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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impaired Haemophilus influenzae type-b Transplacental Antibody Transmission and Declining Antibody Avidity through the First Year of Life Represent Potential Vulnerabilities for HIV-Exposed but Uninfected Infants.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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To determine whether immune function is impaired among HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV-infected mothers and to identify potential vulnerabilities to vaccine preventable infection, we characterized mother-to-infant placental transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b-specific IgG (Hib-IgG), and levels and avidity after vaccination in Ugandan HEU infants and in HIV-unexposed U.S. infants.
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Timing of antiretroviral therapy after diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for 20 to 25% of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related deaths in Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential for survival; however, the question of when ART should be initiated after diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis remains unanswered.
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AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The contribution of fungal infections to the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals is largely unrecognized. A recent meeting highlighted several priorities that need to be urgently addressed, including improved epidemiological surveillance, increased availability of existing diagnostics and drugs, more training in the field of medical mycology, and better funding for research and provision of treatment, particularly in developing countries.
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Decreased mutation frequencies among immunoglobulin G variable region genes during viremic HIV-1 infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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HIV-1 infection is complicated by high rates of opportunistic infections against which specific antibodies contribute to immune defense. Antibody function depends on somatic hypermutation (SHM) of variable regions of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (VH-D-J). We characterized the frequency of SHM in expressed IgG mRNA immunoglobulin transcripts from control and HIV-1-infected patients.
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Neutralization of HIV subtypes A and D by breast milk IgG from women with HIV infection in Uganda.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Among HIV-exposed infants in resource-limited countries, 8-12% are infected postnatally by breastfeeding. However, most of those uninfected at birth remain uninfected over time despite daily exposure to HIV in breast milk. Thus, we assessed the HIV-inhibitory activity of breast milk.
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Mouse marginal zone B cells harbor specificities similar to human broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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A series of potent, broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies have been isolated from B cells of HIV-infected individuals. VRC01 represents a subset of these antibodies that mediate neutralization with a restricted set of IGHV genes. The memory B cells expressing these antibodies were isolated years after infection; thus, the B-cell subpopulation from which they originated and the extent of participation in the initial HIV antibody response, if any, are unclear. Here we evaluated the frequency of anti-gp120 B cells in follicular (FO) and marginal zone (MZ) B-cell compartments of naïve WT mice and comparable human populations in uninfected individuals. We found that in non-HIV-exposed humans and mice, the majority of gp120-reactive B cells are of naïve and FO phenotype, respectively. Murine FO B cells express a diverse antibody repertoire to recognize gp120. In contrast, mouse MZ B cells recognize gp120 less frequently but preferentially use IGHV1-53 to encode gp120-specific antibodies. Notably, IGHV1-53 shows high identity to human IGHV1-2*02, which has been repeatedly found to encode broadly neutralizing mutated HIV antibodies, such as VRC01. Finally, we show that human MZ-like B cells express IGHV1-2*02, and that IGHV1-53 expression is enriched in mouse MZ B cells. These data suggest that efforts toward developing an HIV vaccine might consider eliciting protective HIV antibody responses selectively from alternative B-cell populations harboring IGHV gene segments capable of producing protective antibodies.
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Systemic and mucosal differences in HIV burden, immune, and therapeutic responses.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Mucosal tissues represent major targets for HIV transmission but differ in susceptibility and reservoir function by unknown mechanisms.
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HIV infection is associated with reduced serum alpha-1-antitrypsin concentrations.
Clin Invest Med
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
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Several observations suggest the presence of HIV-suppressive factors in the fluid phase of blood. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), the most abundant serine protease inhibitor in the circulation, has potent anti-HIV activity in vitro, and may function as an endogenous HIV suppressor. Therefore, we assessed serum AAT concentrations for association with HIV infection.
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Antiretroviral therapy down-regulates innate antiviral response genes in patients with AIDS in sub-saharan Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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HIV pathogenesis is characterized by destructive imbalances between virus-mediated immune damage, antiviral immune responses, and immune activation. We characterized the effects of successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) to identify the breadth and patterns of HIV-associated gene expression.
