Degenerative heart valve disease is a life-threatening disease affecting about 3% of the population over 65 years. Up to date, cardiac surgery with heart valve replacement is the only available therapy. The disease is characterized by degenerative disorganization of the heart valve structure and alterations in the residing cell populations. Causes and mechanisms of disease genesis are still not fully understood and until now pharmacological therapies are not available. Thus there is enormous interest in new technologies that enable a better characterization of structure and composition of diseased valves. Currently most research techniques demand for extensive processing of extracted valve material. We present a novel approach combining coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation. Cusp constituents can be examined simultaneously, three-dimensionally and without extensive manipulation of the sample enabling impressive insights into a complex disease.
A variety of promising approaches for quantitative flow velocity measurement in OCT have been proposed in recent years. The question is: Which method gets the most precise flow velocity out of the interference signals detected. We have compared the promising joint spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography (jSTdOCT) and the commonly used phase-resolved Doppler OCT (DOCT) and describe the link between these two proven methods for OCT in the Fourier domain (FD OCT). First, we show that jSTdOCT can be significantly improved by calculating the center of gravity via an unbiased complex algorithm instead of detecting the maximum intensity signal of the broadened Doppler frequency spectrum. Secondly, we introduce a unified mathematical description for DOCT and jSTdOCT that differs only in one exponent and call it enhjSTdOCT. Third, we present that enhjSTdOCT has the potential to significantly reduce the noise of the velocity measurement by choosing an exponent depending on the transverse sample velocity component and the signal-to-noise ratio. EnhjSTdOCT is verified numerically and experimentally to find the optimal parameters for maximal velocity noise reduction.
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is an emerging multiphoton technique for the label-free histopathology of the central nervous system, by imaging the lipid content within the tissue. In order to apply the technique on standard histology sections, it is important to know the effects of tissue fixation on the CARS image. Here, we report the effects of two common fixation methods, namely with formalin and methanol-acetone, on mouse brain and human glioblastoma tissue. The variations induced by fixation on the CARS contrast and intensity were compared and interpreted using Raman microspectroscopy. The results show that, whenever unfixed cryosections cannot be used, fixation with formalin constitutes an alternative which does not deteriorate substantially the contrast generated by the different brain structures in the CARS image. Fixation with methanol-acetone strongly modifies the tissue lipid content and is therefore incompatible with the CARS imaging.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major leading cause of visual impairment and blindness with no cure currently established. Cell replacement of RPE is discussed as a potential therapy for AMD. Previous studies were performed in animal models with severe limitations in recapitulating the disease progression. In detail, we describe the effect of systemic injection of sodium iodate in the mouse retina. We further evaluate the usefulness of this animal model to analyze cell-specific effects following transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived RPE cells.
The study was dedicated towards the detection of Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) by means of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Polymeric films were produced to mimic complex food matrices whereas gold nanorods (AuNRs) were embedded to act as ENPs. The straightforward coating application resulted in a sufficient film wetting, adhesion and homogenous AuNR distribution. Compared to food samples, these films are simpler and better defined. Such artefacts are therefore promising candidate materials for quality assurance and regulatory matters. The OCT investigations revealed a dependency of the measured signal intensity on the AuNR concentration in the film. The limit of detection for the setup and material was estimated to be -8 dB. This value corresponds to a ppm nanoparticle concentration being well below the concentration used in food additive applications. Thus, the findings indicate the potential of OCT to screen food/feed products for a number of ENPs.
Multiphoton imaging has evolved as an indispensable tool in cell biology and holds prospects for clinical applications. When addressing endogenous signals such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) or second harmonic generation, it requires intense laser irradiation that may cause photodamage. We report that increasing endogenous fluorescence signal upon multiphoton imaging constitutes a marker of photodamage. The effect was studied on mouse brain in vivo and ex vivo, on ex vivo human brain tissue samples, as well as on glioblastoma cells in vitro, demonstrating that this phenomenon is common to a variety of different systems, both ex vivo and in vivo. CARS microscopy and vibrational spectroscopy were used to analyze the photodamage. The development of a standard easy-to-use model that employs rehydrated cryosections allowed the characterization of the irradiation-induced fluorescence and related it to nonlinear photodamage. In conclusion, the monitoring of endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence during label-free multiphoton microscopy enables to estimate damage thresholds ex vivo as well as detect photodamage during in vivo experiments.
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy provides fine resolution imaging and displays morphochemical properties of unstained tissue. Here, we evaluated this technique to delineate and identify brain tumors.
