695 plant species in 324 families, which represents >900 million years of phylogenetic diversity from green algae through flowering plants, including many plants of economic importance. We then sequenced 629 of these samples on Illumina GAIIx and HiSeq platforms and performed a large comparative analysis to identify predictors of RNA quality and the diversity of putative genes (scaffolds) expressed within samples. Tissue types (e.g., leaf vs. flower) varied in RNA quality, sequencing depth and the number of scaffolds. Tissue age also influenced RNA quality but not the number of scaffolds ? 1000 bp. Overall, 36% of the variation in the number of scaffolds was explained by metrics of RNA integrity (RIN score), RNA purity (OD 260/230), sequencing platform (GAIIx vs HiSeq) and the amount of total RNA used for sequencing. However, our results show that the most commonly used measures of RNA quality (e.g., RIN) are weak predictors of the number of scaffolds because Illumina sequencing is robust to variation in RNA quality. These results provide novel insight into the methods that are most important in isolating high quality RNA for sequencing and assembling plant transcriptomes. The methods and recommendations provided here could increase the efficiency and decrease the cost of RNA sequencing for individual labs and genome centers.
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Genetic variability of an unusual apomictic triploid cactus--Haageocereus tenuis Ritter--from the Coast of Central Peru.
J. Hered.
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Haageocereus tenuis is a prostrate cactus restricted to a small area of 2 km(2) near the city of Lima, Peru. The species is triploid and propagates mainly through stem fragmentation. In addition, propagation via agamospermy is documented and adventitious embryony is also inferred as a mechanism. Although seedling recruitment has not been observed in nature, we have shown that asexually produced seeds are viable. About 45 adult individuals, plus 9 individuals obtained from seeds, were sampled and 5 microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic variability. Microsatellite analysis confirms that individuals from the only existing population are genetically identical and that the population likely represents a single clone. The absence of mutations in any individual, even in highly variable microsatellite loci, may indicate that the species is also of recent origin. Other prostrate species of Haageocereus are suspected to be occasional apomicts. This phenomenon has significant implications for the evolutionary biology and ecology of Haageocereus and other clonal Cactaceae.
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Comparative proteomics of the recently and recurrently formed natural allopolyploid Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae) and its parents.
New Phytol.
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• We examined the proteomes of the recently formed natural allopolyploid Tragopogon mirus and its diploid parents (T. dubius, T. porrifolius), as well as a diploid F(1) hybrid and synthetic T. mirus. • Analyses using iTRAQ LC-MS/MS technology identified 476 proteins produced by all three species. Of these, 408 proteins showed quantitative additivity of the two parental profiles in T. mirus (both natural and synthetic); 68 proteins were quantitatively differentially expressed. • Comparison of F(1) hybrid, and synthetic and natural polyploid T. mirus with the parental diploid species revealed 32 protein expression changes associated with hybridization, 22 with genome doubling and 14 that had occurred since the origin of T. mirus c. 80 yr ago. We found six proteins with novel expression; this phenomenon appears to start in the F(1) hybrid and results from post-translational modifications. • Our results indicate that the impact of hybridization on the proteome is more important than is polyploidization. Furthermore, two cases of homeolog-specific expression in T. mirus suggest that silencing in T. mirus was not associated with hybridization itself, but occurred subsequent to both hybridization and polyploidization. This study has shown the utility of proteomics in the analysis of the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy.
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Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic and critically endangered genus Saniculiphyllum (Saxifragaceae) inferred from combined analysis of plastid and nuclear DNA sequences.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
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Saniculiphyllum, a monotypic genus distributed in Southwest China, was thought to be extinct before our recent rediscovery. The taxonomic position of this genus has been enigmatic ever since its publication. It was originally treated as the only member of a distinct tribe Saniculiphylleae in the family Saxifragaceae. Some proposed a new family, Saniculophyllaceae, to accommodate this genus, although its affinities are clearly with members of Saxifragaceae. Here we analyzed six DNA regions, the nuclear ribosomal ITS and 26S rDNA and the plastid rbcL, matK, trnL-trnF, psbA-trnH genes, spacers, and intron to explore the phylogenetic position of Saniculiphyllum within Saxifragaceae. The combined nuclear and chloroplast dataset includes 63 ingroup species, representing all genera but Hieronymusia in the family. Results from likelihood, parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic methods corroborate earlier results. Two clades of Saxifragaceae, the Heucheroid and Saxifragoid clades, were recovered. The topologies obtained from different analyses confirm the placement of Saniculiphyllum in Saxifragaceae, but our analyses reveal that Saniculiphyllum is embedded within the large Heucheroid clade. However, the closest relatives of Saniculiphyllum within the Heucheroid clade remain unclear. Combined with morphological data, our results suggest that Saniculiphyllum should best be regarded as a highly distinctive lineage within the Heucheroid clade of Saxifragaceae. Morphological novelties and conservation status of Saniculiphyllum are also presented.
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Menispermaceae and the diversification of tropical rainforests near the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.
New Phytol.
