4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a reactive ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde generated during oxidative stress and subsequent peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, Werner protein (WRN) was identified as a novel target for modification by HNE. Werner syndrome arises through mutations in the WRN gene that encodes the RecQ DNA helicase which is critical for maintaining genomic stability. This hereditary disease is associated with chromosomal instability, premature aging and cancer predisposition. WRN appears to participate in the cellular response to oxidative stress and cells devoid of WRN display elevated levels of oxidative DNA damage. We demonstrated that helicase/ATPase and exonuclease activities of HNE-modified WRN protein were inhibited both in vitro and in immunocomplexes purified from the cell extracts. Sites of HNE adduction in human WRN were identified at Lys577, Cys727, His1290, Cys1367, Lys1371 and Lys1389. We applied in silico modeling of the helicase and RQC domains of WRN protein with HNE adducted to Lys577 and Cys727 and provided a potential mechanism of the observed deregulation of the protein catalytic activities. In light of the obtained results, we postulate that HNE adduction to WRN is a post-translational modification, which may affect WRN conformational stability and function, contributing to features and diseases associated with premature senescence.
The aim of this work was to answer the question whether the broad range of parameters which describe oxidative stress and oxidatively damaged DNA and repair are appropriate prognosis factors of colon cancer (CRC) patients survival? The following parameters were analyzed for 89 CRC patients: concentration of uric acid and vitamins A, E, C in plasma; levels of 8-oxodGuo (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine) in DNA of leukocyte and colon tissues; urinary excretion rates of 8-oxodGuo and 8-oxoGua (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine); the activity and mRNA or protein level of repair enzymes OGG1, APE1, ANPG, TDG and PARP1. All DNA modifications and plasma antioxidants were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or HPLC/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Expression of repair proteins was analyzed by QPCR, Western or immunohistochemistry methods. Longer survival coincided with low levels of 8-oxodGuo/8oxoGua in urine and 8-oxodGuo in DNA as well as with high concentration of uric acid plasma level. In contrast to expectations, longer survival coincided with lower mRNA level in normal colon tissue of the main 8-oxoGua DNA glycosylase, OGG1, but no association was found for PARP-1 expression. When analyzing simultaneously two parameters the discriminating power increased significantly. Combination of low level of urinary 8-oxoGua together with low level of 8-oxodGuo in leukocyte (both below median value) or high concentration of plasma uric acid (above median value) have the best prediction power. Since prediction value of these parameters seems to be comparable to conventional staging procedure, they could possibly be used as markers to predict clinical success in CRC treatment.
Decreased repair of oxidative DNA damage is a risk factor for developing certain human malignancies. We have previously found that the capacity of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine repair was lower in leukocytes of NSCLC patients than in controls. To explain these observations, we searched for mutations and polymorphisms in the OGG1 gene among 88 NSCLC patients and 79 controls. One patient exhibited a heterozygous mutation in exon 1, which resulted in Arg46Gln substitution. Normal lung and tumor tissue carrying this mutation showed markedly lower 8-oxoG incision activity than the mean for all patients. The predominant polymorphism of OGG1 was Ser326Cys. A significant difference was observed in the frequencies of the OGG1 variants between populations of NSCLC patients and controls. The frequency of the Cys326 allele and the number of Cys326Cys homozygotes was higher among patients than controls. In individuals with either Ser326Cys or Cys326Cys genotype 8-oxoG incision rate was lower than in those with both Ser326 alleles, either in lung or leukocytes. Moreover, 8-oxodG level was higher in lung tissue and leukocytes of patients carrying two Cys326 alleles and in leukocytes of patients with the Ser326Cys genotype. We also screened for polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene. Only heterozygotes of the XRCC1 variants Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln were found among patients and controls, with the frequency of Arg280His being significantly higher among patients. NSCLC patients with Arg280His or Arg399Gln polymorphism revealed lower 8-oxoG incision activity in their lung tissues, but not in leukocytes. We can conclude that the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphisms may have an impact on the efficiency of 8-oxoG incision in humans and the XRCC1 His280 and Gln399 may influence the OGG1 activity in tissues exposed to chronic oxidative/inflammatory stress. Higher frequency of the OGG1 Cys326 allele among NSCLC patients may partially explain the impairment of the 8-oxoG repair observed in their leukocytes.
