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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
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Enterprising personality profile in youth: Components and assessment.
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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In the study of enterprising personality, there are two main approaches, the utilization of general personality traits, such as Big Five, and the use of more specific traits. The aim of the present work is to develop and validate a new measurement instrument that will permit a rigorous assessment of the basic traits of enterprising personality in young people.
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Supported Rh-phosphine complex catalysts for continuous gas-phase decarbonylation of aldehydes.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Heterogeneous silica supported rhodium-phosphine complex catalysts are employed for the first time in the catalytic decarbonylation of aldehydes in continuous gas-phase. The reaction protocol is exemplified for the decarbonylation of p-tolualdehyde to toluene and further extended to other aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes achieving excellent results in terms of both conversion and selectivity.
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Management of cryptoglandular supralevator abscesses in the magnetic resonance imaging era: a case series.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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The aim of this study is to describe the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging in the management of supralevator abscess, regarding its origin, location, drainage route, subsequent treatment of the fistula, and long-term results.
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Proceedings of the first international summit on intestinal anastomotic leak, chicago, illinois, october 4-5, 2012.
Surg Infect (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Abstract Objective: The first international summit on anastomotic leak was held in Chicago in October, 2012 to assess current knowledge in the field and develop novel lines of inquiry. The following report is a summary of the proceedings with commentaries and future prospects for clinical trials and laboratory investigations.
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Chiral imidazolium receptors for citrate and malate: the importance of the preorganization.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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A family of simple receptors formed by two or three cationic imidazolium arms attached to a central aromatic linkage and displaying different conformational flexibility has been synthesized from the enantiopure (1S,2S)-2-(1-H-imidazol-1-yl)-cyclohexanol. The crystal structures of the corresponding bromides of two of the hosts showed remarkable differences. The tripodal receptor with a trimethylated central benzene ring (1a) showed a cone-type conformation defining an inner anion-binding site, while the bipodal molecule with the central meta-phenylene spacer (m-2a) displayed an extended conformation. The binding properties of the chiral imidazolium hosts toward citrate, isocitrate and the two enantiomers of malate have been studied by (1)H NMR titration experiments in 9:1 CD3CN:CD3OH at 298.15 K. Interestingly, 1a showed a stronger interaction with dianionic malate than with the trianionic citrate or isocitrate, suggesting that the smaller guest is better accommodated in the host cavity. Among this family, 1a proved to be the best receptor due to a combination of a larger number of electrostatic and H-bonding interactions and to a more efficient preorganization in the cone-type conformation. This preorganization effect is also present in solution as confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy.
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FNDC5 could be regulated by leptin in adipose tissue.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Irisin activates the thermogenic function in adipose tissues. However, little is known on the association between human irisin and different cardiometabolic risk factors. We analyse the influence of morbid obesity on irisin levels and its relation with leptin and different cardiovascular risk factors.
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Evolution of urinary iodine excretion over eleven years in an adult population.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Few prospective cohort studies have evaluated dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine concentrations in the general adult population. We assess the evolution of urinary iodine excretion and factors that may influence it in an adult population followed for 11 years.
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Local participation in biodiversity conservation initiatives: a comparative analysis of different models in South East Mexico.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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In Mexico, biodiversity conservation is primarily implemented through three schemes: 1) protected areas, 2) payment-based schemes for environmental services, and 3) community-based conservation, officially recognized in some cases as Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas. In this paper we compare levels of local participation across conservation schemes. Through a survey applied to 670 households across six communities in Southeast Mexico, we document local participation during the creation, design, and implementation of the management plan of different conservation schemes. To analyze the data, we first calculated the frequency of participation at the three different stages mentioned, then created a participation index that characterizes the presence and relative intensity of local participation for each conservation scheme. Results showed that there is a low level of local participation across all the conservation schemes explored in this study. Nonetheless, the payment for environmental services had the highest local participation while the protected areas had the least. Our findings suggest that local participation in biodiversity conservation schemes is not a predictable outcome of a specific (community-based) model, thus implying that other factors might be important in determining local participation. This has implications on future strategies that seek to encourage local involvement in conservation.
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The role of chemokines in breast cancer pathology and its possible use as therapeutic targets.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Chemokines are small proteins that primarily regulate the traffic of leukocytes under homeostatic conditions and during specific immune responses. The chemokine-chemokine receptor system comprises almost 50 chemokines and approximately 20 chemokine receptors; thus, there is no unique ligand for each receptor and the binding of different chemokines to the same receptor might have disparate effects. Complicating the system further, these effects depend on the cellular milieu. In cancer, although chemokines are associated primarily with the generation of a protumoral microenvironment and organ-directed metastasis, they also mediate other phenomena related to disease progression, such as angiogenesis and even chemoresistance. Therefore, the chemokine system is becoming a target in cancer therapeutics. We review the emerging data and correlations between chemokines/chemokine receptors and breast cancer, their implications in cancer progression, and possible therapeutic strategies that exploit the chemokine system.
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LCST-type polymers based on chiral-polymeric ionic liquids.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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The self-assembly of linear polymers containing chiral IL units generates a high-order supramacromolecular structure with a complex hierarchical architecture, which is able to exhibit thermoresponsive behavior (lower critical solution temperature: LCST) with different structural elements that can be used to fine tune this LCST.
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Parastomal hernia containing stomach.