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A randomized clinical trial comparing revaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to polysaccharide vaccine among HIV-infected adults.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2010
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The risk of pneumococcal disease persists, and antibody responses to revaccination with the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) are low among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. We determined whether revaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) would enhance these responses.
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Paucity of initial cerebrospinal fluid inflammation in cryptococcal meningitis is associated with subsequent immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Cryptococcal meningitis (CM)-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) complicates antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 20%-40% of ART-naive persons with AIDS and prior CM. Pathogenesis is unknown.
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The association of ethnicity with antibody responses to pneumococcal vaccination among adults with HIV infection.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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Ethnicity may be associated with the incidence of pneumococcal infections and the frequency of protective vaccine responses. Earlier studies have suggested that HIV-infected persons of black ethnicity develop less robust immune responses to pneumococcal vaccination that may relate to their higher incidence of invasive disease. We evaluated the association of ethnicity with capsule-specific antibody responses to pneumococcal revaccination, with either the pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) or polysaccharide (PPV) vaccines among 188 HIV-infected adults. The proportion of the 77 African Americans (AA) and 111 Caucasians with comparable virologic and immunologic parameters who achieved a positive immune response (?2-fold rise in capsule-specific IgG from baseline with post-vaccination value ?1 ?g/mL for ?2 of 4 serotypes) at day 60 after revaccination was similar (43% vs. 49%, respectively, p=0.65). Results were also similar when vaccine types (PPV and PCV) were examined separately. Mean changes in log(10) transformed IgG levels from baseline to days 60 and 180 post-vaccination were also not significantly different between AA and Caucasians. In summary, in this ethnically diverse cohort with equal access to care, we did not observe differential antibody responses between AA and Caucasian HIV-infected adults after pneumococcal revaccination.
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Clinical features and serum biomarkers in HIV immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after cryptococcal meningitis: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves survival in persons with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and AIDS, ART frequently elicits HIV immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), an exaggerated and frequently deadly inflammatory reaction that complicates recovery from immunodeficiency. The pathogenesis of IRIS is poorly understood and prediction of IRIS is not possible.
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Workshop on immunizations in older adults: identifying future research agendas.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Goals for immunization in older adults may differ from those in young adults and children, in whom complete prevention of disease is the objective. Often, reduced hospitalization and death but also averting exacerbation of underlying chronic illness, functional decline, and frailty are important goals in the older age group. Because of the effect of age on dendritic cell function, T cell-mediated immune suppression, reduced proliferative capacity of T cells, and other immune responses, the efficacy of vaccines often wanes with advanced age. This article summarizes the discussion and proceedings of a workshop organized by the Association of Specialty Professors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of immunology, epidemiology, infectious diseases, geriatrics, and gerontology reviewed the current status of vaccines in older adults, identified knowledge gaps, and suggest priority areas for future research. The goal of the workshop was to identify what is known about immunizations (efficacy, effect, and current schedule) in older adults and to recommend priorities for future research. Investigation in the areas identified has the potential to enhance understanding of the immune process in aging individuals, inform vaccine development, and lead to more-effective strategies to reduce the risk of vaccine-preventable illness in older adults.
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Pathogen-specific antibodies: codependent no longer.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise.
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The human nasal microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus carriage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Colonization of humans with Staphylococcus aureus is a critical prerequisite of subsequent clinical infection of the skin, blood, lung, heart and other deep tissues. S. aureus persistently or intermittently colonizes the nares of approximately 50% of healthy adults, whereas approximately 50% of the general population is rarely or never colonized by this pathogen. Because microbial consortia within the nasal cavity may be an important determinant of S. aureus colonization we determined the composition and dynamics of the nasal microbiota and correlated specific microorganisms with S. aureus colonization.
