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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Human papillomavirus DNA prevalence and type distribution in anal carcinomas worldwide.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Knowledge about human papillomaviruses (HPV) types involved in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here, we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16(INK4a) expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in the anal cancer data set. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.1-91.0%) and in 95.3% of AIN 2/3 (95% CI: 84.2-99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16(INK4a) overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA-positive anal cancers. In view of the results of HPV DNA and high proportion of p16(INK4a) overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions.
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HPV prevalence and genotypes in different histological subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma, a worldwide analysis of 760 cases.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The goal of our study was to provide comprehensive data on the worldwide human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical adenocarcinoma in correlation with histologic tumor subtypes, geographical location, patients' age, and duration of sample storage. Paraffin-embedded samples of 760 cervical adenocarcinoma cases were collected worldwide. A three-level pathology review of cases was performed to obtain consensus histologic diagnoses and 682 cases were determined to be eligible for further analysis. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). Classic cervical adenocarcinoma accounted for 83.1% of cases, while rare histological variants accounted for a few percent of cases individually. HPV positivity varied significantly between the different histologic tumor subtypes. Classic cervical adenocarcinoma showed high HPV positivity (71.8%), while other adenocarcinoma types had significantly lower HPV prevalence (endometrioid 27.3%, serous 25%, clear cell 20%, not otherwise specified 13.9%, and minimal deviation 8.3%). In all, 91.8% of HPV-positive tumors showed the presence of a single viral type and in 7% of cases multiple viral types were detected. Three HPV genotypes, HPV 16, 18, and 45, dominated in all adenocarcinomas and together accounted for 94.1% of HPV-positive tumors. HPV16 was the most common and found in 50.9% of HPV-positive cases, followed by HPV18 (31.6%) and HPV45 (11.6%). HPV prevalence varied depending on geographical region, patient age, and sample storage time. Tumors from older patients and tumor samples with longer storage time showed lower HPV prevalence. Our results indicate that HPV vaccines may prevent up to 82.5% (HPV16/18) and up to 95.3% (9-valent vaccine) of HPV-positive cervical adenocarcinomas, mostly the classic type. HPV testing and vaccination will not provide full coverage for a very small subset of classical adenocarcinomas and most of the rare tumor variants such as clear cell, serous, endometrioid, and minimal deviation.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 25 April 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.55.
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HIV positivity but not HPV/p16 status is associated with higher recurrence rate in anal cancer.
J Gastrointest Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a pathogenic factor of squamous cell carcinoma in various mucosal locations, including anal carcinoma (ACA). It is also known that patients positive for HIV are at high risk of ACA. The goal of this study was to examine clinical outcome in ACA in relation to HPV/p16 positivity, histologic tumor differentiation, and HIV status. Patients with oropharyngeal cancers that are positive for HPV and show overexpression of p16 as well as having non-keratinizing/basaloid histology have been reported to have better outcomes following chemoradiation (CRT). However, such relationships in ACA remain unknown.
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Progression of cervical low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: in search of prognostic biomarkers.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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It has been reported that approximately 10% of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) progress to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) within a 2-year follow up. The factors related to lesion progression are currently unknown. The aim of the study was to identify prognostic markers of the course of LSIL. This retrospective study was designed to correlate regression, persistence and progression of biopsy-proven LSIL with patients age, HPV genotypes and immunohistochemical expression of the main cell cycle regulating proteins: p53, pRb, p16, and Ki-67.
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Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in cervical adenocarcinoma in Korean women.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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An increase in incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma (CADC) has been reported in many countries, including Korea. However, few studies describe human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution among CADC in Asia.
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Unusual endocervical adenocarcinomas: an immunohistochemical analysis with molecular detection of human papillomavirus.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Endocervical adenocarcinomas of the usual type are etiologically related to infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These tumors are typically diffusely positive for p16 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) immunostains. The goal of our study was to determine the HPV status and immunohistochemical profiles of unusual histologic subtypes of endocervical adenocarcinoma.