Int Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Abstract Parastomal hernia is the most common late stomal complication. Its appearance is usually asymptomatic. We report a parastomal hernia containing stomach. A 69-year-old patient with end colostomy arrived at the emergency room presenting with abdominal pain associated with vomiting and functioning stoma. She had a distended and painful abdomen without signs of peritoneal irritation and pericolostomic eventration in the left iliac fossa. X-ray visualized gastric fornix dilatation without dilated intestine bowels, and computed tomography showed parastomal incarcerated gastric herniation. Gastrografin (Bayer Australia Limited, New South Wales, Australia) was administered, showing no passage to duodenum. She underwent surgery, with stomal transposition and placement of onlay polypropylene mesh around the new stoma. Parastomal hernias are a frequent late complication of colostomy. Only four gastric parastomal hernia cases are reported in the literature. Three of these four cases required surgery. The placement of prosthetic mesh in the moment of stoma elaboration should be considered as a potential preventive measure.
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Silicon particles as trojan horses for potential cancer therapy.
J Nanobiotechnology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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BackgroundPorous silicon particles (PSiPs) have been used extensively as drug delivery systems, loaded with chemical species for disease treatment. It is well known from silicon producers that silicon is characterized by a low reduction potential, which in the case of PSiPs promotes explosive oxidation reactions with energy yields exceeding that of trinitrotoluene (TNT). The functionalization of the silica layer with sugars prevents its solubilization, while further functionalization with an appropriate antibody enables increased bioaccumulation inside selected cells.ResultsWe present here an immunotherapy approach for potential cancer treatment. Our platform comprises the use of engineered silicon particles conjugated with a selective antibody. The conceptual advantage of our system is that after reaction, the particles are degraded into soluble and excretable biocomponents.ConclusionsIn our study, we demonstrate in particular, specific targeting and destruction of cancer cells in vitro. The fact that the LD50 value of PSiPs-HER-2 for tumor cells was 15-fold lower than the LD50 value for control cells demonstrates very high in vitro specificity. This is the first important step on a long road towards the design and development of novel chemotherapeutic agents against cancer in general, and breast cancer in particular.
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Snowfall in the northwest Iberian Peninsula: synoptic circulation patterns and their influence on snow day trends.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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In recent decades, a decrease in snowfall attributed to the effects of global warming (among other causes) has become evident. However, it is reasonable to investigate meteorological causes for such decrease, by analyzing changes in synoptic scale patterns. On the Iberian Peninsula, the Castilla y León region in the northwest consists of a central plateau surrounded by mountain ranges. This creates snowfalls that are considered both an important water resource and a transportation risk. In this work, we develop a classification of synoptic situations that produced important snowfalls at observation stations in the major cities of Castilla y León from 1960 to 2011. We used principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster techniques to define four synoptic patterns conducive to snowfall in the region. Once we confirmed homogeneity of the series and serial correlation of the snowfallday records at the stations from 1960 to 2011, we carried out a Mann-Kendall test. The results show a negative trend at most stations, so there are a decreased number of snowfall days. Finally, variations in these meteorological variables were related to changes in the frequencies of snow events belonging to each synoptic pattern favorable for snowfall production at the observatory locations.
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The Evolution of the Technique of Impaction Bone Grafting in Femoral Revision Surgery has Improved Clinical Outcome. A Prospective Mid-Term Study.
J Arthroplasty
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Ninety-three patients (97 hips) underwent impaction bone grafting (IBG) using a cemented tapered femoral stem at our institution. Forty-one hips were operated between 1993 and 1998 (group 1) and 56 hips between 1999 and 2007 (group 2). The use of an extended trochanteric osteotomy and a long stem was more frequent in group 2. Group 2 hips showed a better clinical result. One hip was revised for aseptic loosening and most failures were early periprosthetic fractures. The survival rate for reoperation for any cause was 82.9% for group 1 and 84.3% for group 2. Patients in group 1 had a higher risk for periprosthetic fractures and radiological subsidence >5mm. Experience and the evolution of the IBG technique have improved the good long-term outcome.
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Hyperthermophilic aldolases as biocatalyst for C-C bond formation: rhamnulose 1-phosphate aldolase from Thermotoga maritima.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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The TM1072 gene from Thermotoga maritima codifies for a putative form of a rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (Rha-1PA Tm). To investigate this enzyme further, its gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was activated by Co(2+) as a divalent metal ion cofactor, instead of Zn(2+) as its E. coli homologue, and exhibited a maximum of activity at 95 °C. Furthermore, the enzyme displayed a high stability against extreme reaction conditions, retaining 90 % of its activity in the presence of 40 % of acetonitrile and showing a half-life greater than 3 h at 115 °C. The kinetic parameters at room temperature (R/T) were also studied; the K M was calculated to be 3.6?±?0.33 mM, while k cat/K M was found to be 0.7?×?10(3) s(-1) M(-1). Given these characteristics, Rha-1PA Tm is an attractive enzyme for use as a biocatalyst for industrial applications, offering intriguing possibilities for practical biocatalysis.
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Bone defect determines acetabular revision surgery.
Hip Int
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Cup revision can be a highly complex operation depending on the bone defect. In acetabular defects of less than 30% (Paprosky types 1 and 2), porous hemispherical cementless cups fixed with screws give good results. Modern trabecular metal designs improve these good results. Morsellised allografts are useful for filling cavitary defects. In acetabular defects greater than 30% (Paprosky types 3A and 3B), impacted morsellised allografts with a cemented cup technique produce good results. Difficult cases with pelvic discontinuity require reconstruction of the acetabulum with acetabular plates or large cup-cages to solve these difficult problems.
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Multicenter study of outcome in relation to the type of resection in rectal cancer.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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A surgical teaching and auditing program has been implemented to improve the results of treatment for patients with rectal cancer.
