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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Brachyury cooperates with Wnt/?-catenin signalling to elicit primitive-streak-like behaviour in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells.
BMC Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The formation of the primitive streak is the first visible sign of gastrulation, the process by which the three germ layers are formed from a single epithelium during early development. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide a good system for understanding the molecular and cellular events associated with these processes. Previous work, both in embryos and in culture, has shown how converging signals from both nodal/TGF?R and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathways specify cells to adopt a primitive-streak-like fate and direct them to undertake an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, many of these approaches have relied on genetic analyses without taking into account the temporal progression of events within single cells. In addition, it is still unclear to what extent events in the embryo are able to be reproduced in culture.
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MicroRNA-24 is a novel regulator of aldosterone and cortisol production in the human adrenal cortex.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Dysregulation of aldosterone or cortisol production can predispose to hypertension, as seen in aldosterone-producing adenoma, a form of primary aldosteronism. We investigated the role of microRNA (miRNA) in their production, with particular emphasis on the CYP11B1 (11?-hydroxylase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) genes, which produce the enzymes responsible for the final stages of cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis, respectively. Knockdown of Dicer1, a key enzyme in miRNA maturation, significantly altered CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression in a human adrenocortical cell line. Screening of nondiseased human adrenal and aldosterone-producing adenoma samples yielded reproducible but distinctive miRNA expression signatures for each tissue type, with levels of certain miRNA, including microRNA-24 (miR-24), differing significantly between the 2. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative binding sites for several miRNA, including miR-24, in the 3 untranslated region of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNAs. In vitro manipulation of miR-24 confirmed its ability to modulate CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression, as well as cortisol and aldosterone production. This study demonstrates that Dicer-dependent miRNA, including miR-24, can post-transcriptionally regulate expression of the CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes. Normal adrenal tissue and aldosterone-producing adenoma differ significantly and reproducibly in their miRNA expression profiles, with miR-24 significantly downregulated in the latter. Adrenal miRNA may, therefore, be a novel and valid target for the therapeutic manipulation of corticosteroid biosynthesis.
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Non-adrenal synthesis of aldosterone: a reality check.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Advances in the sensitivity of molecular techniques during the 1990s led to a flurry of studies that supported the existence of extra-adrenal sites of aldosterone production in various tissues including the brain and the heart. Subsequent work was often conflicting or ambiguous, leading many to question whether extra-adrenal aldosterone was of any physiological importance, or whether it even existed. In this article, we review these studies and, in light of this evidence, discuss whether the current lack of interest in extra-adrenal aldosterone biosynthesis is justified.
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Bile acids modulate glucocorticoid metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obstructive jaundice.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis occurs in cirrhosis and cholestasis and is associated with increased concentrations of bile acids. We investigated whether this was mediated through bile acids acting to impair steroid clearance by inhibiting glucocorticoid metabolism by 5beta-reductase.
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Familial and phenotypic associations of the aldosterone Renin ratio.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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The aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) is a marker of aldosterone excess, widely used to screen for primary aldosteronism (PA). The significance of a raised ARR in normotensive and hypertensive subjects and the phenotypic and familial factors affecting it are unclear.
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Altered corticosteroid biosynthesis in essential hypertension: A digenic phenomenon.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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Aldosterone plays an important role in electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis. Our studies have focused on the role of aldosterone in essential hypertension. We have shown that plasma aldosterone and ARR are heritable characteristics and that aldosterone concentrations in older subjects are inversely correlated with birthweight and positively correlated with blood pressure. Aldosterone levels are also associated with polymorphic variation in the CYP11B2 gene, which encodes aldosterone synthase, the enzyme responsible for aldosterone production. Interestingly, CYP11B2 polymorphisms are also associated with less efficient activity of 11beta-hydroxylase, encoded by the neighbouring, highly homologous CYP11B1 gene. We propose that a digenic effect leads to increased aldosterone production, with inefficient 11beta-hydroxylation causing a long-term increase in ACTH drive to the adrenal gland and enhanced expression of CYP11B2, thereby resulting in chronically raised aldosterone secretion in response to factors such as angiotensin II and potassium. In susceptible subjects this is likely, over many years, to result in hypertension with relative aldosterone excess.
