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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Risk factors and outcomes for patients with bloodstream infection due to Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Identifying patients at risk for bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex (ABC) and providing early appropriate therapy are critical for improving patient outcomes. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for BSI due to ABC in patients admitted to the Detroit Medical Center (DMC) between January 2006 and April 2009. The cases were patients with BSI due to ABC; the controls were patients not infected with ABC. Potential risk factors were collected 30 days prior to the ABC-positive culture date for the cases and 30 days prior to admission for the controls. A total of 245 case patients were matched with 245 control patients. Independent risk factors associated with BSI due to ABC included a Charlson's comorbidity score of ? 3 (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; P = 0.001), a direct admission from another health care facility (OR, 4.63; P < 0.0001), a prior hospitalization (OR, 3.11; P < 0.0001), the presence of an indwelling central venous line (OR, 2.75; P = 0.011), the receipt of total parenteral nutrition (OR, 21.2; P < 0.0001), the prior receipt of ?-lactams (OR, 3.58; P < 0.0001), the prior receipt of carbapenems (OR, 3.18; P = 0.006), and the prior receipt of chemotherapy (OR, 15.42; P < 0.0001). The median time from the ABC-positive culture date to the initiation of the appropriate antimicrobial therapy was 2 days (interquartile range [IQR], 1 to 3 days). The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher among case patients than among control patients (OR, 3.40; P < 0.0001). BSIs due to ABC are more common among critically ill and debilitated institutionalized patients, who are heavily exposed to health care settings and invasive devices.
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Impact of different antimicrobial therapies on clinical and fiscal outcomes of patients with bacteremia due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a growing health problem, and uncertainties exist regarding the optimal therapy for bloodstream infection due to VRE. We conducted systematic comparative evaluations of the impact of different antimicrobial therapies on the outcomes of patients with bloodstream infections due to VRE. A retrospective study from January 2008 to October 2010 was conducted at Detroit Medical Center. Unique patients with blood cultures due to VRE were included and reviewed. Three major therapeutic classes were analyzed: daptomycin, linezolid, and ?-lactams. Three multivariate models were conducted for each outcome, matching for a propensity score predicting the likelihood of receipt of one of the therapeutic classes. A total of 225 cases of bacteremia due to VRE were included, including 86 (38.2%) cases of VR Enterococcus faecalis and 139 (61.8%) of VR Enterococcus faecium. Bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis was more frequent among subjects treated with ?-lactams than among those treated with daptomycin or linezolid. The median dose of daptomycin was 6 mg/kg of body weight (range, 6 to 12 mg/kg). After controlling for propensity score and bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis, differences in mortality were nonsignificant among the treatment groups. Therapy with daptomycin was associated with higher median variable direct cost per day than that for linezolid. This large study revealed the three therapeutic classes (daptomycin, linezolid, and ?-lactams) are similarly efficacious in the treatment of bacteremia due to susceptible strains of VRE.
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Risk factors for colonization due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among patients exposed to long-term acute care and acute care facilities.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) colonization among patients screened with rectal cultures upon admission to a hospital or long-term acute care (LTAC) center and to compare risk factors among patients who were screen positive for CRE at the time of hospital admission with those screen positive prior to LTAC admission.
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Statewide surveillance of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae in Michigan.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are clinically challenging, threaten patient safety, and represent an emerging public health issue. CRE reporting is not mandated in Michigan.
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Major variation in MICs of tigecycline in Gram-negative bacilli as a function of testing method.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Tigecycline is one of the few remaining therapeutic options for extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). MICs of tigecycline to Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported to be elevated when determined by the Etest compared to determinations by the broth microdilution (BMD) method. The study aim was to compare the susceptibility of GNB to tigecycline by four different testing methods. GNB were collected from six health care systems (25 hospitals) in southeast Michigan from January 2010 to September 2011. Tigecycline MICs among A. baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates were determined by Etest, BMD, Vitek-2, and MicroScan. Nonsusceptibility was categorized as a tigecycline MIC of ?4 ?g/ml for both A. baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae. The study included 4,427 isolates: 2,065 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, 1,105 A. baumannii, 888 susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, and 369 CRE isolates. Tigecycline nonsusceptibility among A. baumannii isolates was significantly more common as determined by Etest compared to that determined by BMD (odds ratio [OR], 10.3; P<0.001), MicroScan (OR, 12.4; P<0.001), or Vitek-2 (OR, 9.4; P<0.001). These differences were not evident with the other pathogens. Tigecycline MICs varied greatly according to the in vitro testing methods among A. baumannii isolates. Etest should probably not be used by laboratories for tigecycline MIC testing of A. baumannii isolates, since MICs are significantly elevated with Etest compared to those determined by the three other methods.