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The evolutionary history of Afrocanarian blue tits inferred from genome-wide SNPs.
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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A common challenge in phylogenetic reconstruction is to find enough suitable genomic markers to reliably trace splitting events with short internodes. Here we present phylogenetic analyses based on genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of an enigmatic avian radiation, the subspecies complex of Afrocanarian blue tits (Cyanistes teneriffae). The two sister species, the Eurasian blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and the azure tit (Cyanistes cyanus), constituted the outgroup. We generated a large data set of SNPs for analysis of population structure and phylogeny. We also adapted our protocol to utilize degraded DNA from old museum skins from Libya. We found strong population structuring that largely confirmed subspecies monophyly, and constructed a coalescent-based phylogeny with full support at all major nodes. The results are consistent with a recent hypothesis that La Palma and Libya are relic populations of an ancient Afrocanarian blue tit, although a small data set for Libya could not resolve its position relative to La Palma. The birds on the eastern islands of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote are similar to those in Morocco. Together they constitute the sister group to the clade containing the other Canary Islands (except La Palma), in which El Hierro is sister to the three central islands. Hence, extant Canary Islands populations seem to originate from multiple independent colonisation events. We also found population divergences in a key reproductive trait, viz. sperm length, which may constitute reproductive barriers between certain populations. We recommend a taxonomic revision of this polytypic species, where several subspecies should qualify for species rank. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Extended resection and pelvic exenteration in distal third rectal cancer.
Cir Esp
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Approximately 10% of all low rectal cancer needs surgical resection extended to other pelvic structures. Indication for extended resection should be given according to a precise systemic and local preoperative staging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the most important instrument utilized by the Multidisciplinary Team to decide therapeutic strategy according to the surgical risk. The status of the pathological circumferential resection margin is the most important prognostic factor determining local recurrence risk and oncological outcome and for this reason it should be considered pivotal in the decision of the strategy of treatment. When extended resection is performed, the presence of an expert colorectal surgeon is mandatory, often coordinating a group of specialists including urologist, plastic surgeon, vascular surgeon and orthopaedist when sacrectomy is necessary. The most frequent extended resection in women with low rectal cancer is the partial resection of vagina. In men, the infiltration of the prostate could be treated with partial prostatectomy, total prostatectomy with bladder preservation or pelvic exenteration, total or posterior, when the bladder is infiltrated. Rectal cancer infiltration of the pelvic sidewalls or of the sacrum is less frequent and obliges to perform a total pelvic exenteration including sometimes the hypogastric vessel or extended to the sacrum.
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Evaluation of mesorectal fascia in mid and low anterior rectal cancer using endorectal ultrasound is feasible and reliable: a comparison with MRI findings.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Accuracy of MRI in assessing mesorectal fascia and predicting circumferential resection margin decreases in low anterior rectal tumors.
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Evaluation of three enzyme immunoassays and a nucleic acid amplification test for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea at a university hospital in Brazil.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Despite the known importance of Clostridium difficile as a nosocomial pathogen, few studies regarding Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Brazil have been conducted. To date, the diagnostic tests that are available on the Brazilian market for the diagnosis of CDI have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of four commercial methods for the diagnosis of CDI in patients from a university hospital in Brazil.
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Variable patterns of obesity and cardiometabolic phenotypes and their association with lifestyle factors in the Di@bet.es study.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Prevalence rates of "metabolically healthy obese" (MHO) subjects vary depending on the criteria used. This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of MHO subjects and metabolically abnormal normal-weight subjects and compared the findings with the NHANES 1999-2004 study. The aims of the present study were, first, to determine the prevalence rates of MHO and MNHNO subjects using the same criteria as those of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (1999-2004) study, and second to compare the prevalence and correlates of obese subjects who are resistant to the development of adiposity-associated cardiometabolic abnormalities (CA) and normal-weight individuals who display cardiometabolic risk factor clustering between the Spanish and the US populations.
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SIP1/NHERF2 enhances estrogen receptor alpha transactivation in breast cancer cells.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that possesses two activating domains designated AF-1 and AF-2 that mediate its transcriptional activity. The role of AF-2 is to recruit coregulator protein complexes capable of modifying chromatin condensation status. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for the ligand-independent AF-1 activity and for its synergistic functional interaction with AF-2 is unclear. In this study, we have identified the protein Na+/H+ Exchanger RegulatoryFactor 2 (NHERF2) as an ER?-associated coactivator that interacts predominantly with the AF-1 domain of the nuclear receptor. Overexpression of NHERF2 in breast cancer MCF7 cells produced an increase in ER? transactivation. Interestingly, the presence of SRC-1 in NHERF2 stably overexpressing MCF7 cells produced a synergistic increase in ER? activity. We show further that NHERF2 interacts with ER? and SRC-1 in the promoter region of ER? target genes. The binding of NHERF2 to ER? in MCF7 cells increased cell proliferation and the ability of MCF7 cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We analyzed the expression of NHERF2 in breast cancer tumors finding a 2- to 17-fold increase in its mRNA levels in 50% of the tumor samples compared to normal breast tissue. These results indicate that NHERF2 is a coactivator of ER? that may participate in the development of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors.
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Multivariate analysis of burnout syndrome in Latin-American priests.
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Burnout syndrome is a highly prevalent disorder in a wide range of professional groups, and is associated with substantial psychophysiological alterations. Nevertheless, this syndrome has not been analyzed in depth among the clergy, a group which fulfils a fundamental social function and has to deal with numerous stressors that increase the risk of burnout onset.
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Modifications of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index with age.
