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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Development and Characterization of Pepducins as Gs-biased Allosteric Agonists.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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The ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR) is a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates many hormonal responses including cardiovascular and pulmonary function. ?-agonists used to combat hypercontractility in airway smooth muscle stimulate ?2AR-dependent cAMP production that ultimately promotes airway relaxation. Chronic stimulation of the ?2AR by long acting ?-agonists used in the treatment of asthma can promote attenuated responsiveness to agonist and an increased frequency of fatal asthmatic attacks. ?2AR desensitization to ?-agonists is primarily mediated by GPCR kinases (GRKs) and ?-arrestins that attenuate receptor-Gs coupling and promote ?2AR internalization and degradation. A biased agonist that can selectively stimulate Gs signaling without promoting receptor interaction with GRKs and ?-arrestins should serve as an advantageous asthma therapeutic. To identify such molecules, we screened ~50 lipidated peptides derived from the intracellular loops of the ?2AR, known as pepducins. This screen revealed two classes of Gs-biased pepducins, receptor-independent and receptor-dependent, as well as several ?-arrestin-biased pepducins. The receptor-independent Gs-biased pepducins operate by directly stimulating G protein activation. In contrast, receptor-dependent Gs-biased pepducins appear to stabilize a Gs-biased conformation of the ?2AR that couples to Gs but does not undergo GRK-mediated phosphorylation or ?-arrestin-mediated internalization. Functional studies in primary human airway smooth muscle cells demonstrate that Gs-biased pepducins are not subject to conventional desensitization and, thus, may be good candidates for the development of next generation asthma therapeutics. Our study reports the first Gs-biased activator for the ?2AR and provides valuable tools for the study of ?2AR function.
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Maternal effects and population regulation: maternal density-induced reproduction suppression impairs offspring capacity in response to immediate environment in root voles Microtus oeconomus.
J Anim Ecol
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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The hypothesis that maternal effects act as an adaptive bridge in translating maternal environments into offspring phenotypes, and thereby affecting population dynamics has not been studied in the well-controlled fields. In this study, the effects of maternal population density on offspring stress axis, reproduction and population dynamics were studied in root voles (Microtus oeconomus). Parental enclosures for breeding offspring were established by introducing six adults per sex into each of 4 (low density) and 30 adults per sex into each of another 4 (high density) enclosures. Live-trapping started 2 weeks after. Offspring captured at age of 10-20 days were removed to laboratory, housed under laboratory conditions until puberty, and subsequently used to establish offspring populations in these same enclosures, after parental populations had been removed. Offspring from each of the two parental sources were assigned into four enclosures with two for each of the two density treatments used in establishing parental populations (referred to as LL and LH for maternally unstressed offspring, assigned in low and highdensity, and HL and HH for maternally stressed offspring, assigned in low and high density). Faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) levels, offspring reproduction traits and population dynamics were tested following repeated live-trapping over two seasons. Differential fluctuations in population size were observed between maternally density-stressed and density-unstressed offspring. Populations in LL and LH groups changed significantly in responding to initial density and reached the similar levels at beginning of the second trapping season. Populations in HL and HH groups, however, were remained relatively steady, and in HL group, the low population size was sustained until end of experiment. Maternal density stress was associated with FCM elevations, reproduction suppression and body mass decrease at sexual maturity in offspring. The FCM elevations and reproduction suppression were independent of offspring population density and correlated with decreased offspring quality. These findings indicate that intrinsic state alterations induced by maternal stress impair offspring capacity in response to immediate environment, and these alterations are likely mediated by maternal stress system. The maladaptive reproduction suppression seen in HL group suggests intrinsic population density as one of ecological factors generating delayed density-dependent effects.
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Applying differentially expressed genes from rodent models of chronic stress to research of stress-related disease: an online database.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To systematically collect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from rodent models of chronic stress (CS) and apply them to research of stress-related disease. CS is an important environmental factor that may affect numerous complex diseases. Its relevant DEGs identified from rodent models provide valuable information for understanding the mechanisms underlying stress-related diseases. Currently, no suitable data tool have been developed to use such data.
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Mutation of murine Sox4 untranslated regions results in partially penetrant perinatal lethality.
In Vivo
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Sox4 is an essential gene, and genetic deletion results in embryonic lethality. In an effort to develop mice with tissue-specific deletion, we bred conditional knockout mice bearing LoxP recombination sites flanking the Sox4 gene, with the LoxP sites located in the Sox4 5'UTR and 3'UTR.
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Brain-targeted delivery of trans-activating transcriptor-conjugated magnetic PLGA/lipid nanoparticles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Magnetic poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/lipid nanoparticles (MPLs) were fabricated from PLGA, L-?-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-amino (polyethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG-NH2), and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), and then conjugated to trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) peptide. The TAT-MPLs were designed to target the brain by magnetic guidance and TAT conjugation. The drugs hesperidin (HES), naringin (NAR), and glutathione (GSH) were encapsulated in MPLs with drug loading capacity (>10%) and drug encapsulation efficiency (>90%). The therapeutic efficacy of the drug-loaded TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was compared with that of drug-loaded MPLs. The cells accumulated higher levels of TAT-MPLs than MPLs. In addition, the accumulation of QD-loaded fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was dose and time dependent. Our results show that TAT-conjugated MPLs may function as an effective drug delivery system that crosses the blood brain barrier to the brain.
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Molecular epidemiology of reemergent rabies in Yunnan Province, southwestern China.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008-2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China.
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Mitochondrial complex I activity suppresses inflammation and enhances bone resorption by shifting macrophage-osteoclast polarization.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency is associated with multiple neurological and metabolic disorders. However, its effect on innate immunity and bone remodeling is unclear. Using deletion of the essential CI subunit Ndufs4 as a model for mitochondrial dysfunction, we report that mitochondria suppress macrophage activation and inflammation while promoting osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption via both cell-autonomous and systemic regulation. Global Ndufs4 deletion causes systemic inflammation and osteopetrosis. Hematopoietic Ndufs4 deletion causes an intrinsic lineage shift from osteoclast to macrophage. Liver Ndufs4 deletion causes a metabolic shift from fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis, accumulating fatty acids and lactate (FA/LAC) in the circulation. FA/LAC further activates Ndufs4(-/-) macrophages via reactive oxygen species induction and diminishes osteoclast lineage commitment in Ndufs4(-/-) progenitors; both inflammation and osteopetrosis in Ndufs4(-/-) mice are attenuated by TLR4/2 deletion. Together, these findings reveal mitochondrial CI as a critical rheostat of innate immunity and skeletal homeostasis.
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Analyzing gene function in adult long-term hematopoietic stem cells using the interferon inducible Mx1-Cre mouse system.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into all blood cell lineages. Understanding the genetic networks that regulate LT-HSC function in the adult bone marrow requires inducible gene targeting and bone marrow transplantations. In this chapter we describe the use of the inducible Mx1-Cre mouse model to delete genes in LT-HSCs and methodologies for examining the function of LT-HSCs following deletion.
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DNA origami as an in vivo drug delivery vehicle for cancer therapy.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Many chemotherapeutics used for cancer treatments encounter issues during delivery to tumors in vivo and may have high levels of systemic toxicity due to their nonspecific distribution. Various materials have been explored to fabricate nanoparticles as drug carriers to improve delivery efficiency. However, most of these materials suffer from multiple drawbacks, such as limited biocompatibility and inability to engineer spatially addressable surfaces that can be utilized for multifunctional activity. Here, we demonstrate that DNA origami possessed enhanced tumor passive targeting and long-lasting properties at the tumor region. Particularly, the triangle-shaped DNA origami exhibits optimal tumor passive targeting accumulation. The delivery of the known anticancer drug doxorubicin into tumors by self-assembled DNA origami nanostructures was performed, and this approach showed prominent therapeutic efficacy in vivo. The DNA origami carriers were prepared through the self-assembly of M13mp18 phage DNA and hundreds of complementary DNA helper strands; the doxorubicin was subsequently noncovalently intercalated into these nanostructures. After conducting fluorescence imaging and safety evaluation, the doxorubicin-containing DNA origami exhibited remarkable antitumor efficacy without observable systemic toxicity in nude mice bearing orthotopic breast tumors labeled with green fluorescent protein. Our results demonstrated the potential of DNA origami nanostructures as innovative platforms for the efficient and safe drug delivery of cancer therapeutics in vivo.
