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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in newly diagnosed children with inflammatory bowel disease.
Helicobacter
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Recent studies have shown that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are less likely to be infected with Helicobacter pylori compared with non-IBD patients. We aimed to study the prevalence of H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastritis in newly diagnosed children with IBD in comparison to those with non-IBD in Greece.
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The combined effect of MC4R and FTO risk alleles on childhood obesity in Greece.
Hormones (Athens)
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) risk alleles of obesogenic genes, such as the fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene, have been described in both paediatrics and adult populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of FTO and MC4R risk alleles on the obese phenotype and metabolic profile of young children and adolescents of Greek origin.
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Celiac disease in the Mediterranean area.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The World Gastroenterology Organization recommends developing national guidelines for the diagnosis of Celiac Disease (CD): hence a profile of the diagnosis of CD in each country is required. We aim to describe a cross-sectional picture of the clinical features and diagnostic facilities in 16 countries of the Mediterranean basin. Since a new ESPGHAN diagnostic protocol was recently published, our secondary aim is to estimate how many cases in the same area could be identified without a small intestinal biopsy.
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Motilin and Gastrin Secretion and Lipid Profile in Preterm Neonates Following Prebiotics Supplementation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Study.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Gut hormones play an important role in the adaptation of the immature neonatal gut, and their secretion may be modulated by prebiotics. Furthermore, prebiotics are well known for their hypolipidemic potentials. We tested the hypothesis that prebiotics could alter motilin and gastrin secretion and reduce lipids in healthy preterms. Methods: A total of 167 newborns were randomized to either a prebiotics enriched formula containing dietary oligosaccharides (short-chain galacto-oligo-saccharides/long-chain fructo-oligo-saccharides [scGOS/lcFOS]), at a concentration of 0.8 g/100 ml, or a common preterm formula. Day 1 and 16 basal motilin, gastrin concentrations, and lipids were evaluated together with growth parameters, gastric residue, bowel habits, and feeding tolerance. Adverse events including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and septicemia were also recorded. Results: Mean motilin increase and day 16 mean values were greater for the intervention, compared with the control group (P = .001, P = .005, respectively), while gastrin remained high in both groups. Mean cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) increase were significantly greater in the control, compared with the intervention (P = .037, and P = .001) group. Day 16 LDL levels were significantly higher in the control group. Mean weight was increased in the control group, while gastric residue was less and stool frequency was increased in the intervention group. NEC and septicemia were not statistically different between groups. Conclusion: A prebiotics enriched formula resulted in significant surge of motilin relating to reduced gastric residue, compared with a common preterm formula. Mean cholesterol change was lower, while LDL was not increased in the prebiotics group, compared with the control group.
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Incretins, amylin and other gut-brain axis hormones in children with coeliac disease.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Previous research indicated that coeliac disease (CD) is associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the gut-brain axis peptide hormones secretion has not been evaluated so far in patients with CD prior to treatment initiation or under treatment, irrespective of patients having concomitant T1DM or not. The aim of the study was therefore to evaluate these gut hormones at the preprandial levels of patients with CD before and under treatment.
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Circulating leptin and adiponectin and their relation to glucose metabolism in children with Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) result in metabolic consequences. We assessed circulating leptin and adiponectin concentrations and examined their relations to glucose metabolism in children with CD and UC.
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Autoimmune hepatitis type-2 and Epstein-Barr virus infection in a toddler: art of facts or an artifact?
Ann Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can cause frequently asymptomatic (or anicteric) and self-limited hepatitis, while occasionally may result in considerable cholestatic hepatitis. Herein, we describe the case of a previously healthy toddler (26 month old girl) with prolonged cholestasis, elevated serum transaminases, EBV serology compatible with recent EBV infection and positive anti liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 which is characteristic of new-onset autoimmune hepatitis type 2. Liver biopsy was also typical of autoimmune hepatitis as attested by the presence of portal inflammation with predominant T-lymphocytes and plasma cells and interface hepatitis. Persistent EBV-related hepatitis was excluded by the absence of viral inclusions and steatosis on liver specimens and negative liver EBV-PCR. In conclusion, our case strongly suggests that in children with prolonged cholestatic hepatitis, positive EBV serology cannot exclude the presence of other causes of liver disease. In this context, autoimmune hepatitis should be considered as an alternate diagnosis, particularly when there is specific liver-related autoantibody detection. In such conditions, liver biopsy seems mandatory in an attempt to achieve a correct and timely diagnosis of a potentially catastrophic disease as autoimmune hepatitis. Although some cases of autoimmune hepatitis type 1 following EBV infection have been reported in adults, to the best of our knowledge, the present case of autoimmune hepatitis type 2 after EBV infection represents the first case in children ever reported in the English literature.