Acta Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The aim of the study was to analyze the association between aging and insulin resistance estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). This work involved two studies: (1) the Di@bet.es study is a cross-sectional study including 4,948 subjects, comprising a representative sample of the adult Spanish population; (2) the Pizarra study is a population-based cohort study undertaken in Pizarra (Spain), in which 1,051 subjects were evaluated at baseline and 714 completed the 6-year follow-up study. Study variables included a clinical and demographic structured survey, a lifestyle survey, a physical examination, and an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects without diabetes. In the Di@bet.es study overall, an increase occurred in blood glucose until the age of 50, after which it remained stable (data adjusted for gender, body mass index, abnormal glucose regulation [AGR]). The HOMA-IR increased significantly with age (p = 0.01), due to a higher prevalence of obesity (p < 0.0001) and AGR (p < 0.001). In non-obese subjects without AGR, HOMA-IR values were not modified with age (p = 0.30), but they were with body mass index (p < 0.001). In the Pizarra study, the HOMA-IR was significantly lower after 6-year follow-up in the whole study population. Subjects with a HOMA-IR level higher than the 75th percentile at baseline were more likely to develop diabetes (OR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.2-3.9; p = 0.007) than subjects with a lower HOMA-IR. We concluded that age per se did not increase HOMA-IR levels, changes that might be related to higher rates of obesity and AGR in older subjects. The HOMA-IR was associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes 6 years later.
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Regional variability in the rates of total hip replacement in Spain.
Hip Int
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The role of economic resources, distribution of providers, and demography may explain part of the variability found in hip arthroplasty in international surveys. We aimed to investigate the influence of ageing index, health budget, and density of orthopaedic surgeons in the regional variability of the primary and revision THR rate in Spain, where regions decide on the allocation of their health budget.Inpatient database of hip procedures for years 1997 to 2011 was obtained from the Spanish Ministry of Health, segregated for each of the 17 regional health services in Spain. Crude and adjusted rates (direct method with total Spanish population per year) were calculated and used as dependent variables. Ageing index, Health Expenditure of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and number of orthopaedic surgeons per region were used as independent variables. Negative binomial regression analysis model and Poisson regression were calculated to estimate the risk contribution of the ecological variables.A total of 425,914 hip procedures, with 367,489 primary (mean crude rate = 124 × 105 inhabitants/year) and 58,425 revision hips (21 × 105 inhabitants/year) were included in the analysis. Regional variability was higher than expected in THR in Spain, despite a universal coverage health system in which equity may be challenged in the administration of hip arthroplasty. This was found particularly for primary THR. When hip replacement rates were adjusted for sex and age, the regional ageing index, the density of orthopaedic surgeons and the regional health budget could only partially explain risk ratio changes.
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Lactate transporters and vascular factors in HPV-induced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Tumour microenvironment is a fundamental aspect of tumour behaviour, modulating important events as cancer cell migration and invasion, as well as angiogenesis and metastisation. Among other microenvironment features, hypoxia and acidity play important roles in this modulation. As the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells induces extracellular acidity, which in turn induces angiogenesis, and hypoxia induces both the metabolic reprogramming and angiogenesis, the present study aims to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of a variety of metabolic and vascular markers as common targets of the hypoxic microenvironment in a series of cervical squamous cells carcinoma, as well as using an in vitro 3D culture model.
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Night-time sleep duration and the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Findings from the prospective Pizarra study.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Several recent studies have related short sleep duration with different health problems, though the results related with the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are far from conclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between night-time sleep duration and the incidence of obesity and T2D in a prospective study with a follow-up of 11 years.
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Effects of obesity/fatty acids on the expression of GPR120.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The effects that fatty acids (FAs) exert on G protein-coupled receptor-120 (GPR120) levels, a receptor for FAs, are still unknown. We analyzed the association between GPR120 and obesity, and the FA effects on its expression.
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Estrogen receptor beta and CXCR4/CXCL12 expression: differences by sex and hormonal status in lung adenocarcinoma.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Studies have reported differences in lung cancer behavior between sex and hormonal status that suggest a role of estrogens and estrogen receptor beta (ER?) in lung carcinogenesis. In some types of hormone-dependent cancer, estrogens may regulate CXCL12/CXCR4 expression through ER? signaling. High expression of CXCL12/CXCR4 is associated with poor prognosis in lung cancer because it promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether lung adenocarcinoma tissues from pre- and postmenopausal women and from men exhibit different ER?, CXCR4/CXCL12 expression and whether this expression is associated with clinicopathological features.
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CCNG2 and CDK4 is associated with insulin resistance in adipose tissue.
Surg Obes Relat Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The involvement of cyclin G2 (CCNG2) and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4), cell cycle regulatory proteins, in adipose tissue metabolism and insulin resistance is still unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze CCNG2 and CDK4 levels in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from nonobese and morbidly obese patients and their relationship with insulin resistance.
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Relationship of obesity and insulin resistance with the cerebrovascular reactivity: a case control study.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Obesity is associated with increased risk for stroke. The breath-holding index (BHI) is a measure of vasomotor reactivity of the brain which can be measured with the transcranial Doppler (TCD). We aim to evaluate obesity as an independent factor for altered cerebrovascular reactivity.