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Effectiveness and cost of implementing an active surveillance screening policy for Acinetobacter baumannii: a Monte Carlo simulation model.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Acinetobacter baumannii infections are common and associated with high mortality and costs. Early identification of asymptomatic carriers can reduce patient-to-patient transmission, but the sensitivity of A baumannii surveillance tools is poor, and thus active surveillance is not routine practice. This study examined whether an active surveillance screening policy can reduce the transmission, mortality, and costs associated with A baumannii.
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Outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolation: matched analysis.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolation is associated with poor outcomes. The matched cohort study design enables investigation of specific role of resistance in contributing to patients' outcomes. Patients with CRE were matched to 3 groups: (1) patients with extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL), (2) patients with carbapenem-susceptible non-ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, and (3) uninfected controls.
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Contact precautions: more is not necessarily better.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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To determine whether increases in contact isolation precautions are associated with decreased adherence to isolation practices among healthcare workers (HCWs).
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Automated alerts coupled with antimicrobial stewardship intervention lead to decreases in length of stay in patients with gram-negative bacteremia.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To assess the impact of active alerting of positive blood culture data coupled with stewardship intervention on time to appropriate therapy, length of stay, and mortality in patients with gram-negative bacteremia.
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Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolation among older adults: epidemiology and outcomes.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Clinical outcomes of older and younger adults with extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolation were compared. Two hundred thirty-two older adults (aged ?65 years), and 145 younger adults with infection were identified between February 2010 and July 2011. After controlling for the propensity score and receipt of effective therapy, older adults were not at increased risk for adverse outcomes.
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Effect of nosocomial bloodstream infections on mortality, length of stay, and hospital costs in older adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To quantify the effect of nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) on older adults, including mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs attributed to BSI.
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Surgical Site Infections in Genital Reconstruction Surgery for Gender Reassignment, Detroit: 1984-2008.
Surg Infect (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Abstract Background: Gender reassignment surgery (i.e., male-to-female or female-to-male) entails a series of complex surgical procedures. We conducted a study to explore epidemiologic characteristics of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations as components of gender reassignment and to analyze risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) following these operations. Methods: The study was a retrospective cohort study conducted from 1984-2008 at Harper University Hospital, a tertiary hospital with 625 beds in Detroit, Michigan. Surgical site infection was defined according to established criteria. Results: Records were available for 82 patients who underwent a total of 1,383 operations as part of genital-reconstruction processes. Thirty-nine (47.6%) of the patients underwent female-to-male reassignment (FTM) and 43 (52.4%) underwent male-to-female reassignment (MTF). The average age of the study cohort was 39.5±9.8?y. Of the patients in the cohort, 56 (68.3%) were Caucasian and 67 (81.7%) were single. The average number of operative encounters per patient was 11.8±4.6 for FTM and 4.9±2.4 for MTF. Forty-three (52.4%) patients developed an SSI at least once during their genital reconstruction process, of whom 34 (87%) were in the FTM group and nine (21%) in the MTF group (p<0.001). Staphylococci were the most common pathogens (61%) isolated in these infections, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (50%), Enterococcus (39%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.3%). Surgical site infection was associated independently with an increased frequency of operative procedures and operating room encounters. Conclusions: More than 50% of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations developed an SSI at some point during the genital reconstruction process. Surgical site infections are more common in FTM than in MTF reconstruction operations, and for both FTM and MTF, SSIs are associated independently with an increased frequency of total operative procedures and encounters.