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Helicobacter pylori isolates from Greek children express type 2 and type 1 Lewis and ?1,6-glucan antigens in conjunction with a functional type IV secretion system.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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Helicobacter pylori infection is often acquired in childhood and can persist for life. Previous studies in adult patients have shown that H. pylori isolates from North American and European hosts express predominantly type 2 Lewis x (Le(x)) and Le(y) epitopes, while Asian strains have the capacity to express type 1 Le(a) and Le(b) structures. In order to understand the influence of environmental and host factors on the expression of Le antigens, we analysed 50 Greek H. pylori isolates from symptomatic children. Both CagA-positive and -negative strains were evaluated. The expression of Le antigens was determined by whole-cell indirect ELISA (WCE), and LPS profiles were assessed by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Occurrence of Le(x) and/or Le(y) antigens was confirmed in 35 of the isolates (70?%) while 15 of the isolates were non-typable. It was found that 11 of the paediatric isolates had the propensity to express type 1 Le(b) blood-group antigen (22?%), a feature relatively uncommon in H. pylori isolates from adults. One strain expressed both Le(b) and Le(a) antigens. The majority of the isolates (49/50, 98?%) expressed ?1,6-glucan, an antigenic non-Le determinant present in the outer core region of H. pylori LPS. All Le(x)- and Le(y)-expressing strains also carried a functional cag pathogenicity island-encoding a type IV secretion system, capable of translocating CagA protein, as well as the vacAs1 allele, suggesting that Le(x) and Le(y) epitopes may aid the persistence of more aggressive strains. No association between bacterial virulence characteristics and the histopathological observations was evident.
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Adherence to the Mediterranean type of diet is associated with lower prevalence of asthma symptoms, among 10-12 years old children: the PANACEA study.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Epidemiological studies have shown several associations between asthma symptoms and dietary factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and childhood asthma. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 700 children (323 boys), 10-12 yr old, selected from 18 schools located in Athens greater area. Children and their parents completed questionnaires, which evaluated, among others, dietary habits. Asthma was defined according to ISAAC II criteria. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED score (theoretical range 0-12). Higher KIDMED score corresponds to greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with ever had wheeze (p = 0.001), exercise wheeze (p = 0.004), ever had diagnosed asthma (p = 0.002) and with any asthma symptoms (p < 0.001). One-unit increase in the KIDMED score was associated with 14% lower likelihood of having asthma symptoms (odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.98), after adjusting for various confounders. No significant associations were found between asthma symptoms and consumption of fruits (p = 0.25), vegetables (p = 0.97), legumes (p = 0.76), cereals (p = 0.71), dairy (p = 0.61), salty snacks (p = 0.53), or margarine/butter (p = 0.42) consumption, while increased fish and meat intake was associated with less asthma symptoms (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively). Our findings suggest an inverse relationship between level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and prevalence of asthma in school-aged children.
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The impact of oral glutamine supplementation on the intestinal permeability and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis/septicemia in premature neonates.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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To examine the impact of oral glutamine (Gln) supplementation on gut integrity and on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)/septicemia of premature neonates.
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Burden of celiac disease in the Mediterranean area.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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To estimate the burden of undiagnosed celiac disease (CD) in the Mediterranean area in terms of morbidity, mortality and health cost.
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Frequency, clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Greece (2007-2008).