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Hypoxia-inducible factors modulate the stemness and malignancy of colon cancer cells by playing opposite roles in canonical wnt signaling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study examined the role played by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in malignant phenotype maintenance and canonical Wnt signaling. Under normoxia, we determined that both HIF-1? and HIF-2? are expressed in human colon cancer cells but not in their non-malignant counterparts. The stable knockdown of HIF-1? or HIF-2? expression induced negative effects on the malignant phenotype of colon cancer cells, with lactate production, the rate of apoptosis, migration, CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis, and tumorigenic activity all being significantly affected by HIF knockdown and with HIF-1? depletion exerting greater effects. Knockdown of these two HIF transcripts induced different and even opposite effects on ?-catenin transcriptional activity in colon cancer cells with different genetic Wnt signaling pathways. In SW480 cells, HIF-2? knockdown did not affect ?-catenin levels, increasing the transcriptional activity of ?-catenin by inducing its nuclear accumulation, whereas HIF-1? silencing negatively affected the stability and transcriptional activity of ?-catenin, inducing its exit from the nuclei and its recruitment to the cell membrane by E-cadherin. In addition, although HIF-1? depletion induced a reversal of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), HIF-2? silencing altered the expression of the stem cell markers CD44, Oct4, and CD24 and of the differentiation marker CK20 in the opposite direction as HIF-1? silencing. Remarkably, HIF-2? knockdown also enhanced ?-catenin transcriptional activity under hypoxia in cells that displayed normal Wnt signaling, suggesting that the gene negatively modulates canonical Wnt signaling in colon cancer cells. Taken together, our results indicate that HIFs play opposing roles in canonical Wnt signaling and are essential for the stemness and malignancy maintenance of colon cancer cells.
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Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 27) and without AH (n = 14) were compared with healthy participants (n = 31). We examined functional connectivity by analyzing correlations and cross-correlations among previously detected independent component analysis time courses. Granger causality was used to infer the information flow direction in the brain regions. The results demonstrate that the patterns of cortico-cortical functional synchrony differentiated the patients with AH from the patients without AH and from the healthy participants. Additionally, Granger-causal relationships between the networks clearly differentiated the groups. In the patients with AH, the principal causal source was an occipital-cerebellar component, versus a temporal component in the patients without AH and the healthy controls. These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH.
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Weather features associated with aircraft icing conditions: a case study.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the context of aviation weather hazards, the study of aircraft icing is very important because of several accidents attributed to it over recent decades. On February 1, 2012, an unusual meteorological situation caused severe icing of a C-212-200, an aircraft used during winter 2011-2012 to study winter cloud systems in the Guadarrama Mountains of the central Iberian Peninsula. Observations in this case were from a MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler, which acquired atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles continuously every 2.5 minutes. A Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) was also used to study cloud hydrometeors. Finally, ice nuclei concentration was measured in an isothermal cloud chamber, with the goal of calculating concentrations in the study area. Synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions were analysed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It was demonstrated that topography influenced generation of a mesolow and gravity waves on the lee side of the orographic barrier, in the region where the aircraft experienced icing. Other factors such as moisture, wind direction, temperature, atmospheric stability, and wind shear were decisive in the appearance of icing. This study indicates that icing conditions may arise locally, even when the synoptic situation does not indicate any risk.
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[In Process Citation].
Rev Derecho Genoma Hum
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Is addressed in this work if you can accept that in Spain a reproductive rights through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, especially when the client is a single woman and when the baby has undergone a substitution pregnancy or surrogacy, regardless of those who have come to this possibility, which still continues to be considered without any efficacy in the rules governing the matter.
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PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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The Protein Data Bank in Europe (pdbe.org) is a founding member of the Worldwide PDB consortium (wwPDB; wwpdb.org) and as such is actively engaged in the deposition, annotation, remediation and dissemination of macromolecular structure data through the single global archive for such data, the PDB. Similarly, PDBe is a member of the EMDataBank organisation (emdatabank.org), which manages the EMDB archive for electron microscopy data. PDBe also develops tools that help the biomedical science community to make effective use of the data in the PDB and EMDB for their research. Here we describe new or improved services, including updated SIFTS mappings to other bioinformatics resources, a new browser for the PDB archive based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, updates to the analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-derived structures, redesigned search and browse interfaces, and new or updated visualisation and validation tools for EMDB entries.
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Nutrition Status and Intestinal Permeability in Patients Eligible for Liver Transplantation.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Increased intestinal permeability has been reported in multiple studies of cirrhotic patients, although specific factors associated with this finding have not been fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there was an association between nutrition status measured by different methods and intestinal permeability in cirrhotic patients who were candidates for liver transplantation. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 18 cirrhotic patients and 15 healthy controls. Patients nutrition status was evaluated by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), anthropometry, dynamometry, and phase angle, which was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Intestinal permeability was assessed by the lactulose/mannitol test. Results: The prevalence of malnutrition showed wide variance between different assessment methods (5.5%-77.8%). Intestinal permeability was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in healthy controls. In relation to nutrition status, intestinal permeability and phase angle did not differ significantly between patients who were considered well nourished (median intestinal permeability, 0.010 [range, 0.001-0.198]; median phase angle, 6.0 [range, 4.2-6.9]) and malnourished patients (intestinal permeability, 0.032 [range, 0.002-0.079]; phase angle, 4.8 [range, 2.2-6.1]) by SGA. In addition, no correlation was found between nutrition diagnosis as assessed by different methods, patient age, liver disease severity scores, and laboratory measurements with intestinal permeability. Conclusion: Although intestinal permeability was increased in cirrhotic patients, this finding was not associated with nutrition status.
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Modified Wongs classification improves the accuracy of rectal cancer staging by endorectal ultrasound and MRI.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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Douglas Wong proposed a new classification of tumor penetration in the rectal wall (T stage) in an attempt to incorporate the prognostic heterogeneity of T3 rectal cancers into the preoperative staging.