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Epidemiology of bloodstream infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and impact of drug resistance to both carbapenems and ampicillin-sulbactam on clinical outcomes.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Acinetobacter baumannii has become a leading cause of bloodstream infections (BSI) in health care settings. Although the incidence of infection with carbapenem- and ampicillin-sulbactam-resistant (CASR) A. baumannii has increased, there is a scarcity of studies which investigate BSI caused by CASR A. baumannii. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on adult patients with BSI caused by A. baumannii and who were admitted to the Detroit Medical Center between January 2006 and April 2009. Medical records were queried for patients demographics, antimicrobial exposures, comorbidities, hospital stay, and clinical outcomes. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression were employed in the study. Two hundred seventy-four patients with BSI caused by A. baumannii were included in the study: 68 (25%) caused by CASR A. baumannii and 206 (75%) caused by non-CASR A. baumannii. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with BSI caused by CASR A. baumannii included admission with a rapidly fatal condition (odds ratio [OR] = 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27 to 6.32, P value = 0.01) and prior use of antimicrobials (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.78, P value = 0.02). In-hospital mortality rates for BSI caused by CASR A. baumannii were significantly higher than those for non-CASR A. baumannii-induced BSI (43% versus 20%; OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.60 to 5.23, P value < 0.001). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the association between BSI caused by CASR A. baumannii and increased risk of in-hospital mortality was not significant (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.51 to 2.63, P value = 0.74). This study demonstrated that CASR A. baumannii had a distinct epidemiology compared to more susceptible A. baumannii strains; however, clinical outcomes were similar for the two groups. Admission with a rapidly fatal condition was an independent predictor for both CASR A. baumannii and in-hospital mortality.
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The role of antimicrobial stewardship in curbing carbapenem resistance.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Antimicrobial resistance is a continuing, growing, worldwide iatrogenic complication of modern medical care. Carbapenem resistance among certain pathogens poses a significant challenge. In order to reduce the spread of these nearly untreatable pathogens, preventative efforts should be directed at reducing patient-to-patient transmission and preventing the emergence of resistance among susceptible strains. One theoretical intervention to reduce the emergence of resistance is establishing and strictly adhering to an antimicrobial stewardship program. However, data pertaining to the direct effect of stewardship in curtailing carbapenem resistance among epidemiologically significant organisms are scarce. In this report, we review the potential biases associated with data interpretation in this research field, and we review the data pertaining to the impact of stewardship in curbing carbapenem resistance in three significant groups of pathogens: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii.
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Epidemiology and risk factors for isolation of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum ?-lactamase in a large U.S. Medical Center.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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A case-case-control study was conducted to identify independent risk factors for recovery of Escherichia coli strains producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (CTX-M E. coli) within a large Southeastern Michigan medical center. Unique cases with isolation of ESBL-producing E. coli from February 2010 through July 2011 were analyzed by PCR for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Patients with CTX-M E. coli were compared to patients with E. coli strains not producing CTX-M-type ESBLs (non-CTX-M E. coli) and uninfected controls. Of 575 patients with ESBL-producing E. coli, 491 (85.4%) isolates contained a CTX-M ESBL gene. A total of 319 (84.6%) patients with CTX-M E. coli (282 [74.8%] CTX-M-15 type) were compared to 58 (15.4%) non-CTX-M E. coli patients and to uninfected controls. Independent risk factors for CTX-M E. coli isolation compared to non-CTX-M E. coli included male gender, impaired consciousness, H2 blocker use, immunosuppression, and exposure to penicillins and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Compared to uninfected controls, independent risk factors for isolation of CTX-M E. coli included presence of a urinary catheter, previous urinary tract infection, exposure to oxyimino-cephalosporins, dependent functional status, non-home residence, and multiple comorbid conditions. Within 48 h of admission, community-acquired CTX-M E. coli (n = 51 [16%]) and non-CTX-M E coli (n = 11 [19%]) strains were isolated from patients with no recent health care contacts. CTX-M E. coli strains were more resistant to multiple antibiotics than non-CTX-M E. coli strains. CTX-M-encoding genes, especially bla(CTX-M-15) type, represented the most common ESBL determinants from ESBL-producing E. coli, the majority of which were present upon admission. Septic patients with risk factors for isolation of CTX-M E. coli should be empirically treated with appropriate agents. Regional infection control efforts and judicious antibiotic use are needed to control the spread of these organisms.