Intraoperative optical imaging (IOI) is an experimental technique used for visualizing functional brain areas after surgical exposure of the cerebral cortex. This technique identifies areas of local changes in blood volume and oxygenation caused by stimulation of specific brain functions. The authors describe a new IOI method, including innovative data analysis, that can facilitate intraoperative functional imaging on a routine basis. To evaluate the reliability and validity of this approach, they used the new IOI method to demonstrate visualization of the median nerve area of the somatosensory cortex.
Present methods for quantitative measurement of cerebral perfusion during neurosurgical operations require additional technology for measurement, data acquisition, and processing. This study used conventional fluorescence video angiography--as an established method to visualize blood flow in brain vessels--enhanced by a quantifying perfusion software tool. For these purposes, the fluorescence dye indocyanine green is given intravenously, and after activation by a near-infrared light source the fluorescence signal is recorded. Video data are analyzed by software algorithms to allow quantification of the blood flow. Additionally, perfusion is measured intraoperatively by a reference system. Furthermore, comparing reference measurements using a flow phantom were performed to verify the quantitative blood flow results of the software and to validate the software algorithm. Analysis of intraoperative video data provides characteristic biological parameters. These parameters were implemented in the special flow phantom for experimental validation of the developed software algorithms. Furthermore, various factors that influence the determination of perfusion parameters were analyzed by means of mathematical simulation. Comparing patient measurement, phantom experiment, and computer simulation under certain conditions (variable frame rate, vessel diameter, etc.), the results of the software algorithms are within the range of parameter accuracy of the reference methods. Therefore, the software algorithm for calculating cortical perfusion parameters from video data presents a helpful intraoperative tool without complex additional measurement technology.
Intraoperative optical imaging (IOI) is a method to visualize functional activated brain areas during brain surgery using a camera system connected to a standard operating microscope. Three different high-resolution camera systems (Hamamatsu EB-CCD C7190-13W, Hamamatsu C4742-96-12G04, and Zeiss AxioCam MRm) have been evaluated for suitability to detect activated brain areas by detecting stimulation-dependent blood volume changes in the somatosensory cerebral cortex after median nerve stimulation. The image quality of the camera systems was evaluated in 14 patients with tumors around the somatosensory cortex. The intraoperative images of the brain surface were continuously recorded over 9 min. With all three camera systems, the activity maps of the median nerve area could be visualized. The image quality of a highly sensitive electron-bombarded camera was up to 10-fold lower compared with two less sensitive standard cameras. In each IOI-positive case, the activated area was in accordance with the anatomical and neurophysiological location of the corresponding cortex. The technique was found to be very sensitive, and several negative influencing factors were identified. However, all possible artifacts seem to be controllable in the majority of the cases, and the IOI method could be well adapted for routine clinical use. Nevertheless, further systematic studies are needed to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the method.
Mathematical models can be deployed to simulate physiological processes of the human organism. Exploiting these simulations, reactions of a patient to changes in the therapy regime can be predicted. Based on these predictions, medical decision support systems (MDSS) can help in optimizing medical therapy. An MDSS designed to support mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients should not only consider respiratory mechanics but should also consider other systems of the human organism such as gas exchange or blood circulation. A specially designed framework allows combining three model families (respiratory mechanics, cardiovascular dynamics and gas exchange) to predict the outcome of a therapy setting. Elements of the three model families are dynamically combined to form a complex model system with interacting submodels. Tests revealed that complex model combinations are not computationally feasible. In most patients, cardiovascular physiology could be simulated by simplified models decreasing computational costs. Thus, a simplified cardiovascular model that is able to reproduce basic physiological behavior is introduced. This model purely consists of difference equations and does not require special algorithms to be solved numerically. The model is based on a beat-to-beat model which has been extended to react to intrathoracic pressure levels that are present during mechanical ventilation. The introduced reaction to intrathoracic pressure levels as found during mechanical ventilation has been tuned to mimic the behavior of a complex 19-compartment model. Tests revealed that the model is able to represent general system behavior comparable to the 19-compartment model closely. Blood pressures were calculated with a maximum deviation of 1.8 % in systolic pressure and 3.5 % in diastolic pressure, leading to a simulation error of 0.3 % in cardiac output. The gas exchange submodel being reactive to changes in cardiac output showed a resulting deviation of less than 0.1 %. Therefore, the proposed model is usable in combinations where cardiovascular simulation does not have to be detailed. Computing costs have been decreased dramatically by a factor 186 compared to a model combination employing the 19-compartment model.