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Effect of local chain deformability on the temperature-induced morphological transitions of polystyrene-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) micelles in aqueous solution.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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The effect of temperature on the micellar morphology of two polystyrene-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PS-b-PNIPAM) diblock copolymers in an aqueous solution was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At 25 °C, a mixture of vesicles and spheres are observed for the micelles of PS65-b-PNIPAM108, while PS65-b-PNIPAM360 exhibits mixed cylindrical and spherical micellar morphology. Upon increasing the temperature, the micellar morphology becomes spherical for PS65-b-PNIPAM108 at 60 °C and for PS65-b-PNIPAM360 at 40 °C. Such vesicle-to-sphere and cylinder-to-sphere transitions of micellar morphology are reversible when the micellar solutions are cooled back to 25 °C. However, these temperature-induced morphological transitions of the PS-b-PNIPAM micelles are contrary to the theoretical prediction. Qualitative analysis of the free energy shows that vesicular or cylindrical micelles tend to form at higher temperatures if only the overall volume change of the PNIPAM block is considered. The contradiction between the experimental results and theoretical prediction is interpreted in terms of the local deformability of the PNIPAM chains. At elevated temperatures, the collapsed PNIPAM globules are less deformable and must occupy larger areas at the micellar interface, although the overall volume is smaller at higher temperatures. This will lead to a larger repulsion between the PNIPAM globules and a remarkable increase in the free energy of the corona; thus, the formation of vesicles or cylinders at higher temperatures is prohibited.
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Role of interleukin-6 in regulation of immune responses to remodeling after myocardial infarction.
Heart Fail Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Myocardial remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) is emerging as key causes of chronic infarct mortality. Interleukin-6 is a classic pro-inflammatory cytokine needed to mount an effective immune response. It seems that interleukin-6 acts as an important role in the dynamic and superbly orchestrated process of innate immunity after MI. Interleukin-6 timely suppresses of innate immune signals to prevent the catastrophic consequences of uncontrolled inflammation on cardiac geometry and function, and thus tunes myocardial remodeling. A comprehensive understanding of biological processes of interleukin-6 in innate immunity leading to inflammatory response and disease-related ventricular remodeling is helpful to find the solution of chronic heart failure. To accomplish this, we reviewed the articles of interleukin-6 regard to inflammation, innate immunity, and cardiac remodeling. This review focuses on the role of interleukin-6 that dominates cell-mediated immunity, especially on neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts. In addition, we will also briefly discuss other inflammatory cytokines involved in this process within the paper.
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H?S attenuates cognitive deficits through Akt1/JNK3 signaling pathway in ischemic stroke.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Neuronal damage in the hippocampal formation which is more sensitive to ischemic stimulation and easily injured will cause severe learning and memory impairment. Therefore, inhibiting hippocampal neuron injuries is the main contributor for learning and memory impairment during cerebral ischemia. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a new type of neurotransmitter that regulates the nervous, circulatory and immune systems as well as various adverse factors that can reduce cerebral vascular or brain parenchyma injury. During an ischemic stroke, H2S inhibits hippocampal neuronal damage, reducing learning and memory impairment. However, this molecular mechanism has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we established four-vessel occlusion model in rats with cerebral ischemia. We found that NaHS (28 mmol/kg, intraperitoneally, for 7 days before ischemia), donor of H2S, significantly shortened the distance and time of loading onto the hidden platform in the positioning navigation process, decreased the latency in the space exploration process when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed during ischemic stroke in rats. NaHS also significantly shortened latency and reduced the number of errors in the platform diving experiment. The survival rate of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and the phosphorylation of Akt in the neurons were increased, the phosphorylation ASK1 and JNK3 were inhibited by NaHS. After an intracerebroventricular injection of LY294002 (inhibitor of PI3K/Akt, 10 ?L, 100 nmol in 25% DMSO in PBS), the above effects of NaHS were attenuated. These findings suggest that H2S may improve the survival rate of hippocampal neurons and reduce the impairment of learning and memory by increasing the phosphorylation of Akt, inhibiting the phosphorylation of ASK1 and JNK3 in rats with induced ischemic stroke.
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biomvRhsmm: genomic segmentation with hidden semi-Markov model.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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High-throughput technologies like tiling array and next-generation sequencing (NGS) generate continuous homogeneous segments or signal peaks in the genome that represent transcripts and transcript variants (transcript mapping and quantification), regions of deletion and amplification (copy number variation), or regions characterized by particular common features like chromatin state or DNA methylation ratio (epigenetic modifications). However, the volume and output of data produced by these technologies present challenges in analysis. Here, a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) is implemented and tailored to handle multiple genomic profile, to better facilitate genome annotation by assisting in the detection of transcripts, regulatory regions, and copy number variation by holistic microarray or NGS. With support for various data distributions, instead of limiting itself to one specific application, the proposed hidden semi-Markov model is designed to allow modeling options to accommodate different types of genomic data and to serve as a general segmentation engine. By incorporating genomic positions into the sojourn distribution of HSMM, with optional prior learning using annotation or previous studies, the modeling output is more biologically sensible. The proposed model has been compared with several other state-of-the-art segmentation models through simulation benchmarking, which shows that our efficient implementation achieves comparable or better sensitivity and specificity in genomic segmentation.
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Stimulative effect of ginsenosides Rg5:Rk1 on murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (P.?ginseng), hereafter referred to as P. ginseng, is known to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects both in vitro and in vivo; however, few studies have investigated the effects of ginseng on bone metabolism. We therefore investigated the potential antiosteoporotic properties of ginseng on the growth and differentiation of murine MC3T3-E1 cells. Rg5:Rk1 is a mixture of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides, isolated from fresh P.?ginseng root, via a repetitive steaming and drying process. In this study, we examined the stimulatory effects of Rg5:Rk1 on the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells. Undifferentiated cells were treated with a range of concentrations of Rg5:Rk1 (1-50?µg/mL), and cell viability was measured with the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Treatment with Rg5:Rk1 significantly increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. To investigate the possible mechanisms by which Rg5:Rk1 affects the early differentiation phase of MC3T3-E1 cells, the cells were treated with Rg5:Rk1 for 14-24?days before assessing the levels of multiple osteoblastic markers. The markers examined included alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity type I collagen content (Coll-I), calcium deposition (by Alizarin Red S staining), extracellular mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and the level of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). Rg5:Rk1 treatment also increased the activities of proteins associated with osteoblast growth and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, we found that the Rg5:Rk1 mixture of ginsenosides improved the osteoblastic function of MC3T3-E1 cells by increasing their proliferative capacity. This improvement is due to the action of Rg5:Rk1 on BMP-2, which is mediated by Runx2-dependent pathways.
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Four new coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Plateau zokor, Myospalax baileyi Thomas (Rodentia: Myospalacinae), a subterranean rodent from Haibei area, Qinghai Province, China.