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Evaluation of the potential impact of a carbapenem de-escalation program in an academic healthcare system.
J Infect Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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The primary objective of this analysis was to evaluate group 2 carbapenem usage and to model the impact that a formalized de-escalation protocol to ertapenem could potentially have on group 2 carbapenem usage in the hope of alleviating the selective pressure on Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas. This analysis was conducted in three hospitals within the Detroit Medical Center in 2009. Patients were considered candidates for de-escalation of carbapenem therapy when a group 2 carbapenem was utilized to treat Enterobacteriaceae, such as extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms, or if cultures were negative in non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In total, 179 patients (28%) and 1074 patient-days (29%) were deemed eligible for de-escalation according to our pre-defined criteria. We concluded that preferential utilization of ertapenem in appropriate patients warranting carbapenem therapy has the potential to significantly decrease group 2 carbapenem usage at our institution.
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Risk factors for and epidemiology of community-onset vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in southeast Michigan.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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Given the known link between vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREF) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA), the recent increase in prevalence of VREF in southeast Michigan has raised concerns about the presence of a large "community" reservoir of VREF. Efforts to control its spread face some important challenges.
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Revisiting "older" antimicrobials in the era of multidrug resistance.
Pharmacotherapy
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms continue to increase, and the antimicrobial pipeline remains unacceptably lean. Given this challenge, it is has become necessary to use older antimicrobials for treatment of MDR pathogens despite concerns regarding toxicity and the lack of clinical efficacy data. In some cases, older antimicrobials offer potential advantages compared with new agents, including lower cost and better in vitro activity. In this review, we focus on the pharmacology, in vitro activity, and clinical experience of older agents, including colistin, minocycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and fosfomycin. We also discuss some new antimicrobial agents that are used to treat MDR pathogens. As MDR pathogens continue to outpace the development of new antimicrobials, it will become imperative to develop strategies regarding the optimal use of older agents in terms of monotherapy versus combination therapy, dosing regimens, and treatment of invasive infections caused by these pathogens.
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Incidence of and risk factors for colistin-associated nephrotoxicity in a large academic health system.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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Colistin, originally abandoned due to high rates of nephrotoxicity, has been recently reintroduced due to activity against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Recent literature, largely obtained from outside the United States, suggests a lower rate of nephrotoxicity than historically reported.
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Outcomes and genetic relatedness of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae at Detroit medical center.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are rapidly emerging in hospitals in the United States and are posing a significant threat. To better understand the transmission dynamics and the acquisition of resistant strains, a thorough analysis of epidemiologic and molecular characteristics was performed.
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A practical method for surveillance of novel H1N1 influenza using automated hospital data.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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We report a surveillance method for influenza that is based on automated hospital laboratory and pharmacy data. During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, this method was objective, easy to perform, and utilized readily available automated hospital data. This surveillance method produced results that correlated strongly with influenza-like illness surveillance data.
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Hospital bath basins are frequently contaminated with multidrug-resistant human pathogens.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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The hospital environment is increasingly recognized as a reservoir for hospital-acquired pathogens. During a 44-month study period, a total of 1,103 basins from 88 hospitals in the United States and Canada were sampled. Overall, 62.2% of the basins (at least 1 basin at each hospital) were contaminated with commonly encountered hospital-acquired pathogens.