Intraoperative optical imaging of intrinsic signals can improve the localization of functional areas of the cortex. On the basis of a review of the current state of technology, a setup was developed and evaluated. The aim was to implement an easy-to-use and robust imaging setup that can be used in clinical routine with standard hardware equipment (surgical microscope, high-resolution camera, stimulator for peripheral nerve stimulation) and custom-made software for intraoperative and postoperative data analysis. Evaluation of different light sources (halogen, xenon) showed a sufficient temporal behavior of xenon light without using a stabilized power supply. Spatial binning (2×2) of the camera reduces temporal variations in the images by preserving a high spatial resolution. The setup was tested in eight patients. Images were acquired continuously for 9 min with alternating 30-s rest and 30-s stimulation conditions. Intraoperative measurement and visualization of high-resolution two-dimensional activity maps could be achieved in <15 min. The detected functional regions corresponded with anatomical and electrophysiological validation. The integration of optical imaging in clinical routine could successfully be achieved using standard hardware, which improves guidance for the surgeon during interventions near the eloquent areas of the brain.
Several functional brain imaging and mapping techniques have been used for the intraoperative identification and preservation of the sensory, motor, and speech areas of the brain. However, intraoperative monitoring and mapping of the visual function is less frequently performed in the clinical routine. To our knowledge, here we demonstrate for the first time that the individual visual cortex can be mapped to the brain surface using a contact-free optical camera system during brain surgery. Intraoperative optical imaging (IOI) was performed by visual stimulation of both eyes using stobe-light flashes. Images were acquired by a camera mounted to a standard surgical microscope. Activity maps could reproducibly be computed by detecting the blood volume-dependent signal changes of the exposed cortex. To the preliminary experience, the new technique seems to be suitable for mapping the visual function in any neurosurgical intervention that requires exposure of the visual cortex. However, the clinical relevance and reliability of the technique need to be confirmed in further studies.
Light-induced lesions are a powerful tool to study the amazing ability of photoreceptors to regenerate in the adult zebrafish retina. However, the specificity of the lesion towards photoreceptors or regional differences within the retina are still incompletely understood. We therefore characterized the process of degeneration and regeneration in an established paradigm, using intense white light from a fluorescence lamp on swimming fish (diffuse light lesion). We also designed a new light lesion paradigm where light is focused through a microscope onto the retina of an immobilized fish (focused light lesion). Focused light lesion has the advantage of creating a locally restricted area of damage, with the additional benefit of an untreated control eye in the same animal. In both paradigms, cell death is observed as an immediate early response, and proliferation is initiated around 2 days post lesion (dpl), peaking at 3 dpl. We furthermore find that two photoreceptor subtypes (UV and blue sensitive cones) are more susceptible towards intense white light than red/green double cones and rods. We also observed specific differences within light lesioned areas with respect to the process of photoreceptor degeneration: UV cone debris is removed later than any other type of photoreceptor in light lesions. Unspecific damage to retinal neurons occurs at the center of a focused light lesion territory, but not in the diffuse light lesion areas. We simulated the fish eye optical properties using software simulation, and show that the optical properties may explain the light lesion patterns that we observe. Furthermore, as a new tool to study retinal degeneration and regeneration in individual fish in vivo, we use spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Collectively, the light lesion and imaging assays described here represent powerful tools for studying degeneration and regeneration processes in the adult zebrafish retina.
The optical inhomogeneity of flowing blood, which appears as a waisted double fan-shaped intensity pattern inside vessels in cross-sectional optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, was investigated for the first time. High resolution spectral domain OCT in the 1.3 ?m wavelength region is used to assess this inhomogeneous intravascular backscattering of light in an in vivo mouse model and flow phantom measurements. Based on a predicted alignment of the red blood cells toward laminar shear flow, an angular modulation of the corresponding backscattering cross-section inside the vessels is assumed. In combination with the signal attenuation in depth by absorption and scattering, a simple model of the intravascular intensity modulation is derived. The suitability of the model is successfully demonstrated in the in vivo experiments and confirmed by the in vitro measurements. The observed effect appears in flowing blood only and shows a strong dependency on the shear rate. In conclusion, the shear-induced red blood cell alignment in conjunction with the vessel geometry is responsible for the observed intensity distribution. This inherent effect of blood imaging has to be considered in attenuation measurements performed with OCT. Furthermore, the analysis of the intravascular intensity pattern might be useful to evaluate flow characteristics.