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Influenza in immunosuppressed populations: a review of infection frequency, morbidity, mortality, and vaccine responses.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
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Patients that are immunosuppressed might be at risk of serious influenza-associated complications. As a result, multiple guidelines recommend influenza vaccination for patients infected with HIV, who have received solid-organ transplants, who have received haemopoietic stem-cell transplants, and patients on haemodialysis. However, immunosuppression might also limit vaccine responses. To better inform policy, we reviewed the published work relevant to incidence, outcomes, and prevention of influenza infection in these patients, and in patients being treated chemotherapy and with systemic corticosteroids. Available data suggest that most immunosuppressed populations are indeed at higher risk of influenza-associated complications, have a general trend toward impaired humoral vaccine responses (although these data are mixed), and can be safely vaccinated--although longitudinal data are largely lacking. Randomised clinical trial data were limited to one study of HIV-infected patients with high vaccine efficacy. Better trial data would inform vaccination recommendations on the basis of efficacy and cost in these at-risk populations.
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Kinetics of viral shedding and immune responses in adults following administration of cold-adapted influenza vaccine.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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The optimal type and timing of specimens to study the immune responses to cold-adapted influenza vaccine (CAIV) and shedding of vaccine virus are not well established. Healthy adults were vaccinated with CAIV (n=10) or trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) (n=5). Shedding of vaccine strain influenza B was detected by culture in 6 of 10 CAIV recipients; influenza A was also detected in one of these subjects. Viral shedding by quantitative RT-PCR was detected in 9 of 10 subjects. We detected a > or = 2-fold increase in influenza-specific IgA in nasal wash in 80-100% of CAIV recipients following vaccination, but specific IgG increased in neither nasal wash nor saliva. Recipients of TIV had significant increases in specific serum IgG antibodies. Recipients of both CAIV and TIV had significant increases in IFNgamma-secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs from subjects receiving CAIV showed a higher proportion of functional, tissue-tropic T-cells (CD4+CD69+CD18+MIP1alpha+) specific for homotypic and heterosubtypic strains of influenza by flow cytometry.
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Lactation and neonatal nutrition: defining and refining the critical questions.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia
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This paper resulted from a conference entitled "Lactation and Milk: Defining and refining the critical questions" held at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from January 18-20, 2012. The mission of the conference was to identify unresolved questions and set future goals for research into human milk composition, mammary development and lactation. We first outline the unanswered questions regarding the composition of human milk (Section I) and the mechanisms by which milk components affect neonatal development, growth and health and recommend models for future research. Emerging questions about how milk components affect cognitive development and behavioral phenotype of the offspring are presented in Section II. In Section III we outline the important unanswered questions about regulation of mammary gland development, the heritability of defects, the effects of maternal nutrition, disease, metabolic status, and therapeutic drugs upon the subsequent lactation. Questions surrounding breastfeeding practice are also highlighted. In Section IV we describe the specific nutritional challenges faced by three different populations, namely preterm infants, infants born to obese mothers who may or may not have gestational diabetes, and infants born to undernourished mothers. The recognition that multidisciplinary training is critical to advancing the field led us to formulate specific training recommendations in Section V. Our recommendations for research emphasis are summarized in Section VI. In sum, we present a roadmap for multidisciplinary research into all aspects of human lactation, milk and its role in infant nutrition for the next decade and beyond.
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Altered vaginal microbiota are associated with perinatal mother-to-child transmission of HIV in African women from Burkina Faso.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a significant problem in resource-limited settings, despite the advent of antiretroviral therapies. Because perturbations in vaginal microbial communities are associated with sexual transmission of HIV, we determined whether perinatal MTCT is associated with the vaginal microbiotas of HIV-infected mothers.
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Kinetics of nevirapine and its impact on HIV-1 RNA levels in maternal plasma and breast milk over time after perinatal single-dose nevirapine.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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To determine kinetics after single-dose nevirapine and the impact on HIV RNA [viral load (VL)] in maternal plasma and breast milk (BM).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.