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Predictors of nosocomial bloodstream infections in older adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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To identify predictors and construct a prediction model for nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) in older adults.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia upon hospital admission: risk factors for mortality and influence of inadequate empirical antimicrobial therapy.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an uncommon cause of bacteremia upon hospital admission (UHA) and the chosen empirical antimicrobial therapy may not cover it appropriately. In a multicenter prospective study conducted in Israel, we evaluated risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia UHA and determined the influence of delay in adequate empirical antimicrobial therapy on patients outcome. Seventy-six adult patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia within 72 h of hospital admission were included. Demographic, clinical, and treatment data were collected. Microbiological adequacy of empirical therapy was determined. Severe sepsis or septic shock at admission (OR, 21.9; P < 0.001), respiratory or unknown sources of bacteremia (OR, 11.5; P = 0.003), recent hospitalization (OR, 6.2; P = 0.032), and poor functional status (OR, 5.8; P = 0.029) were identified as independent predictors of mortality. Inadequate empirical antimicrobial therapy was marginally associated with increased mortality only among patients who presented with severe sepsis or septic shock (P = 0.051).
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Building a successful infection prevention program: key components, processes, and economics.
Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Infection control is the discipline responsible for preventing nosocomial infections. There has been an increasing focus on prevention rather than control of hospital-acquired infections. Individuals working in infection control have seen their titles change from infection control practitioner to infection control professional and most recently to infection preventionist (IP), emphasizing their critical role in protecting patients. The responsibilities of IPs span multiple disciplines including medicine, surgery, nursing, occupational health, microbiology, pharmacy, sterilization and disinfection, emergency medicine, and information technology. This article discusses the structure and responsibilities of an infection control program and the regulatory pressures and opportunities the program faces.
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Outbreak of colistin-resistant, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2010
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Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has spread worldwide and throughout the United States. Colistin is used extensively to treat infections with this organism. We describe a cluster of colistin-resistant, carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection cases involving three institutions in Detroit, MI. A cluster of five cases of colistin-resistant, carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae was identified at Detroit Medical Center (DMC) from 27 July to 22 August 2009. Epidemiologic data were collected, and transmission opportunities were analyzed. Isolates were genotyped by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR. Data regarding the use of colistin were obtained from pharmacy records. The index case of colistin-resistant, carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae was followed 20 days later by four additional cases occurring in a 6-day interval. All of the patients, at some point, had stayed at one particular institution. The mean number of opportunities for transmission between patients was 2.3 ± 0.5, and each patient had at least one opportunity for transmission with one of the other patients. Compared to 60 colistin-susceptible, carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae controls isolated in the previous year at DMC, case patients were significantly older (P = 0.05) and the carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae organisms isolated from them displayed much higher MICs to imipenem (P < 0.001). Colistin use was not enhanced in the months preceding the outbreak. Genotyping revealed two closely related clones. This report of a colistin-resistant, carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae outbreak is strongly linked to patient-to-patient transmission. Controlling the spread and novel emergence of bacteria with this phenotype is of paramount importance.
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National multicenter study of predictors and outcomes of bacteremia upon hospital admission caused by Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are pathogens that may lead to a spectrum of clinical syndromes. We aimed to identify predictors and outcomes of ESBL bacteremia upon hospital admission (UHA) in a nationwide prospective study. Thus, a multicenter prospective study was conducted in 10 Israeli hospitals. Adult patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae diagnosed within 72 h of hospitalization were included. Patients with ESBL producers (cases) were compared to those with non-ESBL producers (controls), and a 1:1 ratio was attempted in each center. A case-control study to identify predictors and a cohort study to identify outcomes were conducted. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used for analyses. Overall, 447 patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae were recruited: 205 cases and 242 controls. Independent predictors of ESBL were increased age, multiple comorbid conditions, poor functional status, recent contact with health care settings, invasive procedures, and prior receipt of antimicrobial therapy. In addition, patients presenting with septic shock and/or multiorgan failure were more likely to have ESBL infections. Patients with ESBL producers suffered more frequently from a delay in appropriate antimicrobial therapy (odds ratio [OR], 4.7; P, <0.001) and had a higher mortality rate (OR, 3.5; P, <0.001). After controlling for confounding variables, both ESBL production (OR, 2.3; P, 9.1) and a delay in adequate therapy (OR, 0.05; P, 0.001) were significant predictors for mortality and other adverse outcomes. We conclude that among patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae UHA, those with ESBL producers tend to be older and chronically ill and to have a delay in effective therapy and severe adverse outcomes. Efforts should be directed to improving the detection of patients with ESBL bacteremia UHA and to providing immediate appropriate therapy.