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Does Dietary Iodine Regulate Oxidative Stress and Adiponectin Levels in Human Breast Milk?
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Abstract Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1??M potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
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Maternal-Fetal Thyroid Function at the Time of Birth and Its Relation with Iodine Intake.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Background: The effects of moderate variations in dietary iodine intake on maternal and fetal thyroid function are poorly understood. Recent studies question the usefulness of neonatal screening of congenital hypothyroidism as a tool for monitoring iodine deficiency. We proposed to test the hypothesis of an association between iodine intake during the last trimester of pregnancy and fetal thyroid function at the time of birth. Methods: The study was undertaken at term in 233 healthy pregnant women (29.7±5.6 years) and in their newborn. Inclusion of women in the study was done within the 24 hours before delivery. Results: The median maternal urinary iodine concentration was 126.5??g/L. The maternal free triiodothyronine (FT3), although not thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), correlated significantly with the urinary iodine concentration (r=0.17, p=0.013). The cord blood TSH, FT4, and FT3 correlated positively with the maternal urinary iodine concentration at the time of delivery (r=0.24, p=0.001; r=0.16, p=0.032; and r=0.24, p=0.003, respectively). The cord blood and heel blood TSH correlated positively with the amniotic fluid iodine concentration (r=0.21, p=0.015 and r=0.15, p=0.036). The cord blood TSH correlated positively with the cord blood FT4 (r=0.21, p=0.022) and FT3 (r=0.32, p=0.017). The maternal TSH correlated significantly with the cord blood TSH (r=0.22, p=0.014) and with the heel blood TSH (r=0.13, p=0.050). Conclusions: The results of this study show the presence of a positive association of TSH-FT4 at the time of delivery, which may be modulated by the amount of iodine consumed by the mother during pregnancy.
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Professional training in the workplace: the role of achievement motivation and locus of control.
Span J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.
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Web-based visualisation and analysis of 3D electron-microscopy data from EMDB and PDB.
J. Struct. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) has developed web-based tools for the visualisation and analysis of 3D electron microscopy (3DEM) structures in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB). The tools include: (1) a volume viewer for 3D visualisation of maps, tomograms and models, (2) a slice viewer for inspecting 2D slices of tomographic reconstructions, and (3) visual analysis pages to facilitate analysis and validation of maps, tomograms and models. These tools were designed to help non-experts and experts alike to get some insight into the content and assess the quality of 3DEM structures in EMDB and PDB without the need to install specialised software or to download large amounts of data from these archives. The technical challenges encountered in developing these tools, as well as the more general considerations when making archived data available to the user community through a web interface, are discussed.
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[Bioethical language in the law and jurisprudence about bioethical problems].
Cuad Bioet
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The impact is analyzed that on the Spanish Law relative to questions bioethics--as the Law on artificial reproduction, the Law of biomedical investigation, and the Law on sexual and reproductive health--can have the conception of human embryo enunciated by the Court of Justice of the European Union in his judgment of October 18, 2011, considering it to be any ovum fertilized with independence of the degree of reached development.
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Carbon-supported Palladium and Ruthenium Nanoparticles: Application as Catalysts in Alcohol Oxidation, Cross-coupling and Hydrogenation Reactions.
Recent Pat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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In the last fifteen-years, the application of metal nanoparticles as catalysts in organic synthesis has received a renewed interest. Therefore, much attention is currently being paid to the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in order to achieve the control of their characteristics in terms of size, shape and surface chemistry. Besides this, the recyclability as well as the recovery from the reaction medium still remain the major drawbacks to widespread the use of nanoparticles in catalysis. To overcome these problems, the immobilization of metal nanoparticles on solid supports appears as a promising alternative. In that context, carbon materials offer several advantages as solid supports such as availability, relatively low cost, high mechanical strength, chemical stability, and a pore structure along with an attractive surface chemistry which allows easy modifications, such as its functionalization, to suit the nanoparticles immobilization needs. Among the transition metals Palladium and Ruthenium are widely employed as efficient catalysts in many reactions. Herein, the most recent advances, from recent papers and patents, in relation to the preparation of carbon-supported Pd or Ru nanoparticles systems as well as their application as catalysts in alcohol oxidation, cross-coupling or hydrogenation reactions, are reviewed.
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An embedded Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP implemented on a microcontroller for food classification.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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In the present study, a portable system based on a microcontroller has been developed to classify different kinds of honeys. In order to do this classification, a Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP network (SFA) implemented in a microcontroller has been used. Due to memory limits when working with microcontrollers, it is necessary to optimize the use of both program and data memory. Thus, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for MATLAB® has been developed in order to optimize the necessary parameters to programme the SFA in a microcontroller. The measures have been carried out by potentiometric techniques using a multielectrode made of seven different metals. Next, the neural network has been trained on a PC by means of the GUI in Matlab using the data obtained in the experimental phase. The microcontroller has been programmed with the obtained parameters and then, new samples have been analysed using the portable system in order to test the model. Results are very promising, as an 87.5% recognition rate has been achieved in the training phase, which suggests that this kind of procedures can be successfully used not only for honey classification, but also for many other kinds of food.
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The rise of soluble TWEAK levels in severely obese subjects after bariatric surgery may affect adipocyte-cytokine production induced by TNF?.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) is generated by the intracellular proteolytic cleavage of full-length membrane-bound TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (mTWEAK). sTWEAK levels are reduced in diseases with an inflammatory component. Additionally, sTWEAK hampers TNF? activity in human cells.
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Experience of an eating disorders out-patient program in an internal medicine hospital.