Syst. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Thirty-eight faecal samples from the Plateau zokor, Myospalax baileyi Thomas, collected in the Haibei Area, Qinghai Province, China, were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Seventeen of 38 faecal samples (44.7%) were found to contain coccidian oöcysts representing four new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, and four of 17 (23.5%) infected zokors were concurrently infected with two or three of these eimerian species. The sporulated oöcysts of Eimeria myospalacensis n. sp. are ovoidal, 9.5-17.0 × 8.0-13.0 (mean 13.0 × 10.4) ?m; a polar granule is present, oöcyst residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 4.5-7.5 × 3.0-5.0 (mean 6.3 × 4.2) ?m and have both a Stieda body and residuum. Oöcysts of Eimeria fani n. sp. are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, 12.5-16.0 × 8.0-11.0 (mean 14.6 × 9.9) ?m; a polar granule is present, but micropyle and residuum are lacking; sporocysts are ovoidal, 4.5-7.5 × 3.0-5.3 (mean 6.7 × 4.4) ?m; a residuum and a Steida body are present. Oöcysts of Eimeria baileyii n. sp. are ellipsoidal, 15.0-23.0 × 12.0-18.0 (mean 18.2 × 13.7) ?m; a polar granule is present but oöcyst residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.0-11.0 × 5.0-7.0 (mean 9.5 × 5.9) ?m and have both a Stieda body and residuum. Oöcysts of Eimeria menyuanensis n. sp. are ovoidal, 12.5-21.0 × 11.0-18.0 (mean 17.1 × 14.6) ?m, with a distinct micropyle c.2.5 ?m wide; a polar granule is present but a residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.0-12.0 × 5.0-7.0 (mean 10.2 × 6.4) ?m, and have both a Stieda body and residuum.
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Differential plasma proteome analysis in patients with high-altitude pulmonary edema at the acute and recovery phases.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the differential expression of plasma proteins in patients suffering from high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) at different phases. A complete proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry in three patients with HAPE at the acute stage and recovery phase. Comparisons between the expression patterns of the patients with HAPE at the two different phases led to the identification of eight protein spots with a >1.5-fold difference in expression between the acute and recovery phases. These differentially expressed proteins were apolipoproteins, serum amyloid P component, complement components and others. Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), serum amyloid P component and fibrinogen were overexpressed in the patients with HAPE in the acute stage compared with their expression levels in the recovery phase. However, Apo A-IV and antithrombin-III were overexpressed in the patients with HAPE in the recovery phase compared with their expression levels in the acute stage. The results indicate that the differential plasma proteome in patients with HAPE may be associated with the occurrence of HAPE, and the expression changes of Apo A-I and A-IV may offer further understanding of HAPE to aid its prognosis, diagnosis and treatment.
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The catalytic region and PEST domain of PTPN18 distinctly regulate the HER2 phosphorylation and ubiquitination barcodes.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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The tyrosine phosphorylation barcode encoded in C-terminus of HER2 and its ubiquitination regulate diverse HER2 functions. PTPN18 was reported as a HER2 phosphatase; however, the exact mechanism by which it defines HER2 signaling is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that PTPN18 regulates HER2-mediated cellular functions through defining both its phosphorylation and ubiquitination barcodes. Enzymologic characterization and three crystal structures of PTPN18 in complex with HER2 phospho-peptides revealed the molecular basis for the recognition between PTPN18 and specific HER2 phosphorylation sites, which assumes two distinct conformations. Unique structural properties of PTPN18 contribute to the regulation of sub-cellular phosphorylation networks downstream of HER2, which are required for inhibition of HER2-mediated cell growth and migration. Whereas the catalytic domain of PTPN18 blocks lysosomal routing and delays the degradation of HER2 by dephosphorylation of HER2 on pY(1112), the PEST domain of PTPN18 promotes K48-linked HER2 ubiquitination and its rapid destruction via the proteasome pathway and an HER2 negative feedback loop. In agreement with the negative regulatory role of PTPN18 in HER2 signaling, the HER2/PTPN18 ratio was correlated with breast cancer stage. Taken together, our study presents a structural basis for selective HER2 dephosphorylation, a previously uncharacterized mechanism for HER2 degradation and a novel function for the PTPN18 PEST domain. The new regulatory role of the PEST domain in the ubiquitination pathway will broaden our understanding of the functions of other important PEST domain-containing phosphatases, such as LYP and PTPN12.
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Mangiferin regulates interleukin-6 and cystathionine-b-synthase in lipopolysaccharide-induced brain injury.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Mangiferin has been extensively applied in different fields due to its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the precise mechanism used by mangiferin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the potential mechanism of mangiferin during a LPS-induced brain injury. Brain injury was induced in ICR mice via intraperitoneal LPS injection (5 mg/kg). Open- and closed-field tests were used to detect the behaviors of mice, while immunoblotting was performed to measure the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cystathionine-b-synthase (CBS) in the hippocampus after mangiferin was orally administered (p.o.). Mangiferin relieved LPS-induced sickness 6 and 24 h after LPS injection; in addition, this compound suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 production after 24 h of LPS induction as well as the downregulation of LPS-induced CBS expression after 6 and 24 h of LPS treatment in the hippocampus. Therefore, mangiferin attenuated sickness behavior by regulating the expression of IL-6 and CBS.
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Sarcopenia is a predictor of outcomes in very elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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With the increasing aging population, the number of very elderly patients (age ?80 years) undergoing emergency operations is increasing. Evaluating patient-specific risk factors for postoperative morbidity and mortality in the acute care surgery setting is crucial to improving outcomes. We hypothesize that sarcopenia, a severe depletion of skeletal muscles, is a predictor of morbidity and mortality in very elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery.
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(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and tumor hypoxia: revisit (18)f-fluorodeoxyglucose in oncology application.
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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This study revisited (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake and its relationship to hypoxia in various tumor models.
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Iodine deficiency and excess coexist in china and induce thyroid dysfunction and disease: a cross-sectional study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In spite of the salt iodization, iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) have not been sustainably eliminated in China. There are coastal areas with low iodized salt coverage rates (iodine nutrition is inadequate) and other areas with excessive amounts of iodine in the drinking water.
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Intraoperative imaging-guided cancer surgery: from current fluorescence molecular imaging methods to future multi-modality imaging technology.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cancer is a major threat to human health. Diagnosis and treatment using precision medicine is expected to be an effective method for preventing the initiation and progression of cancer. Although anatomical and functional imaging techniques such as radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role for accurate preoperative diagnostics, for the most part these techniques cannot be applied intraoperatively. Optical molecular imaging is a promising technique that provides a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in tumor margin detection. Furthermore, existing clinical applications have proven that optical molecular imaging is a powerful intraoperative tool for guiding surgeons performing precision procedures, thus enabling radical resection and improved survival rates. However, detection depth limitation exists in optical molecular imaging methods and further breakthroughs from optical to multi-modality intraoperative imaging methods are needed to develop more extensive and comprehensive intraoperative applications. Here, we review the current intraoperative optical molecular imaging technologies, focusing on contrast agents and surgical navigation systems, and then discuss the future prospects of multi-modality imaging technology for intraoperative imaging-guided cancer surgery.
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LIM domain only-2 (LMO2) induces T-cell leukemia by two distinct pathways.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The LMO2 oncogene is deregulated in the majority of human T-cell leukemia cases and in most gene therapy-induced T-cell leukemias. We made transgenic mice with enforced expression of Lmo2 in T-cells by the CD2 promoter/enhancer. These transgenic mice developed highly penetrant T-ALL by two distinct patterns of gene expression: one in which there was concordant activation of Lyl1, Hhex, and Mycn or alternatively, with Notch1 target gene activation. Most strikingly, this gene expression clustering was conserved in human Early T-cell Precursor ALL (ETP-ALL), where LMO2, HHEX, LYL1, and MYCN were most highly expressed. We discovered that HHEX is a direct transcriptional target of LMO2 consistent with its concordant gene expression. Furthermore, conditional inactivation of Hhex in CD2-Lmo2 transgenic mice markedly attenuated T-ALL development, demonstrating that Hhex is a crucial mediator of Lmo2's oncogenic function. The CD2-Lmo2 transgenic mice offer mechanistic insight into concordant oncogene expression and provide a model for the highly treatment-resistant ETP-ALL subtype.