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Observer bias in hand hygiene compliance reporting.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Differences in reported hand hygiene compliance rates were assessed on the basis of the unit affiliation of observers. In 2 hospitals, unit-based observers more often reported higher compliance rates than did non-unit-based observers (79% vs 58.6%; difference, 20.4%; P<.001). Nonstandardized data collection methods contribute to the variability in hand hygiene compliance rates.
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Suction regulators: a potential vector for hospital-acquired pathogens.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2010
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The role of suction regulators in nosocomial infections has, to our knowledge, not been studied. A sampling of devices used in hospitals was conducted. Many regulators (173 [37%] of 470) were found to be colonized. A suction circuit model revealed that pathogens can disseminate throughout the circuit (retrograde and antegrade), colonizing an experimental patient stomach.
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Trends in antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a metropolitan Detroit health system.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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A phenotypic and genotypic analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii was conducted from 2003 to 2008 in Detroit, MI. The incidence of A. baumannii increased from 1.7 to 3.7/1,000 patient days during the study period. Susceptibility to ampicillin-sulbactam and imipenem decreased from approximately 90% to approximately 40%. Genotyping revealed polyclonality, suggesting either emergence of multiple resistant strains or spread of a common genetic element. The sharp rise mandates major multidisciplinary interventions to optimize management of this multidrug-resistant pathogen.
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Carotid atherosclerotic disease following childhood scalp irradiation.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
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During the first half of the 20th century, scalp irradiation was a standard treatment for children suffering from Tinea Capitis. These children are now more than 50 years old, reaching the age when manifestations of atherosclerosis are common. We investigated the possible association between childhood low dose scalp irradiation and development of carotid atherosclerosis in adulthood.
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Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 ?g/mL to vancomycin: old (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) versus new (daptomycin or linezolid) agents.
Ann Pharmacother
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Guidelines recommend that agents other than vancomycin be considered for some types of infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) when the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to vancomycin is 2 ?g/mL or more. Alternative therapeutic options include daptomycin and linezolid, 2 relatively new and expensive drugs, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), an old and inexpensive agent.
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Predictors and outcomes of linezolid-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus: a case-case-control study.
Am J Infect Control
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Linezolid is an important agent for the treatment of infections because of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). This study identified independent predictors for isolation of linezolid-resistant VRE (LZD-R-VRE) and analyzed outcomes associated with linezolid resistance. Immunosuppression, prior surgery, and previous exposure to ?-lactam antibiotics were independent predictors for isolation of LZD-R-VRE but not for LZD-susceptible-VRE. Prior exposure to linezolid was not a predictor for isolation of LZD-R-VRE.
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Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans vulvovaginitis.
Obstet Gynecol
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As a result of high recurrence rates of Candida albicans vaginitis, successful suppressive fluconazole is widely used, and drug resistance is considered rare. We report increased occurrence of secondary fluconazole resistance, analysis of risk factors thereof, and describe management of fluconazole-refractory vaginitis.
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Epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with reduced susceptibility to daptomycin.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
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A retrospective case-case control study was conducted, including 60 cases with daptomycin-nonsusceptible vancomycin-resistant enterococci (DNS-VRE) matched to cases with daptomycin-susceptible VRE and to uninfected controls (1?1?3 ratio). Immunosuppression, presence of comorbid conditions, and prior exposure to antimicrobials were independent predictors of DNS-VRE, although prior daptomycin exposure occurred rarely. In summary, a case-case control study identified independent risk factors for the isolation of DNS-VRE: immunosuppression, multiple comorbid conditions, and prior exposures to cephalosporines and metronidazole.