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging has been used to probe the biochemical composition of human renal tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue. Freshly resected renal tumor tissue from surgery was prepared as a thin cryosection and examined by FTIR spectroscopic imaging. Tissue types could be discriminated by utilizing a combination of fuzzy k-means cluster analysis and a supervised classification algorithm based on a linear discriminant analysis. The spectral classification is compared and contrasted with the histological stained image. It is further shown that renal tumor cells have spread in adjacent normal tissue. This study demonstrates that FTIR spectroscopic imaging can potentially serve as a fast and objective approach for discrimination of renal tumor tissue from normal tissue and even in the detection of tumor infiltration in adjacent tissue.
Topical corticosteroids are widely used to treat atopic dermatitis (AD), but their anti-inflammatory mode of action can be accompanied by several unwanted side effects including skin atrophy and telangiectasia. In this 8-week, investigator-blinded, intraindividual right-left comparison study with patients with mild-to-moderate AD, hydrocortisone 1% cream (HCT) was applied twice daily for 4 weeks on one side of forehead skin without clinical signs of AD and pimecrolimus 1% cream (PIM) on the other. Epidermal and dermal thickness were assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound, respectively. Skin atrophy and telangiectasia were assessed by contact dermatoscopic photography (Dermaphot(®)). Treatment with HCT leads to a significant decrease in epidermal thickness after only 2 weeks of treatment, while the decrease in PIM-treated sites was less pronounced and was not statistically significant. By 4 weeks after the end of treatment, epidermal thickness returned to baseline values. No dermal thinning or development of telangiectasia could be observed by means of ultrasound or Dermaphot(®), respectively. In summary, this study indicates that a 2-week single course of topical treatment with a mildly potent steroid can cause transient epidermal thinning, an effect not seen in the PIM group. The slight decrease with PIM - although not significant - could be due to normalization of the increased skin thickness caused by a subclinical inflammation in AD. This study suggests that PIM may be safer for treatment of AD in sensitive skin areas like the face, especially when repeated application is required.
Transfer of too high mechanical energy from the ventilator to the lungs alveolar tissue is the main cause for ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). To investigate the effects of cyclic energy transfer to the alveoli, we introduce a new method of transthoracic endoscopy that provides morphological as well as functional information about alveolar geometry and mechanics. We evaluate the new endoscopic method to continuously record images of focused subpleural alveoli. The method is evaluated by using finite element modeling techniques and by direct observation of subpleural alveoli both in isolated rat lungs as well as in intact animals (rats). The results confirm the overall low invasiveness of the endoscopic method insofar as the mechanical influences on the recorded alveoli are only marginal. It is, hence, a suited method for intravital microscopy in the rat model as well as in larger animals.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution, interferometric imaging modality using near-infrared light to acquire cross-sections and three-dimensional images of the subsurface microstructure of biological specimens. Because of rapid improvement of the acquisition speed and axial resolution of OCT over recent years, OCT is becoming increasingly attractive for applications in biomedical research. Therefore, OCT is no longer used solely for structural investigations of biological samples but also for functional examination, making it potentially useful in bioanalytical science. The combination of in vivo structural and functional findings makes it possible to obtain thorough knowledge on basic physiological and pathological processes. Advanced applications, for example, optical biopsy in visceral cavities, have been enabled by combining OCT with established imaging modalities. This report gives an outline of the state of the art and novel trends of innovative OCT approaches in biomedical research in which the main focus is on applications in fundamental research and pre-clinical utilization.
Established methods for characterization of tissue and diagnostics, for example histochemistry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray tomography, or positron emission tomography (PET), are mostly not suitable for intra-operative use. However, there is a clear need for an intra-operative diagnostics especially to identify the borderline between normal and tumor tissue. Currently, vibrational spectroscopy techniques (both Raman and infrared) complement the standard methods for tissue diagnostics. Vibrational spectroscopy has the potential for intra-operative use, because it can provide a biochemically based profile of tissue in real time and without requiring additional contrast agents, which may perturb the tissue under investigation. In addition, no electric potential needs to be applied, and the measurements are not affected by electromagnetic fields. Currently, promising approaches include Raman fiber techniques and nonlinear Raman spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy is also being used to examine freshly resected tissue ex vivo in the operating theater. The immense volume of information contained in Raman and infrared spectra requires multivariate analysis to extract relevant information to distinguish different types of tissue. The promise and limitations of vibrational spectroscopy methods as intra-operative tools are surveyed in this review.