Eat Weight Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The aim of this study was to develop a successful low budget out-patient program, in an internal medicine hospital, for patients presenting eating disorders in an emerging nation.
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Standardization of Sn-113.
Appl Radiat Isot
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The radionuclide (113)Sn is a quasi-monoenergetic gamma emitter often used in the efficiency calibration of gamma spectrometers in the energy region around 390keV. This paper presents the results of the standardization of this radionuclide by three methods: integral (4?-?) counting with a well-type NaI(Tl) detector, liquid scintillation counting applying the CIEMAT-NIST method and 4? coincidence counting (conversion electron-X) with a digital coincidence system.
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Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal body mass index, overweight, or obesity.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Obesity and osteoporosis are two important public health problems that greatly impact mortality and morbidity. Several similarities between these complex diseases have been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze if different body mass indexes (BMIs) are associated with variations in bone mineral density (BMD) among postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal weight, overweight, or different degrees of obesity.
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Clinicopathological correlation and prognostic significance of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 expression in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the fourth most frequent cause of cancer death. Literature indicates that vascular endothelial growth factor is a predominant angiogenic factor and that angiogenesis plays an important role in the progression of CRC.
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Measurement of the half-life of (68)Ga.
Appl Radiat Isot
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The half-life of the positron-emitter (68)Ga has been measured by following the decay rate with two systems based on ionization chamber and Ge detectors. The decay rate was measured for periods of time up to 10 half-lives. The combination of the 6 results obtained with both systems gives a value of T1/2=67.845(18)min, in good agreement with recommended data and with an uncertainty lower than any other previously reported value.
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Optimization of a measurement facility for radioactive waste free release by Monte Carlo simulation.
Appl Radiat Isot
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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A novel free release measurement facility (FRMF) was developed within the joint research project "Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management" of the European Metrology Research Programme. Before and during FRMF design and construction, Monte Carlo calculations with MCNPX and PENELOPE codes were used to optimize the thickness of the shielding, the dimensions of the container, and the shape of detector collimators. Validation of the numerical models of the FRMF detectors and the results of the optimization are discussed in the paper.
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Metabolically healthy but obese, a matter of time? Findings from the prospective Pizarra study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Prospective longitudinal studies evaluating the relevance of "Metabolically Healthy but Obese" (MHO) phenotype at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases are few and results are contradictory.
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Antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in absence of broncho-obstruction in sensitized guinea pigs.
Exp. Lung Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Airway obstruction after antigen challenge is not always observed in patients with allergic asthma, even if they develop hyperresponsiveness. A similar event is observed in our guinea pig model of allergic asthma. Our aim was to study this phenomenon.
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Factors determining weight gain in adults and relation with glucose tolerance.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Modifications in lifestyle, diet and certain clinical events are major contributors for the high prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with weight gain in a population of Spanish adults.
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Impact of genetic variants of IL-6, IL6R, LRP5, ESR1 and SP7 genes on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with obesity.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Since obesity and osteoporosis present a high genetic predisposition and polymorphisms of IL-6, IL6R, LRP5, ESR1 and SP7 may influence the risk of both diseases, the aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of polymorphisms in these genes, as well as their haplotypes, with BMD variations in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with grade 2 or grade 3 obesity.
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Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as early predictors of anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery: a prospective observational study.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Although the early diagnosis of anastomotic leak is a key point in reducing its clinical consequences, in daily practice, anastomotic leak diagnosis is often late.
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Increase of cortical bone after a cementless long stem in periprosthetic fractures.
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Healing and functional recovery have been reported using an extensively porous-coated stem in Vancouver B2 and B3 periprosthetic fractures; however, loss of cortical bone has been observed when using these stems in revision surgery for aseptic loosening. However, it is unclear whether this bone loss influences subsequent loosening.
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Infant neurocognitive development is independent of the use of iodised salt or iodine supplements given during pregnancy.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The benefits of iodine supplements during pregnancy remain controversial in areas with a mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of improving iodine intakes, with iodised salt (IS) or iodine supplements, in pregnant Spanish women. A total of 131 pregnant women in their first trimester were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) IS in cooking and at the table, (2) 200 ?g potassium iodide (KI)/d or (3) 300 ?g KI/d. No differences were found in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) or thyroid volume (TV) between the three groups. Regardless of the group in which women were included, those who had been taking IS for at least 1 year before becoming pregnant had a significantly lower TV in the third trimester (P= 0.01) and a significantly higher urinary iodine in the first (173.7 (sd 81.8) v. 113.8 (sd 79.6) ?g/l, P= 0.001) and third trimesters (206.3 (sd 91.2) v. 160.4 (sd 87.7) ?g/l, P= 0.03). Also, no differences were seen in TSH, FT4 or FT3. Childrens neurological development was not significantly associated with the consumption of IS for at least 1 year before becoming pregnant and no differences were found according to the treatment group. In conclusion, in pregnant women with insufficient iodine intake, the intake of IS before becoming pregnant was associated with a better maternal thyroid function. The form of iodide intake was not associated with maternal thyroid function or childrens neurological development.
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Enzyme catalysed tandem reactions.
Curr Opin Chem Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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To transfer to the laboratory, the excellent efficiency shown by enzymes in Nature, biocatalysis, had to mimic several synthetic strategies used by the living organisms. Biosynthetic pathways are examples of tandem catalysis and may be assimilated in the biocatalysis field for the use of isolated multi-enzyme systems in the homogeneous phase. The concurrent action of several enzymes that work sequentially presents extraordinary advantages from the synthetic point of view, since it permits a reversible process to become irreversible, to shift the equilibrium reaction in such a way that enantiopure compounds can be obtained from prochiral or racemic substrates, reduce or eliminate problems due to product inhibition or prevent the shortage of substrates by dilution or degradation in the bulk media, etc. In this review we want to illustrate the developments of recent studies involving in vitro multi-enzyme reactions for the synthesis of different classes of organic compounds.
