Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) have been implicated in insecticide resistance. Anopheles minumus mosquito P450 isoforms CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7 are capable of metabolizing pyrethroid insecticides, however CYP6P8 lacks activity against this class of compounds.
The estrogen molecule is the major risk factor related to mammary gland tumors, with estrogen receptor alpha (ER- ?) as the important target stimulating growth. Therefore one alternative approach to treatment of breast cancer is to use selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), hormonal therapy. In this study, the structures of ER- ? in humans, dogs and cats were predicted using the amino acid sequencing data bank and corrected for general protein structures, receptor sites and docking by adding 2,344 ligands with 15 SERMs into the database and calculating estimated inhibition constants (Ki). Thereby, ranking of best ligands of SERMs in humans, dogs and cats could be achieved. The results show that the shapes of ER- ? differ between species but the major pocket sites are the same. Bazedoxifene, a new SERM proved to be the best estrogen antagonist and ER- ? inhibitor in all species (human, dog, cat) with the lowest Ki. The other good ligands for dogs and cats are Neohesperidin, Dihydrochalcone, and Schreiber2. The differences in these protein structures may explain why there are only a few SERMs or other ligands which can be used as anti-cancer drugs.
Severe dengue virus (DENV) disease symptoms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome, have been correlated with the presence of pre-existing antibodies that enhance rather than neutralize infections in Fc receptor bearing cells. These antibodies can originate from previous infection with a different serotype of dengue, or from waning antibody titers that occur in infants and young children as they are weaned from breast milk that contains protective dengue-specific antibodies. Despite the apparent importance of this antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) effect, there has been no description of any specific inhibitors of this process. We explored DENV entry inhibitors as a potential strategy to block ADE. Two different peptide entry inhibitors were tested for the ability to block antibody-mediated DENV-2 infection of human, FcRII bearing K562 cells in vitro. Both peptides were able to inhibit ADE, showing that entry inhibitors are possible candidates for the development of specific treatment for severe DENV infection.
Viral fusogenic envelope proteins are important targets for the development of inhibitors of viral entry. We report an approach for the computational design of peptide inhibitors of the dengue 2 virus (DENV-2) envelope (E) protein using high-resolution structural data from a pre-entry dimeric form of the protein. By using predictive strategies together with computational optimization of binding "pseudoenergies", we were able to design multiple peptide sequences that showed low micromolar viral entry inhibitory activity. The two most active peptides, DN57opt and 1OAN1, were designed to displace regions in the domain II hinge, and the first domain I/domain II beta sheet connection, respectively, and show fifty percent inhibitory concentrations of 8 and 7 microM respectively in a focus forming unit assay. The antiviral peptides were shown to interfere with virus:cell binding, interact directly with the E proteins and also cause changes to the viral surface using biolayer interferometry and cryo-electron microscopy, respectively. These peptides may be useful for characterization of intermediate states in the membrane fusion process, investigation of DENV receptor molecules, and as lead compounds for drug discovery.
Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is a key enzyme in homoethanol fermentation process, which decarboxylates 2-keto acid pyruvate into acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. PDC enzymes from potential ethanol-producing bacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis, Zymobacter palmae and Sarcina ventriculi have different K(m) and k(cat) values for the substrate pyruvate at their respective optimum pH. In this study, the putative three-dimensional structures of PDC dimer of Z. palmae PDC and S. ventriculi PDC were generated based on the X-ray crystal structures of Z. mobilis PDC, Saccharomyces cerevisiae PDC form-A and Enterobacter cloacae indolepyruvate decarboxylase in order to compare the quaternary structures of these bacterial PDCs with respect to enzyme-substrate interactions, and subunit-subunit interfaces that might be related to the different biochemical characteristics. The PROCHECK scores for both models were within recommended intervals. The generated models are similar to the X-ray crystal structure of Z. mobilis PDC in terms of binding modes of the cofactor, the position of Mg(2+), and the amino acids that form the active sites. However, subunit-subunit interface analysis showed lower H-bonding in both models compared with X-ray crystal structure of Z. mobilis PDC, suggesting a smaller interface area and the possibility of conformational change upon substrate binding in both models. Both models have predicted lower affinity towards branched and aromatic 2-keto acids, which correlated with the molecular volumes of the ligands. The models shed valuable information necessary for further improvement of PDC enzymes for industrial production of ethanol and other products.
Human thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is an essential protein in 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) drug metabolism. To understand the pharmacogenetics of TPMT and 6MP, X-ray co-crystal structures of TPMT complexes with S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) and 6MP are required. However, the co-crystal structure of this complex has not been reported because 6MP is poorly water soluble. We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to predict the structure of the complex of human TPMT-AdoHcy(CH(2))6MP, where the sulfur atoms of AdoHcy and 6MP were linked by a CH(2) group. After 1300 picoseconds of MD simulation, the trajectory showed that 6MP was stabilized in the TPMT active site by formation of non-bonded interactions between 6MP and Phe40, Pro196 and Arg226 side chains of TPMT. The intersulfur distance between AdoHcy and 6MP as well as the binding modes and the interactions of our TPMT-AdoHcy model are consistent with those observed in the X-ray crystal structure of murine TPMT-AdoHcy-6MP complex. The predicted binding modes of AdoHcy and 6MP in our model are consistent with those observed in murine TPMT X-ray crystal structures, which provides structural insights into the interactions of TPMT, AdoHcy, and 6MP at the atomic level and may be used as a starting point for further study of thiopurine drug pharmacogenetics.
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