A new approach to cortical perfusion imaging is demonstrated using high-sensitivity thermography in conjunction with multivariate statistical data analysis. Local temperature changes caused by a cold bolus are imaged and transferred to a false color image. A cold bolus of 10 ml saline at ice temperature is injected systemically via a central venous access. During the injection, a sequence of 735 thermographic images are recorded within 2 min. The recorded data cube is subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA) to select slight changes of the cortical temperature caused by the cold bolus. PCA reveals that 11 s after injection the temperature of blood vessels is shortly decreased followed by an increase to the temperature before the cold bolus is injected. We demonstrate the potential of intraoperative thermography in combination with multivariate data analysis to image cortical cerebral perfusion without any markers. We provide the first in vivo application of multivariate thermographic imaging.
Each year, billions of day-old layer chicks are produced in the world. Since only female chicks are reared for egg production, the chicks must be sexed and the unwanted male layer chicks are culled. The culling of male chicks is a serious problem, both in terms of animal welfare and waste disposal. The germinal disc in fertilized but unincubated eggs contains already several thousands of blastoderm cells. The cellular DNA in birds is different for male and female chicks. The difference in DNA content between male and female chicks is around 2% and is measurable by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In this study, small amounts of blastoderm cells from 22 chicken eggs were characterized by attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopic imaging and classified by linear discriminant analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used as a reference method to determine the gender. The spectroscopic results demonstrate that male blastoderm cells exhibit a higher content of DNA than cells from female blastoderm. The spectroscopic-based gender determination led to the same result as the PCR analysis. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging allows the gender determination of unincubated eggs within a few seconds based on the accurate determination of the different DNA contents in blastoderm cells of both sexes.
The recently introduced new phase-dependent Doppler model for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) has shown that the simple linear relation between the Doppler phase shift and the axial velocity component of an obliquely moving sample is not valid. Additionally, for nearly transverse sample motion with high velocities the phase shift will approach a constant value. Consequently, for small Doppler angles the velocity measurement range of the phase-resolved Doppler analysis is limited in SD OCT. Since these undesirable small Doppler angles can not be prevented, for example, in the in vivo 3-D measurement, we introduce a novel method extending the limited velocity detection range taking the signal power decrease due to fringe washout in SD OCT into account. The signal damping of an obliquely moving sample is presented as a function of the axial and transverse displacement by a universally valid contour plot and does not correspond simply to the sum of the axial and transverse effect. A quantitative combination of the Doppler analysis and the signal-damping method is presented with a flow phantom model. The practicability of this new combined method is presented for the blood flow of the saphenous artery in the in vivo mouse model.
In this feasibility study, we present a method for virtual 4-D imaging of healthy and injured subpleural lung tissue in the ventilated mouse. We use triggered swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) with an A-scan frequency of 20 kHz to image murine subpleural alveoli during the inspiratory phase. The data acquisition is gated to the ventilation pressure to take single B-scans in each respiration cycle for different pressure levels. The acquired B-scans are combined off-line into one volume scan for each pressure level. The air fraction in healthy lungs and injured lungs is measured using 2-D OCT en-face images. Upon lung inspiration from 2 to 12 cm H(2)O ventilation pressure, the air fraction increases in healthy lungs by up to 11% and in injured lungs by 8%. This expansion correlates well with results of previous studies, reporting increased alveolar area with increased ventilation pressures. We demonstrate that OCT is a useful tool to investigate alveolar dynamics in spatial dimensions.
There is an increasing interest in biphasic positive airway pressure with spontaneous breathing (BIPAP+SBmean), which is a combination of time-cycled controlled breaths at two levels of continuous positive airway pressure (BIPAP+SBcontrolled) and non-assisted spontaneous breathing (BIPAP+SBspont), in the early phase of acute lung injury (ALI). However, pressure support ventilation (PSV) remains the most commonly used mode of assisted ventilation. To date, the effects of BIPAP+SBmean and PSV on regional lung aeration and ventilation during ALI are only poorly defined.
In vivo determination of 3-D and dynamic geometries of alveolar structures with adequate resolution is essential for developing numerical models of the lung. A thorax window is prepared in anesthetized rabbits by removal of muscle tissue between the third and fourth rib without harming the parietal pleura. The transparent parietal pleura allows contact-free imaging by intravital microscopy (IVM) and 3-D optical coherence tomography (3-D OCT). We demonstrate that dislocation of the lung surface is small enough to observe identical regions in the expiratory and inspiratory plateau phase, and that OCT in this animal model is suitable for generating 3-D geometry of in vivo lung parenchyma. To our knowledge, we present a novel thorax window preparation technique for 3-D imaging of alveolar dynamics for the first time. The 3-D datasets of the fine structure of the lung beneath the pleura could provide a basis for the development of 3-D numerical models of the lung.
