JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Contamination of lithium heparin blood by K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): an experimental evaluation.
Biochem Med (Zagreb)
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The contamination of serum or lithium heparin blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts may affect accuracy of some critical analytes and jeopardize patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lithium heparin sample contamination with different amounts of K2EDTA.
Related JoVE Video
Could light meal jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests?
Biochem Med (Zagreb)
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Presently the necessity of fasting time for coagulation tests is not standardized. Our hypothesis is that this can harm patient safety. This study is aimed at evaluating whether a light meal (i.e. breakfast) can jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests.
Related JoVE Video
Circulating Nucleic Acids and Hemostasis: Biological Basis behind Their Relationship and Technical Issues in Assessment.
Semin. Thromb. Hemost.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nucleic acids (NAs) constitute the backbone of cellular life permitting conservation, transmission, and execution of genetic information. In the past few years, new unexpected functions for NAs, projecting them also beyond nuclear and cellular boundaries have been recognized: circulating cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs), histones, DNA-histone complexes, microRNAs (miRs) may have a regulatory role in physiological and pathological processes. In particular, several lines of evidence suggest that they can constitute unconventional mediators of thrombus formation, intervening both in hemostasis and thrombosis. Furthermore, in the past decade, the possibility to detect and quantify these in plasma and/or in serum has led to their ancillary use as potential markers in various medical conditions. The use of these as markers within the fields of thrombosis and hemostasis looks promising: the potential implications include the possibility to assess patients' risk profiles for thrombotic events and the identification of more directed targets for pharmacologic intervention. The major impediment is that, to date, the methods by which NAs are explored, still largely differ between published studies and standardized procedures are still lacking. Future research should focus on the physiological mechanisms underlying the activities of such mediators in specific thrombotic conditions and on the definition of reliable methods for their quantification in biological fluids.
Related JoVE Video
The baseline serum value of ?-amylase is a significant predictor of distance running performance.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Background: This study was planned to investigate whether serum ?-amylase concentration may be associated with running performance, physiological characteristics and other clinical chemistry analytes in a large sample of recreational athletes undergoing distance running. Methods: Forty-three amateur runners successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75%-85% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Blood was drawn during warm up and 15 min after conclusion of the run. Results: After correction for body weight change, significant post-run increases were observed for serum values of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK), iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, urea and uric acid, whereas the values of body weight, glomerular filtration rate, total and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly decreased. The concentration of serum ?-amylase was unchanged. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running performance were found for gender, VO2max, training regimen and pre-run serum values of ?-amylase, CK, glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDH, urea and uric acid. In multivariate analysis, only VO2max (p=0.042) and baseline ?-amylase (p=0.021) remained significant predictors of running performance. The combination of these two variables predicted 71% of variance in running performance. The baseline concentration of serum ?-amylase was positively correlated with variation of serum glucose during the trial (r=0.345; p=0.025) and negatively with capillary blood lactate at the end of the run (r=-0.352; p=0.021). Conclusions: We showed that the baseline serum ?-amylase concentration significantly and independently predicts distance running performance in recreational runners.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of bile and serum mucin5AC in cholangiocarcinoma: Diagnostic performance and biologic significance.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have showed the efficacy of mucin5AC (MUC5AC) as a diagnostic and prognostic serum biomarker in biliary tract tumors. The aim of the present investigation was to improve the current knowledge on the biologic relevance of MUC5AC in malignant and benign biliary disorders by comparing its diagnostic performance in both bile and serum samples of patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) or benign biliary disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic risk factors of atherothrombosis.
Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atherothrombosis is a preventable and multifaceted pathological disorder whose pathogenesis involves a large number of biological pathways such as lipid and hormonal metabolism, inflammation, and hemostasis. Although it has been known for a long time that atherosclerosis has a sizable hereditary component, research in the field of genetics of cardiovascular disease is still ongoing, with doubts often outweighing certainties. A large amount of evidence gathered so far allows to identify at least 5 potential important pathways that can be specifically targeted by genetic studies--lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, platelet function, blood coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Owing to a large number of published studies that have investigated the role of genetic polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis and its complications, in this review, we focused on data emerging from meta?analyses. The available evidence suggests that some selected polymorphisms in low?density lipoprotein metabolism, C?reactive protein, and blood coagulation (especially factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A polymorphism, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 4G/5G polymorphism) deserve particular attention. Of note, however, it seems implausible that one single polymorphism will add much to the current approach of risk assessment based on conventional risk factors. A paradigm shift would hence be needed in the current approach to the genetics of atherothrombosis, wherein the investigation of entire pathways rather than assessment of single mutations will likely provide more useful information for complex conditions that involve large numbers of genes and are subjected to environmental regulation of gene expression and cellular phenotype.