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Epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis: a case-case-control study.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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Although much is known about vancomycin-resistant (VR) Enterococcus faecium, little is known about the epidemiology of VR Enterococcus faecalis. The predilection of VR E. faecalis to transfer the vancomycin resistance determinant to Staphylococcus aureus is much greater than that of VR E. faecium. The epidemiology of VR E. faecalis has important implications regarding the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA); 8 of 13 reported VRSA cases have been from Michigan. A retrospective case-case-control study was conducted at the Detroit Medical Center, located in southeastern Michigan. Unique patients with VR E. faecalis infection were matched to patients with strains of vancomycin-susceptible (VS) E. faecalis and to uninfected controls at a 1:1:1 ratio. Five hundred thirty-two VR E. faecalis cases were identified and were matched to 532 VS E. faecalis cases and 532 uninfected controls. The overall mean age of the study cohort (n = 1,596) was 63.0 ± 17.4 years, and 747 (46.8%) individuals were male. Independent predictors for the isolation of VR E. faecalis (but not VS E. faecalis) compared to uninfected controls were an age of ?65 years, nonhome residence, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, exposure to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones in the prior 3 months, and immunosuppressive status. Invasive procedures and/or surgery, chronic skin ulcers, and indwelling devices were risk factors for both VR E. faecalis and VS E. faecalis isolation. Cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone exposures were unique, independent predictors for isolation of VR E. faecalis. A majority of case patients had VR E. faecalis present at the time of admission. Control of VR E. faecalis, and ultimately VRSA, will likely require regional efforts focusing on infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship.
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The carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae score: a bedside score to rule out infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among hospitalized patients.
Am J Infect Control
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Patients infected with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae often experience delays in initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and increased mortality. A score was developed to differentiate bloodstream infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (16 patients) versus extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (166 patients). A score of ? 32 demonstrated high area under the curve of 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.92) and a negative predictive value of 97%.
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Growing prevalence of Providencia stuartii associated with the increased usage of colistin at a tertiary health care center.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
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From 2005 to 2009, at Detroit Medical Center, the prevalence of Providencia stuartii increased from 0.52 to 0.91/1000 patient-days (p<0.001). The use of colistin also increased (p<0.001) during the study period. The increase in the prevalence of P. stuartii was associated with an increased use of colistin (p<0.001). Facilities that frequently use colistin and tigecycline should closely monitor the prevalence of P. stuartii along with other Proteeae, since these organisms are intrinsically resistant to colistin and tigecycline.
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Recent exposure to antimicrobials and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: the role of antimicrobial stewardship.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
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Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are rapidly emerging worldwide. Control group selection is critically important when analyzing predictors of antimicrobial resistance. Focusing on modifiable risk factors can optimize prevention and resource expenditures. To identify specific predictors of CRE, patients with CRE were compared with 3 control groups: (1) patients with extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, (2) patients with non-ESBL-containing Enterobacteriaceae, and (3) uninfected controls.
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Impact of cefepime therapy on mortality among patients with bloodstream infections caused by extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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Extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens are associated with extensive morbidity and mortality and rising health care costs. Scant data exist on the impact of antimicrobial therapy on clinical outcomes in patients with ESBL bloodstream infections (BSI), and no large studies have examined the impact of cefepime therapy. A retrospective 3-year study was performed at the Detroit Medical Center on adult patients with BSI due to ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae or Escherichia coli. Data were collected from the medical records of study patients at five hospitals between January 2005 and December 2007. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. One hundred forty-five patients with BSI due to ESBL-producing pathogens, including K. pneumoniae (83%) and E. coli (16.5%), were studied. The mean age of the patients was 66 years. Fifty-one percent of the patients were female, and 79.3% were African-American. Fifty-three patients (37%) died in the hospital, and 92 survived to discharge. In bivariate analysis, the variables associated with mortality (P < 0.05) were presence of a rapidly fatal condition at the time of admission, use of gentamicin as a consolidative therapeutic agent, and presence of one or more of the following prior to culture date: mechanical ventilation, stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), and presence of a central venous catheter. In multivariate analysis, the predictors of in-hospital mortality included stay in the intensive care unit (odds ratio [OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 4.78), presence of a central-line catheter prior to positive culture (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 0.77 to 7.03), presence of a rapidly fatal condition at the time of admission (OR, 5.13; 95% CI, 2.13 to 12.39), and recent prior hospitalization (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 4.09). When carbapenems were added as empirical therapy to the predictor model, there was a trend between empirical carbapenem therapy and decreased mortality (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.26 to 1.50). When added to the model, receipt of empirical cefepime alone (n = 43) was associated with increased mortality, although this association did not reach statistical significance (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.71 to 3.87). The median length of hospital stay was shorter for patients receiving empirical cefepime than for those receiving empirical or consolidated carbapenem therapy. In multivariate analysis, empirical therapy with cefepime for BSI due to an ESBL-producing pathogen was associated with a trend toward an increased mortality risk and empirical carbapenem therapy was associated with a trend toward decreased mortality risk.