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. We wanted to elucidate at which stage of the disease this phenomenon occurs. In the examined groups of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC, n = 89), benign adenoma (AD, n = 77) and healthy volunteers (controls, n = 99), we measured: vitamins A, C and E in blood plasma, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) in leukocytes and urine, leukocyte 8-oxoGua excision activity, mRNA levels of APE1, OGG1, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydrodeoxyguanosine 5-triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (MTH1) and OGG1 polymorphism. The vitamin levels decreased gradually in AD and CRC patients. 8-OxodG increased in leukocytes and urine of CRC and AD patients. 8-OxoGua was higher only in the urine of CRC patients. 8-OxoGua excision was higher in CRC patients than in controls, in spite of higher frequency of the OGG1 Cys326Cys genotype, encoding a glycosylase with decreased activity. mRNA levels of OGG1 and APE1 increased in CRC and AD patients, which could explain increased 8-oxoGua excision rate in CRC patients. MTH1 mRNA was also higher in CRC patients. The results suggest that oxidative stress occurs in CRC and AD individuals. This is accompanied by increased transcription of DNA repair genes, and increased 8-oxoGua excision rate in CRC patients, which is, however, insufficient to counteract the increased DNA damage.
To assess the role of lipid peroxidation-induced DNA damage and repair in colon carcinogenesis, the excision rates and levels of 1,N(6)-etheno-2-deoxyadenosine (epsilondA), 3,N(4)-etheno-2-deoxycytidine (epsilondC), and 1,N(2)-etheno-2-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-epsilondG) were analyzed in polymorphic blood leukocytes (PBL) and resected colon tissues of 54 colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients and PBL of 56 healthy individuals. In PBL the excision rates of 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (epsilonAde) and 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (epsilonCyt), measured by the nicking of oligodeoxynucleotide duplexes with single lesions, and unexpectedly also the levels of epsilondA and 1,N(2)-epsilondG, measured by LC/MS/MS, were lower in CRC patients than in controls. In contrast the mRNA levels of repair enzymes, alkylpurine- and thymine-DNA glycosylases and abasic site endonuclease (APE1), were higher in PBL of CRC patients than in those of controls, as measured by QPCR. In the target colon tissues epsilonAde and epsilonCyt excision rates were higher, whereas the epsilondA and epsilondC levels in DNA, measured by (32)P-postlabeling, were lower in tumor than in adjacent colon tissue, although a higher mRNA level was observed only for APE1. This suggests that during the onset of carcinogenesis, etheno adduct repair in the colon seems to be under a complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional control, whereby deregulation may act as a driving force for malignancy.
Human RECQL5 is a member of the RecQ helicase family which is implicated in genome maintenance. Five human members of the family have been identified; three of them, BLM, WRN and RECQL4 are associated with elevated cancer risk. RECQL1 and RECQL5 have not been linked to any human disorder yet; cells devoid of RECQL1 and RECQL5 display increased chromosomal instability. Here, we report the physical and functional interaction of the large isomer of RECQL5, RECQL5beta, with the human flap endonuclease 1, FEN1, which plays a critical role in DNA replication, recombination and repair. RECQL5beta dramatically stimulates the rate of FEN1 cleavage of flap DNA substrates. Moreover, we show that RECQL5beta and FEN1 interact physically and co-localize in the nucleus in response to DNA damage. Our findings, together with the previous literature on WRN, BLM and RECQL4s stimulation of FEN1, suggests that the ability of RecQ helicases to stimulate FEN1 may be a general feature of this class of enzymes. This could indicate a common role for the RecQ helicases in the processing of oxidative DNA damage.