Related JoVE Video
Variation of red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume after moderate endurance exercise.
Adv Hematol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217 ± 32?min/week) who performed a 21.1?km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC), reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR); RBC distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV). No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease.
Related JoVE Video
Hypercoagulability, D-dimer and atrial fibrillation: an overview of biological and clinical evidence.
Ann. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common among the severe cardiac arrhythmias and carries a significant risk of mortality and morbidity in the general population. The most important complication is represented by development of one or more thrombi in the left atrium of the dyskinetic heart, and their successive cerebral and peripheral embolization. The pathophysiological basis of the thromboembolic complications in AF entails the presence of a hypercoagulable state, which is mirrored by increased concentrations of a variety of prothrombotic markers. D-dimer is universally considered the gold standard among the various biomarkers that reflect activation of coagulation, fibrinolysis, or both, and several studies have assessed its diagnostic and prognostic role in AF. With a few exceptions and despite a broad heterogeneity in the study designs, published data seem to demonstrate that D-dimer values may be associated with the presence of atrial thrombosis, may be predictive of primary adverse outcomes and death, may be correlated with cerebral infarction volume, and may also be a useful parameter for assessing the degree of hypercoagulability of AF patients after cardioversion. If larger prospective studies confirm these findings, D-dimer assessment may hence become an integral part of the clinical decision-making in patients with AF.
Related JoVE Video
Inversion of lithium heparin gel tubes after centrifugation is a significant source of bias in clinical chemistry testing.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was planned to establish whether random orientation of gel tubes after centrifugation may impair sample quality.
Related JoVE Video
Calprotectin and cardiovascular events. A narrative review.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Calprotectin, also known as S100A8/A9 complex, is currently considered as a valid biomarker for diagnosis, follow-up and therapeutic monitoring of inflammatory bowel diseases. The attractive evidence that this protein may be actively produced and released by leukocytes (especially neutrophils) and by nonmyeloid cardiovascular cell types has paved the way to a series of studies that have assessed its biology in the setting of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this review was thus to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of this biomarker in cardiovascular disease and in particular in myocardial infarction.
Related JoVE Video
Platelets and migraine.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pathogenesis of migraine, the third most frequent disease worldwide, is complex and multifaceted. Recent evidence suggests that this condition should be considered as a primary neurovascular disorder. The pathogenesis is sustained by a relative reduction of cerebral blood flow, which is then followed by reactive hyperaemia, sterile inflammation and hypersensitization of pain pathways. The leading triggers of the initial vasoconstriction entail both hereditary or acquired cerebrovascular disorders, namely local endothelial or smooth muscle dysfunction, arteriovenous malformations autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, along with cerebral microembolism. The existence of a potential relationship between platelet biology and migraine has been hypothesized more than 30 years ago, paving the way to a series of subsequent studies. Despite the clinical evidence that patients with essential thrombocythemia have a high frequency of headache symptoms, the epidemiological trials that have investigated the platelet count in patients with an accurate diagnosis of migraine failed to report significant associations. Conversely, several lines of evidence attest that serotonin metabolism is substantially impaired in migraine patients, thus contributing to trigger or enhance vasoconstriction and hypersensitization of neuronal elements. Although abnormalities of nitric oxide metabolism should be confirmed in larger studies, published data suggests that this compound may be effective to amplify the reactive vasodilatation that specifically follows the initial reduction of cerebral blood flow. Another plausible link between platelet biology and migraine is represented by inflammation. Increased release of several proinflammatory cytokines, especially interleukins 1, 6 and 8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, may occur after formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates, and these mediators can further contribute to increase sterile inflammation in the brain and facilitate pain signalling.