Recently, a new phase-resolved Doppler model was presented for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) showing that the linear relation between the axial velocity component of the obliquely moving sample and the phase difference of consecutive A-Scans does not hold true in the presence of a transverse velocity component which is neglected in the widely-used classic Doppler analysis. Besides taking note of the new non-proportional relationship of phase shift and oblique sample motion, it is essential to consider the correlation of the phase shift and its specific characteristic at certain Doppler angles for designing Doppler experiments with SD OCT. A correlation quotient is introduced to quantify the correlation of the backscattering signal in consecutive A-Scans as a function of the oblique sample motion. It was found that at certain velocities and Doppler angles no correlation of the phases of sequential A-Scans exists, even though the signal does not vanish. To indicate how the noise of the Doppler phase shift behaves for oblique movement, the standard deviation is determined as a function of the correlation quotient and the number of complex Doppler data averaged. The detailed theoretical model is validated by using a flow phantom model consisting of a 1% Intralipid flow through a 310 microm capillary. Finally, a short discussion of the presented results and the consequence for performing Doppler experiments is given.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the spectral domain is demonstrated simultaneously at two wavelength bands centered at 800 nm and 1250 nm. A novel commercial supercontinuum laser is applied as a single low coherence broadband light source. The emission spectrum of the source is shaped by optical and spatial filtering in order to achieve an adequate double peak spectrum containing the wavelength bands 700 - 900 nm and 1100 - 1400 nm for dual-band OCT imaging and thus reducing the radiation exposure of the sample. Each wavelength band is analyzed with an individual spectrometer at an A-scan rate of about 12 kHz which enables real-time imaging for the examination of moving samples. A common path optical setup optimized for both spectral regions with a separate single fiber-based scanning unit was realized which facilitates flexible handling and easy access to the measurement area. The free-space axial resolutions were measured to be less than 4.5 microm and 7 microm at 800 nm and 1250 nm, respectively. Three-dimensional imaging ten times faster than previously reported with a signal-to-noise-ratio of above 90 dB is achieved simultaneously in both wavelength bands. Spectral domain dual-band OCT combines real-time imaging with high resolution at 800 nm and enhanced penetration depth at 1250 nm and therefore provides a well suited tool for in vivo vasodynamic measurements. Further, spatially resolved spectral features of the sample are obtained by means of comparing the backscattering properties at two different wavelength bands. The ability of dual-band OCT to enhance tissue contrast and the sensitivity of this imaging modality to wavelength-dependent sample birefringence is demonstrated.
There is a growing interest in analyzing lung mechanics at the level of the alveoli in order to understand stress-related pathogenesis and possibly avoid ventilator associated lung injury. Emerging quantitative models to simulate fluid mechanics and the associated stresses and strains on delicate alveolar walls require realistic quantitative input on alveolar geometry and its dynamics during ventilation. Here, three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and conventional intravital microscopy are joined in one setup to investigate the geometric changes of subpleural alveoli during stepwise pressure increase and release in an isolated and perfused rabbit lung model. We describe good qualitative agreement and quantitative correlation between the OCT data and video micrographs. Our main finding is the inflation and deflation of individual alveoli with noticeable hysteresis. Importantly, this three-dimensional geometry data can be extracted and converted into input data for numerical simulations.
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to probe the molecular composition of germinal cells and to identify the gender of turkey poults. Germinal cells obtained from a feather pulp were characterized by FT-IR micro spectroscopy. The sample set consisted of growing contour feathers from 23 male and 23 female turkey poults. Significant spectral variations were observed in the range between 1,000 and 1,250 cm(-1). The spectra of male turkey poults exhibit a significantly higher content of RNA than those of female turkeys. Spectral classification was performed by a non-supervised method based on the principal component analysis. An evaluation of the first and third PCs led to a classification of female and male poults with an accuracy of more than 95%.
: To analyze alveolar dynamics in healthy and acid-injured lungs of ventilated mice. Protective ventilation is potentially lifesaving in patients with acute lung injury. However, optimization of ventilation strategies is hampered by an incomplete understanding of the effects of mechanical ventilation at the alveolar level.