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Retrospective evaluation of colistin versus tigecycline for the treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii and/or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections.
Am J Infect Control
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Therapeutic options are limited for infections because of Acinetobacter baumannii and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Study aim was to compare the efficacy of colistin to tigecycline for the treatment of these types of infections.
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Comparison of the clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium bacteremia.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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In published studies, cohorts of patients with bacteremia due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) have predominantly been infected with Enterococcus faecium. Little is known about the epidemiology and outcomes associated with bacteremia due to VR Enterococcus faecalis. A retrospective study of isolates obtained from January 2008 to October 2010 was conducted at Detroit Medical Center (DMC). Unique patients with blood cultures positive for VRE were reviewed. Outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression. During the study period, 105 cases of bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis and 197 cases of bacteremia due to VR E. faecium were identified. The mean age in the study cohort was 61.5 ± 15 years; 162 subjects (53.6%) were male. After controlling for a propensity score, bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis was associated with >2-fold-lower in-hospital mortality than bacteremia due to VR E. faecium. Interestingly, bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis was associated with longer hospital stay after VRE isolation, although total length of stay was similar for groups with VR E. faecalis and VR E. faecium. Bacteremia due to VR E. faecalis was associated with a >2-fold-lower risk for mortality than bacteremia due to VR E. faecium, possibly due to the availability of ?-lactam therapeutics for treatment of VR E. faecalis.
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Epidemiology and outcomes associated with surgical site infection following bariatric surgery.
Am J Infect Control
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Surgical site infection (SSI) is a frequent problem complicating bariatric surgery. However, the potential risk factors, risk stratification, and outcomes of SSIs in this patient population remain poorly defined. The aim of this prospective case-control study was to characterize better the risk factors and to improve risk stratification for SSIs following bariatric surgery.
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"Swimming in resistance": Co-colonization with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Am J Infect Control
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Co-colonization of patients with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is reported to be associated with increased antibiotic resistance and mortality.
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Efficacy of ertapenem for treatment of bloodstream infections caused by extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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Ertapenem is active against extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae organisms but inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Due to a lack of therapeutic data for ertapenem in the treatment of ESBL bloodstream infections (BSIs), group 2 carbapenems (e.g., imipenem or meropenem) are often preferred for treatment of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, although their antipseudomonal activity is unnecessary. From 2005 to 2010, 261 patients with ESBL BSIs were analyzed. Outcomes were equivalent between patients treated with ertapenem and those treated with group 2 carbapenems (mortality rates of 6% and 18%, respectively; P = 0.18).
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The burden of multidrug-resistant organisms on tertiary hospitals posed by patients with recent stays in long-term acute care facilities.
Am J Infect Control
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Long-term acute care (LTAC) facilities admit patients with complex, advanced disease states. Study aims were to determine the burden posed on hospitals associated with LTAC exposure and analyze the differences between "present on admission" (POA) multidrug-resistant (MDR), gram-negative organisms (GNO) and POA MDR gram-positive organisms (GPO).
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Group B Streptococcus infections in non-pregnant adults: the role of immunosuppression.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
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Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a known causative pathogen of neonatal sepsis, but the epidemiology in non-pregnant adults is less studied.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.