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. A prospective multi-center study was conducted (2007-2008) in five Pediatric Hospitals to determine the prevalence, the clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection in Greece. Faecal samples were examined for the presence of group A rotavirus antigen by immunochromatography. Rotavirus strains were subjected to G and P genotyping by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. A total of 393 children (216 boys) of median age 23 months, participated in the study. Rotavirus was the cause of acute gastroenteritis in 166 children, 42.3% (CI 95%, 37.4-47.1%) of non-hospitalized and 47.8% (CI 95%, 41.7-53.9%) of hospitalized patients. Rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred between December and April in 78.6% of the cases. Most children with RVG (77.8%) were between 3 months and 3 years old. The mean value of Clark severity score was 12.9 ± 5.1 for RVG and 10.5 ± 4.9 for non-RVG (P < 0.01). Genotypes were determined in 117 strains and their distribution was as following: G1P[8], 49%; G2P[4], 31%; G4P[8], 10%; G9P[8], 9%; and G8P[14], 1%. In conclusion, rotavirus is a frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis in Greece. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other European countries.
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Food allergy-related paediatric constipation: the usefulness of atopy patch test.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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The aims of this study were to evaluate the implication of food allergy as a cause of paediatric constipation and to determine the diet period needed to tolerate the constipation-causing foods. Fifty-four children aged 6 months to 14 years (median, 42 months) suffering from chronic constipation (without anatomic abnormalities, c?eliac disease or hypothyroidism), unresponsive to a 3-month laxative therapy, were prospectively evaluated. All participants were evaluated for allergy to cows milk, egg, wheat, rice, corn, potato, chicken, beef and soy, using skin tests (SPT), serum specific IgE and atopy patch test (APT). A withdrawal of the APT-positive foods was instructed. Thirty-two children had positive APT; 15 were positive to one; six, to two and 11, to three or more food allergens, wheat and egg being the commonest. After withdrawing the APT-positive foods for an 8-week period, constipation had improved in 28/32 children, but a relapse of constipation was noticed after an oral food challenge, so they continued the elimination diet. Tolerance to food allergens was achieved in only 6/28 after 6 months, compared to 25/28 after 12 months and to all after a 2-year-long elimination. Food allergy seems to be a significant etiologic factor for chronic constipation not responding to treatment, in infants and young children. APT was found to be useful in evaluating non-IgE allergy-mediated constipation, and there was no correlation of APT with IgE detection. Tolerance was adequately achieved after 12 months of strict food allergen elimination.
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Relationship between eating behavior, breakfast consumption, and obesity among Finnish and Greek adolescents.
J Nutr Educ Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2010
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To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents.
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Acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease in pediatric patients: serum albumin on day 5 from initiation of therapy correlates with nonrelapse mortality and overall survival.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the risk of development of gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease (GI-aGVHD), as well as to evaluate the impact of various baseline parameters on response to treatment, nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and overall survival (OS) in pediatric patients with GI-aGVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). We retrospectively analyzed 300 pediatric patients who underwent allo-SCT from HLA-matched related or volunteer unrelated donors in our institution. GI tract involvement was observed in 46 out of 133 patients with aGVHD grade II-IV. Severe aGVHD (grade III-IV) was more frequently observed among patients with GI-aGVHD in comparison with patients without GI involvement (P < .001). Treatment with steroids resulted in durable responses in 22/46 patients; 14 additional patients responded to salvage therapy, whereas 10 were refractory to all treatments administered. Using Cox regression analysis, we observed that serum albumin level ? 3 mg/dL on day 5 after the initiation of therapy with steroids was statistically significantly associated with decreased hazard of NRM and improved OS (P = .021 and P = .026, respectively). In our study, serum albumin level, early (+ day 5) after the onset of steroids in patients with GI-aGVHD, was a predictor of treatment outcome. Prospective randomized trials need to be performed to verify the predictive significance of serum albumin and the need for early intensification of immunosuppressive treatment.
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Endoscopic tests for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children: Validation of rapid urease test.
Helicobacter
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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Rapid urease test (CLO-test) is an inexpensive and quick method for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection with controversial results in children. We evaluated the performance of CLO-test in relation to endoscopic and histological findings in children with H. pylori infection.
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Tracking of overweight and obesity in Greek youth.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and tracking of overweight and obesity in a representative sample of Greek youth and the relation with child and parental factors.