In-vivo imaging of the vascular system can provide novel insight into the dynamics of vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is an optical, noncontact imaging technique based on interferometry of short-coherent near-infrared light with axial resolution of less than 10 microm. In this study, we apply FD-OCT as an in-vivo imaging technique to investigate blood vessels in their anatomical context using temporally resolved image stacks. Our chosen model system is the murine saphenous artery and vein, due to their small inner vessel diameters, sensitive response to vasoactive stimuli, and advantageous anatomical position. The vascular function of male wild-type mice (C57BL/6) is determined at the ages of 6 and 20 weeks. Vasoconstriction is analyzed in response to dermal application of potassium (K(+)), and vasodilation in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Vasodynamics are quantified from time series (75 sec, 4 frames per sec, 330 x 512 pixels per frame) of cross sectional images that are analyzed by semiautomated image processing software. The morphology of the saphenous artery and vein is determined by 3-D image stacks of 512 x 512 x 512 pixels. Using the FD-OCT technique, we are able to demonstrate age-dependent differences in vascular function and vasodynamics.
Three-dimensional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (3-D FDOCT) is used to demonstrate that perfusion fixation with a mixture of glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde does not alter the geometry of subpleural lung parenchyma in isolated and perfused rabbit lungs. This is confirmed by simultaneous imaging of lung parenchyma with intravital microscopy. To eliminate the diffraction index interfaces between alveolar pockets and walls, we fill the fixed lungs with ethanol by perfusing with gradually increasing concentrations. This bottom-up filling process leaves no remaining air bubbles in the alveolar structures, thus drastically improving the resolution and penetration depth of 3-D FDOCT imaging. We observe an approximately 18% increase in alveolar area after ethanol filling, likely due in large part to elimination of the air/tissue interfaces. 3-D OCT datasets acquired from ethanol-filled lungs allow segmentation of the ethanol-filled structures, which were formerly air-filled, and 3-D reconstruction of larger areas of subpleural alveolar structures. Our innovative process of filling the lungs with ethanol postperfusion fixation thus enables more accurate quantification of alveolar geometries, a critical component of modeling lung function.
There is growing interest in the use of both variable and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). The combination of these approaches as "noisy PCV" requires adaptation of the mechanical ventilator to the respiratory system mechanics. Thus, we developed and evaluated a new control system based on the least-mean-squares adaptive approach, which automatically and continuously adjusts the driving pressure during PCV to achieve the desired variability pattern of tidal volume (V (T)).
In conventional in vivo microscopy, a three dimensional illustration of tissue is lacking. Concerning the microscopic analysis of the pulmonary alveolar network, surgical preparation of the thorax and fixation of the lung is required to place the microscopes objective. These effects may have influence on the mechanical behaviour of alveoli. Relatively new methods exist for in vivo microscopy being less invasive and enabling an observation without fixation of the lung. The aim of this study was to compare a fibered confocal laser scanning microscopy (FCLSM) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a mouse and a rabbit model. Moreover, FCLSM was also used endoscopically in the rabbit model.
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging is a relatively new method that has received great attention as a new field of analytical chemistry. The greatest benefit of this technique lies in the high molecular sensitivity combined with a spatial resolution down to a few micrometers. Another advantage is the ability to probe samples under native conditions, which allows new insights into samples without the need for fixation, stains, or an additional marker. Advances in instrumentation have made FTIR spectroscopic imaging the tool of choice for an increasing number of applications. The main applications are in the bioanalytical chemistry of cells and tissue, polymers, and recently as well as in homeland security. This report gives a short overview of current developments and recent applications.
Dispersion encoded full range (DEFR) optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become highly attractive as it is a simple way to increase the measurement range of OCT systems. Full range OCT is especially favorable as it does not only increase the measurement range but also shifts the highest sensitivity into the center of the measurement range. While the early versions of DEFR were highly computational expensive, new versions reduce the number of necessary Fourier transforms. Recently it has been shown that a GPU based algorithm can perform DEFR with more than 20,000 A-lines per second. We present a new version of the DEFR algorithm that requires only one Fourier transform per A-scan and uses convolution in z-space instead of multiplication in k-space, therefore reducing the computational effort considerably. While dispersion encoding has so far only been used to suppress mirror artifacts, we show that, with dispersion encoding and only one more Fourier transform, autocorrelation terms can be removed likewise. Since very high values of dispersion reduce the effective measurement range in dispersion encoded OCT, we present an estimate for a sufficient amount of dispersion for a successful image recovery, which is depending on the thickness of the scattering layers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the usability of ZnSe as a new dispersive material with a very high dispersion and describe a simple method to extract the dispersive phase from the measurement of a single reflex of a glass surface. Using a standard consumer PC, an artifact-free recovery of 1000 - 2000 A-scans per second with 2048 depth values including autocorrelation removal was achieved. The dynamic range (sensitivity) is not reduced and the suppression ratio of mirror artifacts and autocorrelation signals is more than 50dB using ZnSe.