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Comprehensive evaluation of the anti-angiogenic and anti-neoplastic effects of Endostar on liver cancer through optical molecular imaging.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Molecular imaging enables non-invasive monitoring of tumor growth, progression, and drug treatment response, and it has become an important tool to promote biological studies in recent years. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the in vivo anti-angiogenic and anti-neoplastic effects of Endostar on liver cancer based on the optical molecular imaging systems including micro-computer tomography (Micro-CT), bioluminescence molecular imaging (BLI) and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). Firefly luciferase (fLuc) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) dual labeled human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC-LM3-fLuc-GFP cells) were used to establish the subcutaneous and orthotopic liver tumor model. After the tumor cells were implanted 14?18 days, Endostar (5 mg/kg/day) was administered through an intravenous tail vein injection for continuous 14 days. The computer tomography angiography (CTA) and BLI were carried out for the subcutaneous tumor model. FMT was executed for the orthotopic tumor model. The CTA data showed that tumor vessel formation and the peritumoral vasculature of subcutaneous tumor in the Endostar treatment group was significantly inhibited compared to the control group. The BLI data exhibited the obvious tumor inhibition day 8 post-treatment. The FMT detected the tumor suppression effects of Endostar as early as day 4 post-treatment and measured the tumor location. The above data confirmed the effects of Endostar on anti-angiogenesis and tumor suppression on liver cancer. Our system combined CTA, BLI, and FMT to offer more comprehensive information about the effects of Endostar on the suppression of vessel and tumor formation. Optical molecular imaging system enabled the non-invasive and reliable assessment of anti-tumor drug efficacy on liver cancer.
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Expression Characteristics of Proteins of the Insulin-like Growth Factor Axis in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Preexisting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Background: Preexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the prognosis and mortality of patients with some cancers. Insulin like growth factor (IGF) and insulin receptor (IR) signaling axes play important roles in both cancer and diabetes development. We aimed to explore the expression characteristics of proteins in IGF/IR axis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases with preexisting T2DM. Methods: Fifty-five NSCLC patients with preexisting T2DM were retrospectively included and matched by 55 NSCLC without diabetes at a 1:1 ratio. The expression of proteins in IGF/IR axis was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Clinicopathological data were collected to analyze their relationship with the protein expression. Results: Both IGF 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) showed higher expression in the NSCLC with T2DM group, compared with those without T2DM. The high expression of IGF-1R and IRS-2 were found to be negatively associated with lymph node metastases and T staging in the T2DM group, respectively, and IRS-2 expression was also found more in the subgroup whose T2DM duration was more than 4 years. No difference was detected in the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP3, IR and mTOR between groups with or without T2DM. Conclusion: Our study found higher expression of IGF-1R and IRS-2 proteins in NSCLC patients with preexisting T2DM, and that there was an association with early stage NSCLC, which suggested that IGF signaling may play an important early event in development of NSCLC associated with diabetes.
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rSNPBase: a database for curated regulatory SNPs.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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In recent years, human regulatory SNPs (rSNPs) have been widely studied. Here, we present database rSNPBase, freely available at http://rsnp.psych.ac.cn/, to provide curated rSNPs that analyses the regulatory features of all SNPs in the human genome with reference to experimentally supported regulatory elements. In contrast with previous SNP functional annotation databases, rSNPBase is characterized by several unique features. (i) To improve reliability, all SNPs in rSNPBase are annotated with reference to experimentally supported regulatory elements. (ii) rSNPBase focuses on rSNPs involved in a wide range of regulation types, including proximal and distal transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation, and identifies their potentially regulated genes. (iii) Linkage disequilibrium (LD) correlations between SNPs were analysed so that the regulatory feature is annotated to SNP-set rather than a single SNP. (iv) rSNPBase provides the spatio-temporal labels and experimental eQTL labels for SNPs. In summary, rSNPBase provides more reliable, comprehensive and user-friendly regulatory annotations on rSNPs and will assist researchers in selecting candidate SNPs for further genetic studies and in exploring causal SNPs for in-depth molecular mechanisms of complex phenotypes.
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Ginseng saponins and the treatment of osteoporosis: mini literature review.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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The ginseng plant (Panax ginseng Meyer) has a large number of active ingredients including steroidal saponins with a dammarane skeleton as well as protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol, commonly known as ginsenosides, which have antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-adipocyte, and sexual enhancing effects. Though several discoveries have demonstrated that ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) as the most important therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis, yet the molecular mechanism of its active metabolites is unknown. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the therapeutic properties of ginsenosides both in vivo and in vitro, with an emphasis on the different molecular agents comprising receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B, and matrix metallopeptidase-9, as well as the bone morphogenetic protein-2 and Smad signaling pathways.
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Associations between XRCC1 Arg399Gln, Arg194Trp, and Arg280His polymorphisms and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Associations between Arg399Gln, Arg194Trp and Arg280His polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) have been widely studied but the findings are contradictory.
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Correlated mRNAs and miRNAs from co-expression and regulatory networks affect porcine muscle and finally meat properties.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Physiological processes aiding the conversion of muscle to meat involve many genes associated with muscle structure and metabolic processes. MicroRNAs regulate networks of genes to orchestrate cellular functions, in turn regulating phenotypes.
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A genome-wide association study in Han Chinese identifies a susceptibility locus for primary Sjögrens syndrome at 7q11.23.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Primary Sjögrens syndrome is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. So far, genetic studies of Sjögrens syndrome have relied mostly on candidate gene approaches. To identify new genetic susceptibility loci for primary Sjögrens syndrome, we performed a three-stage genome-wide association study in Han Chinese. In the discovery stage, we analyzed 556,134 autosomal SNPs in 542 cases and 1,050 controls. We then validated promising associations in 2 replication stages comprising 1,303 cases and 2,727 controls. The combined analysis identified GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs117026326: Pcombined = 1.31 × 10(-53), combined odds ratio (ORcombined) = 2.20) as a new susceptibility locus for primary Sjögrens syndrome. Our analysis also confirmed previously reported associations in Europeans in the regions of STAT4, TNFAIP3 and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Fine mapping of the region around GTF2I showed that rs117026326 in GTF2I had the most significant association, with associated SNPs extending from GTF2I to GTF2IRD1-GTF2I.
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Somatic SETBP1 mutations in myeloid malignancies.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Here we report whole-exome sequencing of individuals with various myeloid malignancies and identify recurrent somatic mutations in SETBP1, consistent with a recent report on atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Closely positioned somatic SETBP1 mutations encoding changes in Asp868, Ser869, Gly870, Ile871 and Asp880, which match germline mutations in Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS), were detected in 17% of secondary acute myeloid leukemias (sAML) and 15% of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) cases. These results from deep sequencing demonstrate a higher mutational detection rate than reported with conventional sequencing methodology. Mutant cases were associated with advanced age and monosomy 7/deletion 7q (-7/del(7q)) constituting poor prognostic factors. Analysis of serially collected samples indicated that SETBP1 mutations were acquired during leukemic evolution. Transduction with mutant Setbp1 led to the immortalization of mouse myeloid progenitors that showed enhanced proliferative capacity compared to cells transduced with wild-type Setbp1. Somatic mutations of SETBP1 seem to cause gain of function, are associated with myeloid leukemic transformation and convey poor prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and CMML.
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Endothelial PAS domain protein 1 Chr2:46441523(hg18) polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema in Han Chinese.
Wilderness Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1) gene are associated with the susceptibility to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) in Han Chinese.
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Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 as an indicator of liver metastasis in colorectal carcinoma cases.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The liver is the organ to which colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) most commonly metastasize, and surgical resection has been established as the most effective and potentially curative treatment for CRC with liver metastasis (LM). Therefore, surveillance of LM is vital for improvement of prognosis of CRC patients. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential value of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and marker enzymes in indicating LM with CRC.
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BDgene: a genetic database for bipolar disorder and its overlap with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric disorder with complex genetic architecture. It shares overlapping genetic influences with schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Large numbers of genetic studies of BD and cross-disorder studies between BD and SZ/MDD have accumulated numerous genetic data. There is a growing need to integrate the data to provide a comprehensive data set to facilitate the genetic study of BD and its highly relevant diseases.