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Outdoor particulate matter and childhood asthma admissions in Athens, Greece: a time-series study.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Particulate matter with diameter less than 10 micrometers (PM10) that originates from anthropogenic activities and natural sources may settle in the bronchi and cause adverse effects possibly via oxidative stress in susceptible individuals, such as asthmatic children. This study aimed to investigate the effect of outdoor PM10 concentrations on childhood asthma admissions (CAA) in Athens, Greece.
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NOD2/CARD15, ATG16L1 and IL23R gene polymorphisms and childhood-onset of Crohns disease.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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To assess whether the polymorphisms of NOD2/CARD15, autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1), and interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R) genes play a more critical role in the susceptibility of childhood-onset than in adult-onset Crohns disease (CD).
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Circulating adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels in healthy preterm infants: Positive correlation with weight gain and total-cholesterol levels.
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (a-FABP) has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Preterm infants are at risk for the later development of insulin resistance, and, possibly, other components of metabolic syndrome.
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Changing pattern in the clinical presentation of pediatric celiac disease: a 30-year study.
Digestion
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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The incidence of celiac disease (CD) has increased in recent years due to the recognition of atypical forms and the identification of silent cases through serological screening. Our aim was to detect temporal trends in the presentation of pediatric CD in Greece.
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Prevalence and characterization of class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli of poultry and human origin.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2009
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A prospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence and the gene-cassette content of class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli of poultry and human origin. A total of 235 E. coli isolates were examined; 65 were derived from farm poultry, 80 from hospitalized, and 90 from nonhospitalized patients. Susceptibilities to a range of antimicrobial agents were determined by disk diffusion. Int1-specific polymerase chain reaction, conserved-segment polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing were used to determine the presence, length, and content of integrons. The relatedness among the isolates was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI digests of genomic DNA. The integron carriage rate for poultry isolates was 49.2%, whereas the carriage rate for hospital isolates was 26.2% and for community 11.1%. Multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics) phenotypes were observed in 96.8% of the integron-positive isolates, whereas only 34.9% of nonintegron-carrying organisms were multidrug resistant (p < 0.001). Seven integron types ranging in size from 663 to 2674 bp were identified; six types were observed in poultry isolates, five in hospital, and three in community isolates. Each integron type carried a distinct gene-cassette combination. The most prevalent gene cassettes belonged to the aad and dfr families. Identical integrons were detected in E. coli of human and poultry origin. A large reservoir of integrons exists in E. coli of poultry origin. The horizontal transfer of class 1 integrons among bacteria of poultry and human origins may contribute in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.
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CagA and VacA polymorphisms do not correlate with severity of histopathological lesions in Helicobacter pylori-infected Greek children.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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The presence of various numbers of EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs in the CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to contribute to pathogenesis in adults. In this prospective study, we characterized H. pylori isolates from symptomatic children, with reference to the diversity of functional EPIYA motifs in the CagA protein and vacA isotypes, and assessed the potential correlation with the histopathological manifestations of the infection. We analyzed 105 H. pylori isolates from 98 children and determined the diversity of EPIYA motifs in CagA by amplification and sequencing of the 3 variable region of the cagA gene as well as vacA isotypes for the signal, middle, and intermediate regions. CagA phosphorylation and levels of secreted IL-8 were determined following in vitro infection of AGS gastric epithelial cells. Histopathological evaluation of H. pylori colonization, activity, and severity of the associated gastritis was performed according to the updated Sydney criteria. EPIYA A (GLKN[ST]EPIYAKVNKKK), EPIYA B (Q[V/A]ASPEPIY[A/T]QVAKKVNAKI), and EPIYA C (RS[V/A]SPEPIYATIDDLG) motifs were detected in the ABC (46.6%) and ABCC (17.1%) combinations. No isolates harboring more than two EPIYA C motifs in CagA were found. The presence of isogenic strains with variable numbers of CagA EPIYA C motifs within the same patient was detected in seven cases. Occurrence of increasing numbers of EPIYA C motifs correlated strongly with presence of a high-vacuolation (s1 or s2/i1/m1) phenotype and age. A weak positive correlation was observed between vacuolating vacA genotypes and presence of nodular gastritis. However, CagA- and VacA-dependent pathogenicities were not found to contribute to severity of histopathology manifestations in H. pylori-infected children.