Related JoVE Video
Laboratory diagnostics of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The term peritonitis indicates an inflammatory process involving the peritoneum that is most frequently infectious in nature. Primary or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) typically occurs when a bacterial infection spreads to the peritoneum across the gut wall or mesenteric lymphatics or, less frequently, from hematogenous transmission in combination with impaired immune system and in absence of an identified intra-abdominal source of infection or malignancy. The clinical presentation of SBP is variable. The condition may manifest as a relatively insidious colonization, without signs and symptoms, or may suddenly occur as a septic syndrome. Laboratory diagnostics play a pivotal role for timely and appropriate management of patients with bacterial peritonitis. It is now clearly established that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) in peritoneal fluid is the mainstay for the diagnosis, whereas the role of additional biochemical tests is rather controversial. Recent evidence also suggests that automatic cell counting in peritoneal fluid may be a reliable approach for early screening of patients. According to available clinical and laboratory data, we have developed a tentative algorithm for efficient diagnosis of SBP, which is based on a reasonable integration between optimization of human/economical resources and gradually increasing use of invasive and expensive testing. The proposed strategy entails, in sequential steps, serum procalcitonin testing, automated cell count in peritoneal fluid, manual cell count in peritoneal fluid, peritoneal fluid culture and bacterial DNA testing in peritoneal fluid.
Related JoVE Video
Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) Predicts Middle Distance Running Performance.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners.
Related JoVE Video
Association of red blood cell distribution width with plasma lipids in a general population of unselected outpatients.
Kardiol Pol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increased values of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are frequent in patients suffering from cardiovascular disorders, and are associated with traditional or less conventional risk factors. Nevertheless, limited and controversial information exists on the association between anisocytosis and plasma lipids.
Related JoVE Video
Avoidance to wipe alcohol before venipuncture is not a source of spurious hemolysis.
Biochem Med (Zagreb)
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is still uncertain whether or not avoidance to let disinfectant alcohol dry at the site of venipuncture is a source of spurious hemolysis when drawing venous blood.
Related JoVE Video
The order of draw: myth or science?
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Background: The potential for cross-contamination of additives among evacuated blood tubes has led to the development of the order of draw. This practice, however, is mainly based on scarce, anecdotal, and mostly outdated literature data. Therefore, the goal of this investigation was to definitely establish whether or not the indication of a specific order of draw is still justified. Methods: The study population consisted of 57 outpatients referred to the outpatient oral anticoagulant (OA) clinic of the Academic Hospital of Verona and 58 healthy volunteers enrolled from the laboratory personnel. In OA outpatients, one serum tube was collected immediately after needle insertion, followed by a buffered sodium citrate tube and another serum tube. In the healthy volunteers, one serum tube was collected immediately after needle insertion, followed by a potassium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2-EDTA) tube and another serum tube. After separation, the serum was tested for potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in the first and second serum tubes. Results: No significant difference could be observed between the first and the second serum tubes for any of the parameters. The bias calculated with Bland-Altman plots did not achieve statistical significance when the serum tube was collected after either a K2-EDTA or a sodium citrate tube. Conclusions: According to our data, revision of national and supranational recommendations on blood collection by venipuncture should consider that the order of draw exerts a negligible effect on sample quality, and this aspect should no longer be considered a quality criterion when evaluating the performance of phlebotomists.
Related JoVE Video
Searching for genes involved in hypertension development in special populations: children and pre-eclamptic women. Where are we standing now?
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Primary hypertension is a very common disorder particularly in the aging population but hypertensive disorders can appear earlier in life, especially when obesity and unhealthy lifestyle are present. Also pregnant women can be at risk of developing gestational hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia, which causes complications in nearly 7% of pregnancies. These "special" populations could be regarded as natural models suited to reveal mechanisms of hypertension development which are either common to other forms of hypertension, including primary hypertension or specific to these populations. Recent studies in the field of genetics of primary hypertension have used new powerful tools, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and sequencing, but studies about hypertension during childhood and in pregnancy have seldom used high-throughput technologies and the knowledge in this field comes mostly from the candidate gene approach. In this review we summarize some interesting results from genetic studies conducted in childhood and adolescence and during pregnancy and underline the need to apply modern technologies in these potentially very fruitful populations.
Related JoVE Video
Does laboratory automation for the preanalytical phase improve data quality?