RECQL4 is a human RecQ helicase which is mutated in approximately two-thirds of individuals with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), a disease characterized at the cellular level by chromosomal instability. BLM and WRN are also human RecQ helicases, which are mutated in Bloom and Werners syndrome, respectively, and associated with chromosomal instability as well as premature aging. Here we show that primary RTS and RECQL4 siRNA knockdown human fibroblasts accumulate more H(2)O(2)-induced DNA strand breaks than control cells, suggesting that RECQL4 may stimulate repair of H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. RTS primary fibroblasts also accumulate more XRCC1 foci than control cells in response to endogenous or induced oxidative stress and have a high basal level of endogenous formamidopyrimidines. In cells treated with H(2)O(2), RECQL4 co-localizes with APE1, and FEN1, key participants in base excision repair. Biochemical experiments indicate that RECQL4 specifically stimulates the apurinic endonuclease activity of APE1, the DNA strand displacement activity of DNA polymerase beta, and incision of a 1- or 10-nucleotide flap DNA substrate by Flap Endonuclease I. Additionally, RTS cells display an upregulation of BER pathway genes and fail to respond like normal cells to oxidative stress. The data herein support a model in which RECQL4 regulates both directly and indirectly base excision repair capacity.
Cockayne syndrome complementation group B (CSB) protein is engaged in transcription-coupled repair (TCR) of UV induced DNA damage and its deficiency leads to progressive multisystem degeneration and premature aging. Here, we show that human CSB-deficient cells are hypersensitive to physiological concentrations (1-10 microM) of a lipid peroxidation product, trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), and in response to HNE they develop a higher level of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in comparison to the wild-type cells. HNE-DNA adducts block in vitro transcription by T7 RNA polymerase, as well as by HeLa cell-free extracts. Treatment of wild-type cells with 1-20 microM HNE causes dephosphorylation of the CSB protein, which stimulates its ATPase activity necessary for TCR. However, high HNE concentrations (100-200 microM) inhibit in vitro CSB ATPase activity as well as the transcription machinery in HeLa cell-free extracts. Cell lines expressing CSB protein mutated in different ATPase domains exhibit different sensitivities to HNE. The motif II mutant, which binds ATP, but is defective in ATP hydrolysis was as sensitive to HNE as CSB-null cells. In contrast, motif V mutant cells were as sensitive to HNE as were the cells bearing wild-type protein, while motif VI mutant cells showed intermediate sensitivity to HNE. These mutants exhibit decreased ATP binding, but retain residual ATPase activity. Homology modeling suggested that amino acids mutated in motifs II and VI are localized closer to the ATP binding site than amino acids mutated in ATPase motif V. These results suggest that HNE-DNA adducts are extremely toxic endogenous DNA lesion, and that their processing involves CSB. When these lesions are not removed from the transcribed DNA strand due to CSB gene mutation or CSB protein inactivation by high, pathological HNE concentrations, they may contribute to accelerated aging.
Inflammation, high fat, high red meat and low fiber consumption have for long been known as the most important etiological factors of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC). Colon cancer originates from neoplastic transformation in a single layer of epithelial cells occupying colonic crypts, in which migration and apoptosis program becomes disrupted. This results in the formation of polyps and metastatic cancers. Mutational program in sporadic cancers involves APC gene, in which mutations occur most abundantly in the early phase of the process. This is followed by mutations in RAS, TP53, and other genes. Progression of carcinogenic process in the colon is accompanied by augmentation of the oxidative stress, which manifests in the increased level of oxidatively damaged DNA both in the colon epithelium, and in blood leukocytes and urine, already at the earliest stages of disease development. Defence mechanisms are deregulated in CRC patients: (i) antioxidative vitamins level in blood plasma declines with the development of disease; (ii) mRNA level of base excision repair enzymes in blood leukocytes of CRC patients is significantly increased; however, excision rate is regulated separately, being increased for 8-oxoGua, while decreased for lipid peroxidation derived ethenoadducts, ?Ade and ?Cyt; (iii) excision rate of ?Ade and ?Cyt in colon tumors is significantly increased in comparison to asymptomatic colon margin, and ethenoadducts level is decreased. This review highlights mechanisms underlying such deregulation, which is the driving force to colon carcinogenesis.
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