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Intrafamilial spread of Helicobacter pylori infection in Greece.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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To find out the role of family members in the Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood by investigating the incidence of infection within families of H. pylori-infected children.
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Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in children with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation of disease activity.
Pediatr Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2009
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Examinations using ionizing radiation are frequently used in the evaluation of disease activity in children affected by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
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Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes: prevalence, resistance determinants, and emm types.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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To investigate the antimicrobial resistance trends and the distribution of emm types of group A streptococci (GAS), we examined 1160 clinical isolates of GAS collected between 2003 and 2006. Susceptibilities to commonly used antimicrobial agents were determined by Etest, and macrolide resistance genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). GAS isolates were typed by polymerase chain reaction PCR and sequencing of emm gene. The rates of resistance to erythromycin (ERY), clindamycin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol were 14.9%, 1.4%, 14.9%, 18.9%, 0.6%, respectively. None of the isolates exhibited resistance to penicillin, ceftriaxone, linezolid, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, or vancomycin. Macrolide resistance increased from 12.1% in 2003 to 18.8% in 2006 (P = 0.02). Of 173 ERY-resistant GAS isolates, 93 (53.7%) harbored the mefA gene, 70 (40.4%) the ermA, and 10 (5.8%) the ermB. Eighty percent of the observed emm types are covered by the proposed 26-valent GAS vaccine. Among 173 ERY-resistant isolates, the predominant emm types were 12 (19.5%), 77 (17.9%), and 4 (16.8%), and among 770 ERY-susceptible isolates, the predominant types were 1 (18.8%), 12 (17.5%), 28 (13.8%). The observed antimicrobial resistance trends and the distribution of specific emm types have implications in guiding empiric therapy and in developing vaccine strategies to prevent GAS infections.
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Maternal-neonatal amino acid blood levels in relation to the mode of delivery.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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To investigate the effect of the mode of delivery on maternal-neonatal amino acid levels as high blood levels of some amino acids are implicated with endurance exercise.
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Wilson disease in children: analysis of 57 cases.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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Wilson disease (WD) has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Affected children may be entirely asymptomatic and the diagnosis problematic. Herein we present the clinical and laboratory characteristics of 57 children with WD and point out the diagnostic difficulties in a pediatric population.
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Chylomicron retention disease: report of two cases from a Greek Island.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
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Chylomicron retention disease (CRD), or Anderson disease, is a rare, hereditary cause of fat malabsorption. It is one of the familial hypocholesterolaemia syndromes, along with homozygous hypobetalipoproteinaemia (HBL) and abetalipoproteinaemia (ABL). We report clinical, laboratory and histological data as well as molecular DNA analysis in the case of a 4-month-old boy with failure to thrive and steatorrhea who was diagnosed with CRD. His mothers first cousin, who was diagnosed as hypobetalipoproteinaemia 30 years ago, was also reviewed and his diagnosis was revised to CRD. Both patients were treated with a low fat diet and supplementation with fat-soluble vitamins resulting in significant improvement. In conclusion, CRD is a well-defined cause of fat malabsorption and can be distinguished from other forms of familial hypocholesterolaemia because of its specific lipid profile.
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HLA class II high-resolution genotyping in Greek children with celiac disease and impact on disease susceptibility.
Pediatr. Res.
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Celiac disease (CD) has been associated with HLA class II heterodimers. This study aimed at determining the HLA genotypic and allelic distribution in Greek children with CD as compared with the general population.
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Investigative MRI cholangiopancreatography for primary sclerosing cholangitis-type lesions in children with IBD.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
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The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)-type lesions in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by means of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and to investigate the association between a series of easily applicable data on the one hand and the presentation of such lesions at MRCP on the other hand.
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Malignancy and Mortality in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Multinational Study from the Porto Pediatric IBD Group.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
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The combination of the severity of pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes and the need for intense medical treatment may increase the risk of malignancy and mortality, but evidence regarding the extent of the problem is scarce. Therefore, the Porto Pediatric IBD working group of ESPGHAN conducted a multinational-based survey of cancer and mortality in pediatric IBD.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.