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Compensation of laser frequency tuning nonlinearity of a long range OFDR using deskew filter.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We present a simple and effective method to compensate the optical frequency tuning nonlinearity of a tunable laser source (TLS) in a long range optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) by using the deskew filter, where a frequency tuning nonlinear phase obtained from an auxiliary interferometer is used to compensate the nonlinearity effect on the beating signals generated from a main OFDR interferometer. The method can be applied to the entire spatial domain of the OFDR signals at once with a high computational efficiency. With our proposed method we experimentally demonstrated a factor of 93 times improvement in spatial resolution by comparing the results of an OFDR system with and without nonlinearity compensation. In particular we achieved a measurement range of 80 km and a spatial resolution of 20 cm and 1.6 m at distances of 10 km and 80 km, respectively with a short signal processing time of less than 1 s for 5 × 10(6) data points. The improved performance of the OFDR with a high spatial resolution, a long measurement range and a short process time will lead to practical applications in the real-time monitoring, test and measurement of fiber optical communication networks and sensing systems.
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Note: reducing polarization induced sidebands in Rayleigh backscattering spectra for accurate distributed strain measurement using optical frequency-domain reflectometry.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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We describe a phenomenon called polarization-induced sidebands (PIS) in Rayleigh backscatter spectra (RBS) and discuss its deteriorating effects on the distributed strain measurement using an optical frequency-domain reflectometry. We propose using a special polarization diversity detection scheme to remove PIS and successfully demonstrate accurate distributed strain measurement in the range of 0.75 ??-225 ?? in a 50 m standard single mode fiber, with a good linearity between the strain and the spectra shift in RBS.
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Hybrid gold-gadolinium nanoclusters for tumor-targeted NIRF/CT/MRI triple-modal imaging in vivo.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Multimodal imaging is highly desirable for accurate diagnosis because it can provide complementary information from each imaging modality. In this study, we prepared hybrid gold-gadolinium nanoclusters (NCs), which are ultrasmall, stable, biocompatible, and suitable for triple-modal NIRF/CT/MRI imaging. Upon intravenously injected, the hybrid NCs are effectively accumulated in tumor tissues and quickly clear by renal excretion, indicating their capacity of tumor targeting and low body residues. Notably, the ultrasmall hybrid NCs would penetrate into the solid tumor for capturing its heterostructure and do not induce potential toxicity in vivo. Hence, the well-defined hybrid gold-gadolinium NCs provide a versatile nanoprobe for cancer targeted imaging and diagnosis in vivo.
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The upregulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in liver is involved in acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the important reasons for failure in 5-FU-based chemotherapy. The upregulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) in tumours was reported as an important factor for acquired 5-FU resistance. The aim of this study is to examine whether intra-hepatic DPD was involved in acquired 5-FU resistance.
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Dispec: a novel peptide scoring algorithm based on peptide matching discriminability.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Identifying peptides from the fragmentation spectra is a fundamental step in mass spectrometry (MS) data processing. The significance (discriminability) of every peak varies, providing additional information for potentially enhancing the identification sensitivity and the correct match rate. However this important information was not considered in previous algorithms. Here we presented a novel method based on Peptide Matching Discriminability (PMD), in which the PMD information of every peak reflects the discriminability of candidate peptides. In addition, we developed a novel peptide scoring algorithm Dispec based on PMD, by taking three aspects of discriminability into consideration: PMD, intensity discriminability and m/z error discriminability. Compared with Mascot and Sequest, Dispec identified remarkably more peptides from three experimental datasets with the same confidence at 1% PSM-level FDR. Dispec is also robust and versatile for various datasets obtained on different instruments. The concept of discriminability enhances the peptide identification and thus may contribute largely to the proteome studies. As an open-source program, Dispec is freely available at http://bioinformatics.jnu.edu.cn/software/dispec/.
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Classification and characterization of putative cytochrome P450 genes from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.
Biochemistry Mosc.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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In plants heme containing cytochrome P450 (P450) is a superfamily of monooxygenases that catalyze the addition of one oxygen atom from O2 into a substrate, with a substantial reduction of the other atom to water. The function of P450 families is attributed to chemical defense mechanism under terrestrial environmental conditions; several are involved in secondary and hormone metabolism. However, the evolutionary relationships of P450 genes in Panax ginseng remain largely unknown. In the present study, data mining methods were implemented and 116 novel putative P450 genes were identified from Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) of a ginseng database. These genes were classified into four clans and 22 families by sequence similarity conducted at amino acid level. The representative putative P450 sequences of P. ginseng and known P450 family from other plants were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. By comparing with other genomes, we found that most of the P450 genes from P. ginseng can be found in other dicot species. Depending on P450 family functions, seven P450 genes were selected, and for that organ specific expression, abiotic, and biotic studies were performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Different genes were found to be expressed differently in different organs. Biotic stress and abiotic stress transcript level was regulated diversely, and upregulation of P450 genes indicated the involvement of certain genes under stress conditions. The upregulation of the P450 genes under methyl jasmonate and fungal stress justifies the involvement of specific genes in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Our results provide a foundation for further elucidating the actual function and role of P450 involved in various biochemical pathways in P. ginseng.
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[Molecular characteristics of the full-length genomes of Japanese encephalitis virus strains newly isolated in 2009, China].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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To conduct sequencing of full-length genomes of two Japanese encephalitis virus strains (JEV) newly isolated in 2009 in China and analyze the characteristics of complete nucleotide sequences. The complete genomic sequences were obtained by RT-PCR and sequencing directly. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the nucleic acid data, deduced amino acid sequence and phylogenetic trees. The result of sequence analysis showed that the genomes of YN0911 and YN0967 strains were both 10965nt in length, which coded 3432 amino acid polyprotein. The homology of genome ranged from 83.3% to 98.9% in nt and from 94.8% to 99.7% in aa, respectively, when compared with selected JEV strains in GenBank. There were 13 amino acid divergences which were not the key virulence sites in E protein when compared with vaccine strain SA14-14-2. There were 11nt deletions in the 3 UTR region. Phylogenetic analyses based on C/ PrM, E gene and full-length genome all showed that YN0911 and YN0967 strains belonged to genotype I. The result also showed that two new JEVs had close phylogenetic relationship with the strains from Viet Nam, Sichuan Province, Guizhou Province, Guangxi Province, China. This study indicated that JEV strains newly isolated in 2009 in China were the members of JEV genotype I. The key virulence sites in E protein did not change.
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Flavobacterium ginsengiterrae sp. nov., isolated from a ginseng field.
J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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A novel strain of Flavobacterium, DCY55(T), a Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming and gliding-motile bacterium, was isolated from the soil of a ginseng field in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA sequence, demonstrated that strain DCY55(T) belongs to the genus Flavobacterium within the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain DCY55(T) showed the highest similarity with F. johnsoniae UW101(T) (97.1%), F. ginsenosidimutans THG 01(T) (96.8%), F. defluvii EMB 117(T) (96.6%), F. banpakuense 15F3(T) (96.3%) and F. anhuiense D3(T) (95.8%). Chemotaxonomic results showed that strain DCY55(T) predominantly contains menaquinone MK-6, that its DNA G+C content is 36.1mol%, and that its major cellular fatty acids are iso-C(15:0), summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1) ? 7c) and C(16:0). The chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics support the taxonomic classification of strain DCY55(T) to the genus Flavobacterium. The results of physiological and biochemical tests confirmed that strain DCY55(T) is distinct from previously validated species. We conclude that strain DCY55(T) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium ginsengiterrae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DCY55(T) (=KCTC 23319(T) = JCM 17337(T)).
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Non-absorption grating approach for X-ray phase contrast imaging.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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We demonstrate a non-absorption grating approach for X-ray phase contrast imaging based-on grating interferometry. This technique overcomes the limitations imposed by absorption gratings, provides another choice for X-ray phase contrast imaging and potentially improves the image quality for higher X-ray photon energies. We constructed the key devices, established the system and obtained phase contrast images with a field of view larger than 5 centimeters, which is the limitation imposed by the size of our current CCD detector. This method has no need for absorption gratings, which represents a significant development for future promising applications in medicine and industry.