Spinal cord injury triggers a series of complex biochemical alterations of nervous tissue. Up to now, such cellular events could not be studied without conventional tissue staining. The development of optical, label-free imaging techniques could provide powerful monitoring tools with the potential to be applied in vivo. In this work, we assess the ability of vibrational spectroscopy to generate contrast at molecular level between normal and altered regions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Using tissue sections, we demonstrate that Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy are able to identify the lesion, the surrounding scar, and unharmed normal tissue, delivering insight into the biochemical events induced by the injury and allowing mapping of tissue degeneration. The FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic imaging provides the basis for fast multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, endogenous two-photon fluorescence, and second harmonic generation). The latter proves to be a fast tool for imaging of the lesion on unstained tissue samples, based on the alteration in lipid content, extracellular matrix composition, and microglia/macrophages distribution pattern. The results establish these technologies in the field of regeneration in central nervous system, with the long-term goal to extend them to intravital use, where fast and nonharmful imaging is required.
Although several strategies exist for a minimal-invasive treatment of patients with lung failure, the mortality rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome still reaches 30% at minimum. This striking number indicates the necessity of understanding lung dynamics on an alveolar level. To investigate the dynamical behavior on a microscale, we used three-dimensional geometrical and functional imaging to observe tissue parameters including alveolar size and length of embedded elastic fibers during ventilation. We established a combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy system that is able to monitor the distension of alveolar tissue and elastin fibers simultaneously within three dimensions. The OCT system can laterally resolve a 4.9 ?m line pair feature and has an approximately 11 ?m full-width-half-maximum axial resolution in air. confocal fluorescence microscopy visualizes molecular properties of the tissue with a resolution of 0.75 ?m (laterally), and 5.9 ?m (axially) via fluorescence detection of the dye sulforhodamine B specifically binding to elastin. For system evaluation, we used a mouse model in situ to perform lung distension by application of different constant pressure values within the physiological regime. Our method enables the investigation of alveolar dynamics by helping to reveal basic processes emerging during artificial ventilation and breathing.
One current challenge of studying human tympanic membranes (TM) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the implementation of optics that avoid direct contact with the inflamed tissue. At the moment, no commercial device is available. We report an optics design for contactless forward imaging endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) with a large working distance (WD) and a broad field of view (FOV) by restricting the overall diameter of the probe to be small (3.5 mm), ensuring a sufficient numerical aperture. Our system uses a gradient-index (GRIN) relay lens and a GRIN objective lens, and executes a fan-shaped optical scanning pattern. The WD and FOV can be adjusted by manually changing the distance between the triplet and the GRIN relay lens. The measured lateral resolution is ?28???m at a WD of 10 mm with a FOV of 10 mm. Additionally, a camera and an illumination beam path were implemented within the probe for image guidance during investigations of the TM. We demonstrated the performance of the EOCT design by 3-D imaging of a human TM ex vivo and in vivo with a k-linear spectral domain OCT system.
The investigation of lung dynamics on alveolar scale is crucial for the understanding and treatment of lung diseases, such as acute lung injury and ventilator induced lung injury, and to promote the development of protective ventilation strategies. One approach to this is the establishment of numerical simulations of lung tissue mechanics where detailed knowledge about three-dimensional alveolar structure changes during the ventilation cycle is required. We suggest four-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging as a promising modality for visualizing the structural dynamics of single alveoli in subpleural lung tissue with high temporal resolution using a mouse model. A high-speed OCT setup based on Fourier domain mode locked laser technology facilitated the acquisition of alveolar structures without noticeable motion artifacts at a rate of 17 three-dimensional stacks per ventilation cycle. The four-dimensional information, acquired in one single ventilation cycle, allowed calculating the volume-pressure curve and the alveolar compliance for single alveoli.
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging has been used to characterize different types of pituitary gland tumors and normal pituitary tissue. Freshly resected tumor tissue from surgery was prepared as thin cryosections and examined by FT-IR spectroscopic imaging. Tissue types were discriminated via k-means cluster analysis and a supervised classification algorithm based on linear discriminant analysis. Spectral classification allowed us to discriminate between tumor and non-tumor cells, as well as between tumor cells that produce human growth hormone (hGH+) and tumor cells that do not produce that hormone (hGH-). The spectral classification was compared and contrasted with a histological PAS and orange G stained image. It was further shown that hGH+ pituitary tumor cells show stronger amide bands than tumor cells that do not produce hGH. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopic imaging can not only potentially serve as a fast and objective approach for discriminating pituitary gland tumors from normal tissue, but that it can also detect hGH-producing tumor cells.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.