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• Modern tropical rainforests have the highest biodiversity of terrestrial biomes and are restricted to three low-latitude areas. However, the actual timeframe during which tropical rainforests began to appear on a global scale has been intensely disputed. Here, we used the moonseed family (Menispermaceae), an important physiognomic and structural component of tropical rainforests on a worldwide basis, to obtain new insights into the diversification of this biome. • We integrated phylogenetic, biogeographic and molecular dating methods to analyse temporal and spatial patterns of global diversification in Menispermaceae. • Importantly, a burst of moonseed diversification occurred in a narrow window of time, which coincides with the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. Our data also suggest multiple independent migrations from a putative ancestral area of Indo-Malay into other tropical regions. • Our data for Menispermaceae suggest that modern tropical rainforests may have appeared almost synchronously throughout the three major tropical land areas close to, or immediately following, the K-Pg mass extinction.
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Phylogeographic analysis reveals significant spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis as a product of mountain building.
BMC Plant Biol.
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Incarvillea sinensis is widely distributed from Southwest China to Northeast China and in the Russian Far East. The distribution of this species was thought to be influenced by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Quaternary glaciation. To reveal the imprints of geological events on the spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis, we examined two cpDNA segments ( trnH- psbA and trnS- trnfM) in 705 individuals from 47 localities.
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Phylogeny of Opuntia s.s. (Cactaceae): clade delineation, geographic origins, and reticulate evolution.
Am. J. Bot.
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The opuntias (nopales, prickly pears) are not only culturally, ecologically, economically, and medicinally important, but are renowned for their taxonomic difficulty due to interspecific hybridization, polyploidy, and morphological variability. Evolutionary relationships in these stem succulents have been insufficiently studied; thus, delimitation of Opuntia s.s. and major subclades, as well as the biogeographic history of this enigmatic group, remain unresolved.
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Next-generation sequencing and genome evolution in allopolyploids.
Am. J. Bot.
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Hybridization and polyploidization (allopolyploidy) are ubiquitous in the evolution of plants, but tracing the origins and subsequent evolution of the constituent genomes of allopolyploids has been challenging. Genome doubling greatly complicates genetic analyses, and this has long hindered investigation in that most allopolyploid species are "nonmodel" organisms. However, recent advances in sequencing and genomics technologies now provide unprecedented opportunities to analyze numerous genetic markers in multiple individuals in any organism.
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Rapid, repeated, and clustered loss of duplicate genes in allopolyploid plant populations of independent origin.
Curr. Biol.
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The predictability of evolution is debatable, with recent evidence suggesting that outcomes may be constrained by gene interaction networks [1]. Whole-genome duplication (WGD; polyploidization-ubiquitous in plant evolution [2]) provides the opportunity to evaluate the predictability of genome reduction, a pervasive feature of evolution [3, 4]. Repeated patterns of genome reduction appear to have occurred via duplicated gene (homeolog) loss in divergent species following ancient WGD [5-9], with evidence for preferential retention of duplicates in certain gene classes [8-10]. The speed at which these patterns arise is unknown. We examined presence/absence of 70 homeologous loci in 59 Tragopogon miscellus plants from five natural populations of independent origin; this allotetraploid arose ~80 years ago via hybridization between diploid parents and WGD [11]. Genes were repeatedly retained or lost in clusters, and the gene ontology categories of the missing genes correspond to those lost after ancient WGD in the same family (Asteraceae; sunflower family) [6] and with gene dosage sensitivity [8]. These results provide evidence that the outcomes of WGD are predictable, even in 40 generations, perhaps due to the connectivity of gene products [8, 10, 12]. The high frequency of single-allele losses detected and low frequency of changes fixed within populations provide evidence for ongoing evolution.
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Extensive chromosomal variation in a recently formed natural allopolyploid species, Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae).
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Polyploidy, or whole genome duplication, has played a major role in the evolution of many eukaryotic lineages. Although the prevalence of polyploidy in plants is well documented, the molecular and cytological consequences are understood largely from newly formed polyploids (neopolyploids) that have been grown experimentally. Classical cytological and molecular cytogenetic studies both have shown that experimental neoallopolyploids often have meiotic irregularities, producing chromosomally variable gametes and progeny; however, little is known about the extent or duration of chromosomal variation in natural neoallopolyploid populations. We report the results of a molecular cytogenetic study on natural populations of a neoallopolyploid, Tragopogon miscellus, which formed multiple times in the past 80 y. Using genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we uncovered massive and repeated patterns of chromosomal variation in all populations. No population was fixed for a particular karyotype; 76% of the individuals showed intergenomic translocations, and 69% were aneuploid for one or more chromosomes. Importantly, 85% of plants exhibiting aneuploidy still had the expected chromosome number, mostly through reciprocal monosomy-trisomy of homeologous chromosomes (1:3 copies) or nullisomy-tetrasomy (0:4 copies). The extensive chromosomal variation still present after ca. 40 generations in this biennial species suggests that substantial and prolonged chromosomal instability might be common in natural populations after whole genome duplication. A protracted period of genome instability in neoallopolyploids may increase opportunities for alterations to genome structure, losses of coding and noncoding DNA, and changes in gene expression.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.