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ADHDgene: a genetic database for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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With a worldwide prevalence of ~5%, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become one of the most common psychiatric disorders. The polygenetic nature of ADHD indicates that multiple genes jointly contribute to the development of this complex disease. Studies aiming to explore genetic susceptibility of ADHD have been increasing in recent years. There is a growing need to integrate the genetic data from various genetic studies to provide a comprehensive data set and uniform access for convenience of in-depth data mining. So far, there has been no such effort for ADHD. To address the genetic complexity of ADHD, we developed the ADHDgene database by integrating ADHD-related genetic factors by profound literature reading. Based on the data from the literature, extended functional analysis, including linkage disequilibrium analysis, pathway-based analysis and gene mapping were performed to provide new insights into genetic causes of ADHD. Moreover, powerful search tools and a graphical browser were developed to facilitate the navigation of the data and data connections. As the first genetic database for ADHD, ADHDgene aims to provide researchers with a central genetic resource and analysis platform for ADHD and is freely available at http://adhd.psych.ac.cn/.
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Osteoclast progenitors reside in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-expressing bone marrow cell population.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells essential for skeletal development, homeostasis, and regeneration. They derive from hematopoietic progenitors in the monocyte/macrophage lineage and differentiate in response to RANKL. However, the precise nature of osteoclast progenitors is a longstanding and important question. Using inducible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?)-tTA TRE-GFP (green fluorescent protein) reporter mice, we show that osteoclast progenitors reside specifically in the PPAR?-expressing hematopoietic bone marrow population and identify the quiescent PPAR?(+) cells as osteoclast progenitors. Importantly, two PPAR?-tTA TRE-Cre-controlled genetic models provide compelling functional evidence. First, Notch activation in PPAR?(+) cells causes high bone mass due to impaired osteoclast precursor proliferation. Second, selective ablation of PPAR?(+) cells by diphtheria toxin also causes high bone mass due to decreased osteoclast numbers. Furthermore, PPAR?(+) cells respond to both pathological and pharmacological resorption-enhancing stimuli. Mechanistically, PPAR? promotes osteoclast progenitors by activating GATA2 transcription. These findings not only identify the long-sought-after osteoclast progenitors but also establish unprecedented tools for their visualization, isolation, characterization, and genetic manipulation.
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Molecular docking studies of anti-apoptotic BCL-2, BCL-XL, and MCL-1 proteins with ginsenosides from Panax ginseng.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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Anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1 bind with pro-apoptotic proteins to induce apoptosis mechanism. BCL-2 family proteins are key regulators of apoptosis process. Over expression of these anti-apoptotic proteins lead to several cancers by preventing apoptosis. A number of studies revealed that ginseng derivatives reduce tumor growth. Ginseng, the most valuable medicinal herb found in eastern Asia belongs to Araliaceae family. In this study, docking simulations were performed for anti-apoptotic proteins with several ginsenosides from Panax ginseng. Our finding shows ginsenosides Rf, Rg1, Rg3 and Rh2 have more binding affinity with BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1 and other ginsenosides also interact with each anti-apoptotic proteins. Therefore, ginseng derivatives represent a novel class of potent inhibitors and could be used for cancer chemotherapy.
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Sox4 cooperates with PU.1 haploinsufficiency in murine myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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Cooperation of multiple mutations is thought to be required for cancer development. In previous studies, murine myeloid leukemias induced by transducing wild-type bone marrow progenitors with a SRY sex determining region Y-box 4 (Sox4)-expressing retrovirus frequently carried proviral insertions at Sfpi1, decreasing its mRNA levels, suggesting that reduced Sfpi1 expression cooperates with Sox4 in myeloid leukemia induction. In support of this hypothesis, we show here that mice receiving Sox4 virus-infected Sfpi1(ko/+) bone marrow progenitors developed myeloid leukemia with increased penetrance and shortened latency. Interestingly, Sox4 expression further decreased Sfpi1 transcription. Ectopic SOX4 expression reduced endogenous PU.1 mRNA levels in HL60 promyelocytes, and decreased Sfpi1 mRNA levels were also observed in the spleens of leukemic and preleukemic mice receiving Sox4 virus-infected wild-type bone marrow cells. In addition, Sox4 protein bound to a critical upstream regulatory element of Sfpi1 in ChIP assays. Such cooperation probably occurs in de novo human acute myeloid leukemias, as an analysis of 285 acute myeloid leukemia patient samples found a significant negative correlation between SOX4 and PU.1 expression. Our results establish a novel cooperation between Sox4 and reduced Sfpi1 expression in myeloid leukemia development and suggest that SOX4 could be an important new therapeutic target in human acute myeloid leukemia.
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Biphasic and dosage-dependent regulation of osteoclastogenesis by ?-catenin.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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Wnt/?-catenin signaling is a critical regulator of skeletal physiology. However, previous studies have mainly focused on its roles in osteoblasts, while its specific function in osteoclasts is unknown. This is a clinically important question because neutralizing antibodies against Wnt antagonists are promising new drugs for bone diseases. Here, we show that in osteoclastogenesis, ?-catenin is induced during the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-mediated quiescence-to-proliferation switch but suppressed during the RANKL-mediated proliferation-to-differentiation switch. Genetically, ?-catenin deletion blocks osteoclast precursor proliferation, while ?-catenin constitutive activation sustains proliferation but prevents osteoclast differentiation, both causing osteopetrosis. In contrast, ?-catenin heterozygosity enhances osteoclast differentiation, causing osteoporosis. Biochemically, Wnt activation attenuates whereas Wnt inhibition stimulates osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, ?-catenin activation increases GATA2/Evi1 expression but abolishes RANKL-induced c-Jun phosphorylation. Therefore, ?-catenin exerts a pivotal biphasic and dosage-dependent regulation of osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, these findings suggest that Wnt activation is a more effective treatment for skeletal fragility than previously recognized that confers dual anabolic and anti-catabolic benefits.
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[Research on the aetiology of suspected enterovirus infected patients in Xuzhou district in 2009].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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To understand and master the situation in which enterovirus caused hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in Xuzhou district in 2009 so as to provide scientific basis for the control and prevention of hand-foot-and-mouth disease.
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Simultaneous determination of three polyphenols in rat plasma after orally administering hawthorn leaves extract by the HPLC method.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed to simultaneously determine three active compounds, vitexin-4?-O-glucoside (VG), vitexin-2?-O-rhamnoside (VR) and hyperoside (HP), in rat plasma after administering the hawthorn leaves extract (HLE). An HPLC assay with baicalin as the internal standard was carried out using a Phenomsil C?? analytical column with UV detection at 332?nm. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-1% glacial acetic acid (6?:?1.5?:?18.5?:?74, v/v/v/v). The calibration curves were linear over the range of 2.5-500, 0.2-25 and 0.25-12.5?µg?mL?¹ for VG, VR and HP, respectively. The method was reproducible and reliable, with relative standard deviations of the intra- and inter-day precision between 1.2% and 13.2% for the analysis of the three analytes. The validated HPLC method herein described was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of VG, VR and HP after oral administration of HLE to rats over the dose range of 2.5-10 ?mL?kg?¹.
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Removal of Cd2+ from contaminated water by nano-sized aragonite mollusk shell and the competition of coexisting metal ions.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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The potential of using nano-sized aragonite mollusk shell (nano-Bio-ARA) to remove Cd(2+) from contaminated water was investigated by comparing the sorption kinetics and isotherms with the nano-sized calcite-type mollusk shell (nano-Bio-CAL) and nano-sized geological calcite (nano-Geo-CAL). Nano-Bio-ARA displayed extremely high sorption capacity to Cd(2+) (8.91mmol/g), much higher than nano-Bio/Geo-CAL, and many other natural or engineered materials. The results of thermodynamic experiments indicated that the sorption of Cd(2+) on the nano-ARA was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The coexisting metals in the solution displayed competition effect to the sorption of Cd(2+) on nano-Bio-ARA in the following order: Cu(2+)>Cr(3+)>Pb(2+)>Zn(2+)>Ca(2+). EDTA impeded the sorption of Cd(2+) on nano-Bio-ARA due to its strong chelating capacity to Cd(2+) in the solution. The results demonstrate that nano-Bio-ARA is a potential high-effective material to treat Cd(2+) contaminated water.