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Adipose tissue characteristics related to weight z-score in childhood.
Int J Endocrinol Metab
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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Childhood obesity has grown very fast over recent decades and now it represents a serious public health problem. The number of adipocytes is set in childhood and adolescence and then, an effective understanding of the development of adipose tissue during these periods will help in the prevention of this pathology.
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Assessing organizational climate: psychometric properties of the CLIOR Scale.
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Organizational climate is the set of perceptions shared by workers who occupy the same workplace. The main goal of this study is to develop a new organizational climate scale and to determine its psychometric properties.
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The carboxy-terminal region of CD5 is required for c-CBL mediated TCR signaling downmodulation in thymocytes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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CD5 functions as a negative regulator of TCR signaling during thymocyte development, however, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain elusive. A key molecule involved in the down modulation of TCR signaling is c-Cbl, an ubiquitin ligase that physically associates with CD5. Crosslinking of TCR in thymocytes leads to ubiquitylation and lysosomal/proteasomal degradation of TCR downstream signaling effectors and CD5 itself. The present report shows that co-engagement of CD3 with CD5 enhanced c-Cbl phosphorylation, which was not affected by the deletion of the pseudo-ITAM domain of CD5, the putative binding site for c-Cbl. However, amino acids present in the carboxy-terminal region of CD5, were necessary for this effect, indicating that ITAM-independent sites were involved in the interaction of c-Cbl with CD5. The carboxy-terminal region of CD5 was also required for Vav degradation, a well-known target for c-Cbl-dependent ubiquitylation. These results support the notion that the distal cytoplasmic domain of CD5, including Y463, plays a relevant role in the downmodulation of TCR signals in thymocytes via c-Cbl.
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Factors affecting levels of urinary albumin excretion in the general population of Spain: the Di@bet.es study.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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The present study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of urinary ACR (albumin/creatinine ratio) >30 mg/g and the associated clinical and environmental factors in a representative sample of the population of Spain. Di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in 2009-2010. Clinical, metabolic, socio-demographic, anthropometric data and information about lifestyle habit were collected. Those subjects without KDM (known diabetes mellitus) were given an OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test). Albumin and creatinine were measured in a urinary sample and ACR was calculated. The population prevalence of ACR >30 mg/g was 7.65% (adjusted for sex and age). The prevalence of ACR >30 mg/g increased with age (P<0.001). Subjects with carbohydrate metabolism disorders had a greater prevalence of ACR >30 mg/g but after being adjusted for age, sex and hypertension, was significant only in those subjects with UKDM (unknown diabetes mellitus) {OR (odd ratio), 2.07 [95% CI (confidence interval), 1.38-3.09]; P<0.001] and KDM [OR, 3.55 (95% CI, 2.63-4.80); P<0.001]. Prevalence of ACR >30 mg/g was associated with hypertension [OR, 1.48 (95% CI, 1.12-1.95); P=0.001], HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) [OR, 1.47 (95% CI, 1.13-1.92); P?0.01], metabolic syndrome [OR, 2.17 (95% CI, 1.72-2.72); P<0.001], smoking [OR, 1.40 (95% CI, 1.06-1.83); P?0.05], physical activity [OR, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88); P?0.01] and consumption of fish [OR, 0.38 (95% CI, 0.18-0.78); P?0.01]. This is the first study that reports the prevalence of ACR >30 mg/g in the Spanish population. The association between clinical variables and other potentially modifiable environmental variables contribute jointly, and sometimes interactively, to the explanation of prevalence of ACR >30 mg/g. Many of these risk factors are susceptible to intervention.
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Climatic trends in hail precipitation in france: spatial, altitudinal, and temporal variability.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Hail precipitation is characterized by enhanced spatial and temporal variability. Association Nationale dEtude et de Lutte contre les Fléaux Atmosphériques (ANELFA) installed hailpad networks in the Atlantic and Midi-Pyrénées regions of France. Historical data of hail variables from 1990 to 2010 were used to characterize variability. A total of 443 stations with continuous records were chosen to obtain a first approximation of areas most affected by hail. The Cressman method was selected for this purpose. It was possible to find relationships between spatial distributions of the variables, which are supported by obtained Pearson correlations. Monthly and annual trends were examined using the Mann-Kendall test for each of the total affected hailpads. There were 154 pads with a positive trend; most were located between Tarbes and Saint-Gaudens. We found 177 pads with a negative trend, which were largely south of a pine forest in Landes. The remainder of the study area showed an elevated spatial variability with no pattern, even between relatively close hailpads. A similar pattern was found in Lérida (Spain) and Southeast France. In the entire area, monthly trends were predominantly negative in June, July, and August, whereas May had a positive trend; again, however, there was no spatial pattern. There was a high concentration of hailpads with positive trend near the Pyrenees, probably owing to orographic effects, and if we apply cluster analysis with the Mann-Kendall values, the spatial variability is accentuated for stations at higher altitude.
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Munc18c in adipose tissue is downregulated in obesity and is associated with insulin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Munc18c is associated with glucose metabolism and could play a relevant role in obesity. However, little is known about the regulation of Munc18c expression. We analyzed Munc18c gene expression in human visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue and its relationship with obesity and insulin.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.