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P16/CDKN2A and Ki-67 enhance the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma and correlate with human papillomavirus detection by polymerase chain reaction.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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The classification of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in mucosal biopsies is subject to considerable interobserver variability. Previous studies have shown that Ki-67 and p16/CDKN2A immunostains aid detection of dysplasia in biopsy samples from the uterine cervix. The aim of this study was to determine whether Ki-67 and p16/CDKN2A immunolabeling enhanced diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of anal mucosal biopsies from patients with suspected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The study consisted of 75 cases that were originally interpreted to represent normal anal transitional zone (n=15), fibroepithelial polyp (n=10), condyloma accuminatum (n=10), low-grade AIN (AIN1, n=20), and high-grade AIN (n=20), including 10 cases each of AIN2 and AIN3. The histologic features of all cases were re-reviewed and categorized based upon consensus agreement, which resulted in reclassification of 16 cases. Thus, the final study group consisted of 17 samples of normal anal transition zone, 14 fibroepithelial polyps, 6 condylomata accuminata, and 38 cases of AIN (11 AIN1, 16 AIN2, and 11 AIN3). Each case was tested for the presence of HPV DNA by a SPF10 polymerase chain reaction and LiPA25 genotyping assay and immunostained for Ki-67 and p16/CDKN2A. A positive Ki-67 result was defined as the presence of a cluster of at least 2 strongly stained epithelial nuclei in the upper two-thirds of the epithelial thickness. A positive result for p16/CDKN2A was defined as diffuse moderate-to-strong cytoplasmic and nuclear staining. None of the anal transition zone samples or fibroepithelial polyps showed Ki-67 or p16/CDKN2A staining. All condylomata and samples of AIN contained HPV DNA and showed positive Ki-67 labeling. All cases of high-grade AIN showed positive p16/CDKN2A staining. We conclude that Ki-67 labeling detects anal HPV-related changes with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, whereas increased p16/CDKN2A staining is strongly associated with high-grade squamous neoplasia. These results indicate that a combination of these markers may aid interpretation of anal mucosal biopsy samples.
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HPV genotyping and HPV16 variant analysis in glandular and squamous neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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The objective of the study was to compare the distribution of HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in glandular and squamous cervical neoplasia.
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Clinical, pathologic, and molecular features of early-onset colorectal carcinoma.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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The incidence of colorectal carcinoma has increased among patients <40 years of age for unclear reasons. In this study, we describe the clinical, pathologic, and molecular features of colorectal carcinomas that developed in young patients. We compiled a study group of 24 patients <40 years of age with colorectal carcinoma, and 45 patients > or =40 years of age served as controls. Cases were evaluated for clinical risk factors of malignancy and pathologic features predictive of outcome. The tumors were immunohistochemically stained for O6-methylguanine methyltransferase, MLH-1, MSH-2, MSH-6, beta-catenin, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4, epidermal growth factor receptor, TP53, p16, survivin, and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase; assessed for microsatellite instability and mutations in beta-catenin, APC, EGFR, PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF; evaluated for micro-RNA expression (miR-21, miR-20a, miR-183, miR-192, miR-145, miR-106a, miR-181b, and miR-203); and examined for evidence of human papillomavirus infection. One study patient each had ulcerative colitis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Ninety-two percent of tumors from young patients occurred in the distal colon (P=0.006), particularly the rectum (58%, P=0.02), and 75% were stage III or IV. Tumors from young patients showed more frequent lymphovascular (81%, P=0.03) and/or venous (48%, P=0.003) invasion, an infiltrative growth pattern (81%, P=0.03), and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase expression (83%, P=0.02) compared with controls. Carcinomas in this group showed significantly increased expression of miR-21, miR-20a, miR-145, miR-181b, and miR-203 (P< or =0.005 for all comparisons with controls). These results indicate that early-onset carcinomas commonly show pathologic features associated with aggressive behavior. Posttranslational regulation of mRNA and subsequent protein expression may be particularly important to the development of colorectal carcinomas in young patients.
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Enterobius vermicularis infestation of a hysterectomy specimen in a patient with a colonic reservoir.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2009
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A 43-year-old woman (gravida 2, para 1011) with a history of uterine leiomyomata and a Barnett colonic reservoir underwent a supracervical hysterectomy. Final pathology revealed Enterobius vermicularis within the myometrium and adnexal vasculature. Infection may have occurred through a modified mode given the presence of a Barnett colonic reservoir and absence of an anus.
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Immunoprofile of adenocarcinomas of the endometrium, endocervix, and ovary with mucinous differentiation.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Primary mucinous tumors of the female genital tract have morphologic features similar to primary gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas, and distinguishing these malignancies may be extremely difficult. The purpose of this study was to characterize the immunostaining patterns of tumors of the female genital tract that show mucinous differentiation using cytokeratin 7 (CK7), CK20, and CDX2 and to evaluate the usefulness of these markers in differentiating these tumors from gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas and also from each other. A total of 64 cases were collected, including adenocarcinomas of the ovary (n=13), endocervix (n=16), endometrium (n=34), and vagina (n=1), all of which showed predominant mucinous differentiation. Intestinal mucinous differentiation was present in 11 of the cases (6 endocervical, 4 ovarian, and 1 vaginal adenocarcinoma). All tumors were at least focally positive for CK7 with the exception of 3 cases. The majority of tumors were negative for CK20 and CDX2. However, 25% of endocervical, 24% of ovarian, and 3% of endometrial adenocarcinomas were positive for CDX2, CK20, or both. The positivity for CDX2 and CK20 correlated with intestinal differentiation: 73% of all intestinal mucinous adenocarcinomas and 4% of all Müllerian mucinous adenocarcinomas showed positivity for the hindgut markers. In 70% of the tumors positive for CK20/CDX2, the intensity of CK7 stain was stronger than the intensity of either CK20 or CDX2 stain. In conclusion, immunostaining for CK7/CK20/CDX2 is helpful in distinguishing Müllerian subtype of mucinous gynecologic tumors from lower gastrointestinal tract malignancies. In gynecologic mucinous tumors with intestinal differentiation, the overlap of staining positivity may be a limiting factor. However, a dominant CK7 staining pattern was observed.