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Development of a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system for simultaneous authentication of Korean ginseng cultivars "Gumpoong" and "Chungsun".
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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BACKGROUND AND AIMS. Molecular authentication of Korean ginseng cultivars was investigated using the mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 7 (nad7) intron 3 region. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A mutation site specific to Panax ginseng "Gumpoong" and "Chungsun" cultivars was detected within the sequence data. Based on this mutation site and the "Gumpoong"-specific single nucleotide polymorphism site reported in 26S rDNA, two modified allele-specific primer pairs were designed and a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (MARMS) was applied to identify "Gumpoong" and "Chungsun." RESULTS. The results showed that "Gumpoong" and "Chungsun" can be clearly discriminated from the other Korean ginseng cultivars by simultaneously identifying the haplotype of "Gumpoong" and the specific allele of "Chungsun" by applying the MARMS. CONCLUSION. This study, therefore, provides a simple and reliable method for simultaneous authentication of "Gumpoong" and "Chungsun" cultivars.
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Emergence of genotype I of Japanese encephalitis virus as the dominant genotype in Asia.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis worldwide. Previous phylogenetic studies based on the envelope protein indicated that there are four genotypes, and surveillance data suggest that genotype I is gradually replacing genotype III as the dominant strain. Here we report an evolutionary analysis based on 98 full-length genome sequences of JEV, including 67 new samples isolated from humans, pigs, mosquitoes, midges. and bats in affected areas. To investigate the relationships between the genotypes and the significance of genotype I in recent epidemics, we estimated evolutionary rates, ages of common ancestors, and population demographics. Our results indicate that the genotypes diverged in the order IV, III, II, and I and that the genetic diversity of genotype III has decreased rapidly while that of genotype I has increased gradually, consistent with its emergence as the dominant genotype.
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Pharmacokinetics of vitexin-4?-O-glucoside in rats after intravenous application.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Vitexin-4?-O-glucoside (VOG), being a main component in the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major, was isolated and then three different doses (20, 40, and 60 mg/kg) of VOG were administered intravenously to rats. To study its pharmacokinetics, a simple and rapid HPLC method was developed using hesperidin as internal standard and the relative parameters were calculated by both compartmental and non-compartmental approach. The results showed that VOG fitted a two-compartment open model. The values of AUC increased proportionally within the range of 20-60 mg/kg. Additionally, ? half-life, ? half-life, (a)CL, MRT(0?t ), MRT(0?? ), and terminal half-life of VOG in rats showed significant differences between 20 mg/kg and other doses. Thereby, VOG presented a dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in the range of 20-60 mg/kg and non-linear pharmacokinetics at lower dose.
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Bioconversion of ginsenoside rb1 into compound k by Leuconostoc citreum LH1 isolated from kimchi.
Braz. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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About 40 different types of ginsenoside (ginseng saponin), a major pharmacological component of ginseng, have been identified along with their physiological activities. Among these, compound K has been reported to prevent the development of and the metastasis of cancer by blocking the formation of tumors and suppressing the invasion of cancerous cells. In this study, ginsenoside Rb1 was converted into compound K via interaction with the enzyme secreted by ?-glucosidase active bacteria, Leuconostoc citreum LH1, extracted from kimchi. The optimum time for the conversion of Rb1 to compound K was about 72 hrs at a constant pH of 6.0 and an optimum temperature of about 30°C. Under optimal conditions, ginsenoside Rb1 was decomposed and converted into compound K by 72 hrs post-reaction (99%). Both TLC and HPLC were used to analyze the enzymatic reaction. Ginsenoside Rb1 was consecutively converted to ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K via the hydrolyses of 20-C ?-(1 ? 6)-glucoside, 3-C ?-(1 ? 2)-glucoside, and 3-C ?-glucose of ginsenoside Rb1.
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Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3, which exhibits glutamic acid-independent production of poly-?-glutamic acid.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is one of most prevalent Gram-positive aerobic spore-forming bacteria with the ability to synthesize polysaccharides and polypeptides. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens LL3, which was isolated from fermented food and presents the glutamic acid-independent production of poly-?-glutamic acid.
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Facile fabrication of amphiphilic gold nanoparticles with V-shaped brushes from block copolymers with a trithiocarbonate group as the junction.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Amphiphilic gold nanoparticles grafted with V-shaped brushes (Au-V-brushes) were prepared by grafting a polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) block copolymer with a trithiocarbonate group as the junction to the Au surface. The obtained Au-V-brushes were subjected to solubility test and UV-vis, FT-IR, TEM and DLS characterizations. It is found that the Au-V-brushes are soluble in both water and organic solvents. In the common solvent DMF, the size of the Au-V-brushes is about 17 nm, whereas in selective solvents (toluene and water) aggregates of 70-90 nm are formed. Phase transfer of the Au-V-brushes from the water phase into the toluene phase occurs upon addition of Na(2)SO(4) into water and the Au-V-brushes can also transfer from the toluene phase to the interface of toluene and water phases after addition of citric acid in the water phase.
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[The surface smoothing methods for three-dimensional fluorescence spectrometry based on Savitzky-Golay polynomial smoothing].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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Spectral smoothing is commonly used as effective pretreatment methods in the spectral analysis. However, the conventional Savitzky-Golay polynomial smoothing methods used in two-dimensional spectral analysis can not be applied to three-dimensional spectrometry directly. In the present paper, a polynomial surface smoothing method is proposed, and the two-dimensional Savitzky-Golay polynomial smoothing methods are extended to three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. Experiment for detecting dissolved organ matter in water using three-dimensional fluorescence spectrometry was carried out, and experimental results show that the smoothing method for the three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum can effectively improve the modeling accuracy.
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Bioadhesion and enhanced bioavailability by wheat germ agglutinin-grafted lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drug bufalin.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-grafted lipid nanoparticles has been prepared and its in vitro association with Caco-2 cells has been studied previously. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the potential of WGA-grafted lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of bufalin, a poorly water soluble drug, by evaluating its ex vivo bioadhesion with intestinal mucosal segments and in vivo bioavailability. A significant higher adhesion between WGA-grafted lipid nanoparticles and intestinal mucosa was found compared with that of WGA-free lipid nanoparticles (p<0.05). The in vivo pharmacodynamic studies were performed by oral administration of WGA-grafted lipid nanoparticles and suspensions to fasted rats. Compared with suspensions, WGA-grafted lipid nanoparticles showed much larger AUC and C(max), and a 2.7-fold improvement in oral bioavailability. These results illustrate the potential utility of WGA-grafted lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of a poorly water-soluble drug such as bufalin.
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Evaluation of a newly developed online color training system.
Int J Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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This study evaluated a newly developed online color training system. The system incorporated basic color training, shade guide matching, and clinical shade selection simulation exercises. Thirty-seven dental students went through baseline Vita-Vita testing with VITA Classical shade guides and then practiced color training exercises with the system for 4 days; the same test was performed after the training program. The average correct match increased from 6.7 (41.88%) to 11.38 (71.13%) using the shade guides (P < .001) and from 9.67 (60.42%) to 13.06 (81.63%) using the color training system (P < .001). The effectiveness of the color training system in improving color-matching quality was confirmed.