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Programming of hypertension: associations of plasma aldosterone in adult men and women with birthweight, cortisol, and blood pressure.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
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Animal models suggest that explanations for the association of low birthweight with adult hypertension may include chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axes. In humans, low birthweight predicts elevated plasma cortisol, but associations with aldosterone have not been reported. We measured aldosterone in serum samples from 205 men and 106 women from 67 to 78 years of age, from Hertfordshire, UK, for whom birthweight was recorded. Participants underwent an overnight low-dose (0.25 mg) dexamethasone suppression test and a low-dose (1 mug) ACTH (corticotropin) stimulation test and were genotyped for the -344 C/T polymorphism of the CYP11B2 gene encoding aldosterone synthase. Median aldosterone was 6.22 ng/dL (range 0.15 to 38.74) and was higher in men than women (P<0.0001). Higher aldosterone levels after both dexamethasone and ACTH stimulation were associated with higher blood pressure (r=0.20, P=0.001; r=0.33, P<0.0001, respectively) and with lower birthweight (r=-0.16, P=0.008; r=-0.21, P=0.001, respectively). These associations remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, obesity, and genotype. Our findings supplement previous evidence that aldosterone is an important regulator of blood pressure and suggest that factors in early life that retard fetal growth and program activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans result not only in higher glucocorticoid activity but also in increased mineralocorticoid activity.
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Common polymorphisms in the CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes: evidence for a digenic influence on hypertension.
Hypertension
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The locus encompassing the corticosteroidogenic genes CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 is of potential importance in essential hypertension. We analyzed the association of polymorphisms at this locus with risk of essential hypertension, using 2 white case-control collections for discovery (n=3340) and confirmation (n=2929). Single-marker and haplotype analyses were performed, with the CYP11B2 Intron 2 Conversion polymorphism showing strongest association with hypertension in both cohorts and in combined analysis (odds ratio=1.16, P=8.54×10(-5)). The CYP11B1 ACA haplotype associated with increased risk of hypertension relative to the alternative, GTC (odds ratio=1.11; P=7.4×10(-3)), whereas the CYP11B2 TWtC haplotype seemed protective relative to the contrasting CConvT (odds ratio=0.88, P=2.2×10(-3)). Analysis spanning the whole CYP11B1/CYP11B2 locus showed that haplotypes associated with raised risk of hypertension tend to coexist. Functional analysis of heterozygous human adrenal tissue demonstrated decreased CYP11B2 expression and increased CYP11B1 expression for those alleles associating with reduced risk of hypertension. These results confirm the hypertensive influence of this locus, with data suggesting a complex digenic mechanism whereby altered relative CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 gene expression could have a chronic effect on enzyme activity and corticosteroid synthesis.
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Demonstration of blood pressure-independent noninfarct myocardial fibrosis in primary aldosteronism: a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
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Primary aldosteronism (PA) is common and associates with excess cardiovascular morbidity independent of blood pressure. Exposure to aldosterone and sodium leads to cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in humans and animals possibly mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. We aimed to clarify the effects of aldosterone excess on myocardial structure and composition in human subjects with PA and essential hypertension using contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as well as explore the mechanistic basis for any observed differences.
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APEX1 regulation of aldosterone synthase gene transcription is disrupted by a common polymorphism in humans.
Circ. Res.
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The genetic mechanisms underlying hypertension are unclear, but relative aldosterone excess, present in ?10% of hypertensive patients, is known to be a heritable trait. This phenotype associates with a T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position -344 of the aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2). However, deletion of this SNP has no effect on gene transcription. We have identified another T/C SNP at -1651, in tight linkage disequilibrium with the -344 SNP and here investigate its functional effect on CYP11B2 transcription.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.