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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Translational potential into health care of basic genomic and genetic findings for human immunodeficiency virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and human papilloma virus.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Individual variations in susceptibility to an infection as well as in the clinical course of the infection can be explained by pathogen related factors, environmental factors, and host genetic differences. In this paper we review the state-of-the-art basic host genomic and genetic findings translational potential of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) into applications in public health, especially in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of complications of these infectious diseases. There is a significant amount of knowledge about genetic variants having a positive or negative influence on the course and outcome of HIV infection. In the field of Chlamydia trachomatis, genomic advances hold the promise of a more accurate subfertility prediction test based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In HPV research, recent developments in early diagnosis of infection-induced cervical cancer are based on methylation tests. Indeed, triage based on methylation markers might be a step forward in a more effective stratification of women at risk for cervical cancer. Our review found an imbalance between the number of host genetic variants with a role in modulating the immune response and the number of practical genomic applications developed thanks to this knowledge.
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Delicate balance among three types of T cells in concurrent regulation of tumor immunity.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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The nature of the regulatory cell types that dominate in any given tumor is not understood at present. Here, we addressed this question for regulatory T cells (Treg) and type II natural killer T (NKT) cells in syngeneic models of colorectal and renal cancer. In mice with both type I and II NKT cells, or in mice with neither type of NKT cell, Treg depletion was sufficient to protect against tumor outgrowth. Surprisingly, in mice lacking only type I NKT cells, Treg blockade was insufficient for protection. Thus, we hypothesized that type II NKT cells may be neutralized by type I NKT cells, leaving Tregs as the primary suppressor, whereas in mice lacking type I NKT cells, unopposed type II NKT cells could suppress tumor immunity even when Tregs were blocked. We confirmed this hypothesis in 3 ways by reconstituting type I NKT cells as well as selectively blocking or activating type II NKT cells with antibody or the agonist sulfatide, respectively. In this manner, we showed that blockade of both type II NKT cells and Tregs is necessary to abrogate suppression of tumor immunity, but a third cell, the type I NKT cell, determines the balance between these regulatory mechanisms. As patients with cancer often have deficient type I NKT cell function, managing this delicate balance among 3 T-cell subsets may be critical for the success of immunotherapy for human cancer.
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Mouse and human iNKT cell agonist ?-mannosylceramide reveals a distinct mechanism of tumor immunity.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Type 1 or invariant NKT (iNKT) cell agonists, epitomized by ?-galactosylceramide, protect against cancer largely by IFN-?-dependent mechanisms. Here we describe what we believe to be a novel IFN-?-independent mechanism induced by ?-mannosylceramide, which also defines a potentially new class of iNKT cell agonist, with an unusual ?-linked sugar. Like ?-galactosylceramide, ?-mannosylceramide directly activates iNKT cells from both mice and humans. In contrast to ?-galactosylceramide, protection by ?-mannosylceramide was completely dependent on NOS and TNF-?, neither of which was required to achieve protection with ?-galactosylceramide. Moreover, at doses too low for either alone to protect, ?-mannosylceramide synergized with ?-galactosylceramide to protect mice against tumors. These results suggest that treatment with ?-mannosylceramide provides a distinct mechanism of tumor protection that may allow efficacy where other agonists have failed. Furthermore, the ability of ?-mannosylceramide to synergize with ?-galactosylceramide suggests treatment with this class of iNKT agonist may provide protection against tumors in humans.
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A multiplex assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against 15 Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles gambiae saliva antigens.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Assessment exposure and immunity to malaria is an important step in the fight against the disease. Increased malaria infection in non-immune travellers under anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis, as well as the implementation of malaria elimination programmes in endemic countries, raises new issues that pertain to these processes. Notably, monitoring malaria immunity has become more difficult in individuals showing low antibody (Ab) responses or taking medications against the Plasmodium falciparum blood stages. Commonly available techniques in malaria seroepidemiology have limited sensitivity, both against pre-erythrocytic, as against blood stages of the parasite. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a sensitive tool to assess the exposure to malaria or to bites from the vector Anopheles gambiae, despite anti-malarial prophylactic treatment.
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Erbb2 DNA vaccine combined with regulatory T cell deletion enhances antibody response and reveals latent low-avidity T cells: potential and limits of its therapeutic efficacy.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Rat (r)Erbb2 transgenic BALB-neuT mice genetically predestined to develop multiple invasive carcinomas allow an assessment of the potential of a vaccine against the stages of cancer progression. Because of rErbb2 expression in the thymus and its overexpression in the mammary gland, CD8(+) T cell clones reacting at high avidity with dominant rErbb2 epitopes are deleted in these mice. In BALB-neuT mice with diffuse and invasive in situ lesions and almost palpable carcinomas, a temporary regulatory T cells depletion combined with anti-rErbb2 vaccine markedly enhanced the anti-rErbb2 Ab response and allowed the expansion of latent pools of low-avidity CD8(+) T cells bearing TCRs repertoire reacting with the rErbb2 dominant peptide. This combination of a higher Ab response and activation of a low-avidity cytotoxic response persistently blocked tumor progression at stages in which the vaccine alone was ineffective. However, when diffuse and invasive microscopic cancers become almost palpable, this combination was no longer able to secure a significant extension of mice survival.
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Synergistic enhancement of CD8+ T cell-mediated tumor vaccine efficacy by an anti-transforming growth factor-beta monoclonal antibody.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is an immunosuppressive cytokine, having direct suppressive activity against conventional CD4(+) and CD8(+)T cells and natural killer cells, thereby inhibiting tumor immunosurveillance. Here, we investigated possible synergy between anti-TGF-beta (1D11) and a peptide vaccine on induction of antitumor immunity, and the mechanisms accounting for synergistic efficacy.
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Impact of genetic notification on smoking cessation: systematic review and pooled-analysis.
PLoS ONE
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This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetic notification of smoking-related disease risk on smoking cessation in the general population. Secondary objectives were to assess the impact of genetic notification on intention-to-quit smoking and on emotional outcomes as well as the understanding and the recall of this notification.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.