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Biosorption of divalent Pb, Cd and Zn on aragonite and calcite mollusk shells.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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The potential of using mollusk shell powder in aragonite (razor clam shells, RCS) and calcite phase (oyster shells, OS) to remove Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) from contaminated water was investigated. Both biogenic sorbents displayed very high sorption capacities for the three metals except for Cd on OS. XRD, SEM and XPS results demonstrated that surface precipitation leading to crystal growth took place during sorption. Calcite OS displayed a remarkably higher sorption capacity to Pb than aragonite RCS, while the opposite was observed for Cd. However, both sorbents displayed similar sorption capacities to Zn. These could be due to the different extent of matching in crystal lattice between the metal bearing precipitate and the substrates. The initial pH of the solution, sorbents dosage and grain size affected the removal efficiency of the heavy meals significantly, while the organic matter in mollusk shells affected the removal efficiency to a lesser extent.
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Tyrosine phosphorylation modulates store-operated calcium entry in cultured rat epididymal basal cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is essential for many cellular processes. In this study, we investigated modulation of SOCE by tyrosine phosphorylation in rat epididymal basal cells. The intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) measurement showed that SOCE occurred in rat epididymal basal cells by pretreating the cells with thapsigargin (Tg), the inhibitor of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. To identify the role of Ca(2+) channels in this response, we examined the effects of transient receptor potential canonical channel blockers 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), 1-[?-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)pro-poxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochloride(SKF96365), Gd(3+), and non-selective cation channel blocker Ni(2+) respectively on SOCE and found that these blockers could inhibit the Ca(2+) influx to different extent. Furthermore, we studied the regulation of SOCE by tyrosine kinase pathway. The inhibitor of tyrosine kinase genistein remarkably suppressed the SOCE response, whereas sodium orthovanadate, the inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatase, greatly enhanced it. The results suggest that tyrosine kinase pathway plays a significant role in the initiation of SOCE and positively modulates SOCE in epididymal basal cells.
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Structures of the substrate-binding protein provide insights into the multiple compatible solute binding specificities of the Bacillus subtilis ABC transporter OpuC.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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The compatible solute ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are indispensable for acquiring a variety of compatible solutes under osmotic stress in Bacillus subtilis. The substrate-binding protein OpuCC (Opu is osmoprotectant uptake) of the ABC transporter OpuC can recognize a broad spectrum of compatible solutes, compared with its 70% sequence-identical paralogue OpuBC that can solely bind choline. To explore the structural basis of this difference of substrate specificity, we determined crystal structures of OpuCC in the apo-form and in complex with carnitine, glycine betaine, choline and ectoine respectively. OpuCC is composed of two ?/?/? globular sandwich domains linked by two hinge regions, with a substrate-binding pocket located at the interdomain cleft. Upon substrate binding, the two domains shift towards each other to trap the substrate. Comparative structural analysis revealed a plastic pocket that fits various compatible solutes, which attributes themultiple-substrate binding property to OpuCC. This plasticity is a gain-of-function via a single-residue mutation of Thr?? in OpuCC compared with Asp?? in OpuBC.
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Biotransformation of Ginsenoside Rb1 to Prosapogenins, Gypenoside XVII, Ginsenoside Rd, Ginsenoside F2, and Compound K by Leuconostoc mesenteroides DC102.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Ginsenoside Rb1is the main component in ginsenosides. It is a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside that has a dammarane-type triterpenoid as an aglycone. In this study, ginsenoside Rb1 was transformed into gypenoside XVII, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside F2 and compound K by glycosidase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides DC102. The optimum time for the conversion was about 72 h at a constant pH of 6.0 to 8.0 and the optimum temperature was about 30?. Under optimal conditions, ginsenoside Rb1 was decomposed and converted into compound K by 72 h post-reaction (99%). The enzymatic reaction was analyzed by highperformance liquid chromatography, suggesting the transformation pathway: ginsenoside Rb1? gypenoside XVII and ginsenoside Rd?ginsenoside F2?compound K.
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[Detection of dissolved organic matter based on three-dimensional first-order derivative fluorescence spectrometry].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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Based on three-dimensional first-order derivative fluorescence spectrometry, an analysis method for detecting dissolved organ matter in water is proposed in the present paper. By using simplified least squares differentiation methods presented by Savitzky and Goly, the first-order partial derivatives for emission wavelength and excitation wavelength were calculated. As the fitting polynomial has the smoothing function in the calculation of derivative spectra, a separate smoothing method is not required to remove spectrometry noise. The regression model was calculated by partial least square for 4-dimension fluorescence data including emission wavelength, excitation wavelength and their first-order derivatives. The Experimental results for detecting total organic carbon (TOC) in water show that the proposed method has obvious advantage over the conventional fluorescence spectrometry analysis methods in the aspect of the root mean square error of prediction and correlation coefficient.
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HPLC determination of five polyphenols in rat plasma after intravenous administration of hawthorn leaves extract and its application to pharmacokinetic study.
Yakugaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2010
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A simple and specific HPLC-UV method was developed to simultaneously determine five active compounds including vitexin-4"-O-glucoside (VG), vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside (VR), vitexin (VIT), rutin (RUT) and hyperoside (HP) in rat plasma after intravenous administrating the hawthorn leaves extract (HLE). With baicalin as internal standard (I.S.), sample pretreatment involved a one-step extraction with methanol of 0.2 ml plasma. The HPLC assay was carried out using a Phenomsil C18 analytical column with UV detection at 332 nm. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-1% glacial acetic acid (6:1.5:18.5:74, v/v/v/v). The calibration curves were liner over the range of 2.030-500.5, 0.1513-75.64, 0.2507-12.54, 0.5128-25.64 and 0.4032-20.16 µg/ml for VG, VR, VIT, RUT and HP, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of the intra- and inter-day precisions for the analysis of the five analytes were between 1.0 and 8.9% with accuracies (relative error) below 8.2% for the analysis of the five analytes. The average extraction recoveries of five analytes were more than 82.67 ± 4.74%. The HPLC method herein described was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies after intravenous administration of HLE solution to rats over three doses.
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[Cost-utility analysis of percutaneous coronary intervention in 13 cities of China].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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To investigate the cost-utility of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in China.
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Assessment of bisphenol A exposure in Korean pregnant women by physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2010
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The objective of this study was to predict the exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) after oral intake in human blood and tissues using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. A refined PBPK model was developed taking into account of glucuronidation, biliary excretion, and slow absorption of BPA in order to describe the second peak of BPA observed following oral intake. This developed model adequately described the second peak and BPA concentrations in blood and various tissues in rats after oral administration. A prospective validation study in rats additionally supported the proposed model. For extrapolation to humans, a daily oral BPA dose of 0.237 mg/70 kg/d or 0.0034 mg/kg/d was predicted to achieve an average steady-state blood concentration of 0.0055 ng/ml (median blood BPA concentration in Korean pregnant women). This dose was lower than the reference dose (RfD, 0.016 mg/kg/d) and the tolerable daily intake established by the European Commission (10 ?g/kg/d). Data indicate that enterohepatic recirculation may be toxicologically important as this pathway may increase exposure and terminal half-life of BPA in humans.
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Crystal structure of the mucin-binding domain of Spr1345 from Streptococcus pneumoniae.
J. Struct. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2010
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The surface protein Spr1345 from Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 is a 22-kDa mucin-binding protein (MucBP) involved in adherence and colonization of the human lung and respiratory tract. It is composed of a mucin-binding domain (MucBD) and a proline-rich domain (PRD) followed by an LPxTG motif, which is recognized and cleaved by sortase, resulting in a mature form of 171 residues (MF171) that is anchored to the cell wall. We found that the MucBD alone possesses comparable in vitro mucin-binding affinity to the mature form, and can be specifically enriched at the surface of human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) phasing method with the iodine signals, we solved the crystal structure of the MucBD at 2.0Å resolution, the first structure of MucBDs from pathogenic bacteria. The overall structure adopts an immunoglobulin-like fold with an elongated rod-like shape, composed of six anti-parallel ?-strands and a long loop. Structural comparison suggested that the conserved C-terminal moiety may participate in the recognition of mucins. These findings provided structural insights into host-pathogen interaction mediated by mucins, which might be useful for designing novel vaccines and antibiotic drugs against human diseases caused by pneumococci.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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