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Comprehensive analysis of Human Papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis in in-situ and invasive cervical adenocarcinoma.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) has been implicated as a co-factor in cervical carcinogenesis. The goal of the current study was to investigate if Ct may play a role in pathogenesis of cervical adenocarcinoma and, specifically, if there is a co-infection between Ct and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical adenocarcinomas. The second goal of the study was to determine the distribution of HPV genotypes in most recent cases of in-situ and invasive cervical adenocarcinomas.
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The diagnosis of endometrial carcinomas with clear cells by gynecologic pathologists: an assessment of interobserver variability and associated morphologic features.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
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The purposes of this study are to assess the level of interobserver variability in the diagnosis of endometrial carcinomas with clear cells by gynecologic pathologists based purely on their morphologic features and to comparatively describe the cases of putative clear cell carcinoma (CCC) with and without significant interobserver variability. A total of 35 endometrial carcinomas (1 slide per case) were reviewed by 11 gynecologic pathologists (median experience: 10 y) from 11 North American institutions. The cases were selected from the files of 3 institutions on the basis of the presence of at least focal clear cells and had previously been classified as a variety of histotypes at these institutions. Diagnoses were rendered in a blinded manner and without predetermined diagnostic criteria or categories. The ? values between any pair of observers ranged from 0.18 to 0.69 (combined 0.46), which was indicative of a "moderate" level of interobserver agreement for the group. Subgroups of "confirmed CCC" [cases diagnosed as such by at least 8 (73%) of the 11 observers, n=14] and "possible CCC" (cases diagnosed as CCC by ?1 but <8 observers, n=13) were compared with regard to a variety of semiquantified morphologic features. By combining selected morphologic features that displayed statistically significant differences between the 2 groups on univariate analyses, the following approximate morphologic profile emerged for the confirmed CCC group: papillae with hyalinized cores in ?33% of the lesion, clear cells in ?33% of the lesion, hyperchromasia in ?33% of the lesion, the absence of nuclear pseudostratification in >3 cells on the papillae, the absence of nuclear pseudostratification in glands in ?33% of the lesion, the absence of diffuse grade 3 nuclei, the absence of long and slender papillae in ?33% of the lesion, and glands and papillae lined by cuboidal to flat, noncolumnar cells. In a backward stepwise logistic regression analysis, features from the profile that predicted the confirmed CCC group included: (1) absence or minimality of diffuse sheets of grade 3 nuclei [P=0.025; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.0266-0.363]; (2) absence or minimality of nuclear stratification in glands and papillae (P=0.040; 95% CI, -0.228 to -0.0054); and (3) glands and papillae lined by cuboidal to flat, noncolumnar cells (P=0.008; 95% CI, 0.0911-0.566). The 2 groups displayed significant overlap regarding a wide variety of features, and no single case displayed a full complement of potentially diagnostic features. Morphologic patterns associated with cases with very high levels of interobserver variability (defined as cases with ?4 different diagnoses rendered for them, n=9) included the near-exclusive or exclusively solid pattern of clear cells (3/9) and glandular/papillary proliferations whose only CCC-like feature was the presence of clear cells (2/9). In conclusion, the diagnosis of endometrial carcinomas with clear cells by gynecologic pathologists is associated with a moderate level of interobserver variability. However, there is a morphologic profile that characterizes cases that gynecologic pathologists more uniformly classify as CCC, and the presence of these features is supportive of a CCC diagnosis in an endometrial carcinoma with clear cells. Cases that display broad and significant qualitative deviations from the aforementioned profile should prompt the consideration of a diagnosis other than CCC.
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Mucinous histology is a risk factor for nodal metastases in endometrial cancer.
Gynecol. Oncol.
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Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (MUC) is a rare histological variant of endometrial carcinoma accounting for 1-9% of endometrioid tumors. Few studies have characterized its clinical behavior. This is a case-control study at a single institution comparing the risk factors and clinical course of MUC relative to endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
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