J Lab Autom
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our aim was to evaluate whether automation for the preanalytical phase improves data quality. Blood from 100 volunteers was collected into two vacuum tubes. One sample from each volunteer was respectively assigned to (G1) traditional processing, starting with centrifugation at 1200 g for 10 min, and (G2) the MODULAR PRE-ANALYTICALS EVO-MPA system. The routine clinical chemistry tests were performed in duplicate on the same instrument Cobas 6000 module. G1 samples were uncapped manually and immediately placed into the instrument. G2 samples were directly fed from the MPA system to the instrument without further staff intervention. At the end, (1) the G1 samples were stored for 6 h at 4 °C as prescribed in our accredited laboratory and (2) the G2 samples were stored for 6 h in the MPA output buffer. Results from G1 and G2, before and after storage, were compared. Significant increases were observed in G1 compared with G2 samples as follows: (1) before storage for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphate (P), magnesium (MG), iron (FE), and hemolysis index and (2) after storage for total cholesterol (COL), triglycerides (TG), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), uric acid (UA), ALP, pancreatic amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), g-glutamyltransferase (GGT), LDH, creatine kinase (CK), calcium (CA), FE, sodium (NA), potassium (K), and hemolysis index. Moreover, significant increases were observed in (3) G1-after versus G1-before storage samples for COL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG, TP, ALB, BUN, CRE, UA, AST, ALT, GGT, LDH, P, CA, MG, FE, NA, K, and hemolysis index and (4) G2-after versus G2-before storage only for BUN, AST, LDH, P, and CA. In conclusion, our results show that the MPA system improves the quality of laboratory testing.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of an association between circulating adiponectin levels and risk of colorectal adenoma.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The putative association between serum adiponectin levels and colorectal adenomas is actually under debate. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in relation to factors known to influence the levels of adiponectin such as anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory parameters as well as lifestyle individual characteristics.
Related JoVE Video
Highly-sensitive troponin I is increased in patients with gynecological cancers.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate troponin I (TnI) in patients with gynecological cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of biological variation of glycated albumin (GA) and fructosamine in healthy subjects.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glycated albumin (GA) and fructosamine are nonenzymatically glycated proteins still frequently utilized for monitoring glycemic control in diabetics. To investigate the analytical variation and the degree of individuality of these glycemic markers, we have performed an experimental study under a well designed and standardized protocol.
Related JoVE Video
Serine/threonine kinase 39 is a candidate gene for primary hypertension especially in women: results from two cohort studies in Swedes.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As recently pinpointed by a genome-wide association study the serine/threonine kinase 39 (STK39) is a candidate gene for hypertension. This kinase is strongly implicated in sodium reabsorption by the kidney through its modulating effect on furosemide-sensitive and thiazide-sensitive channels. The aim of our study was to test the effects of the STK39 rs35929607A>G polymorphism on blood pressure (BP) levels and the prevalence and incidence of hypertension in middle-aged Swedes participating in two urban-based surveys in Malmö (Sweden).
Related JoVE Video
A variant upstream of the CDH13 adiponectin receptor gene and metabolic syndrome in Swedes.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) constitutes a worldwide epidemic burst accounting for billions of cardiovascular disease events and deaths. The genetic basis of MetS is largely unknown. The rs11646213 T ? A polymorphism maps at 16q23.3 upstream of the CDH13 gene codifying for cadherin-13 (also known as T-cadherin or H-cadherin), which is considered a vascular adiponectin receptor. This and other single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with hypertension and adiponectin level in separate studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the CDH13 rs11646213 T ? A polymorphism on individual components of MetS and on MetS. The polymorphism was genotyped in the cardiovascular cohort of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (n = 4,942) and successively in the Malmö Preventive Project (n = 17,675) cohort at baseline and after an average of 23 years of follow-up (reinvestigation). Four different definitions of MetS were applied to these cohorts. In the cardiovascular arm, CDH13 rs11646213 AA homozygotic women showed a trend toward higher triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and presented a higher MetS score (composite sum of MetS phenotypes). MetS (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) was more prevalent in AA homozygotic women compared to T-carriers, a result confirmed in the Malmö Preventive Project cohort at baseline and at reinvestigation with an increased risk from 19% to 45% in AA homozygotic women. In conclusion, the CDH13 rs11646213 T > A polymorphism was consistently associated with MetS in Swedish women recruited in 2 large cohorts. In light of the role of cadherin-13 as a vascular receptor for adiponectin, our study supports the genetic basis for the role of adiponectin in MetS pathogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: an update on the mechanism of action and use of functional testing methods to assess antiplatelet efficacy.
Biomark Med
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The human glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa belongs to a large family of cation-dependent adhesion molecules known as integrins, which share a common heterodimeric structure. The primary function of GPIIb/IIIa is to aid platelet aggregation by transmitting bidirectional signals across the plasma membrane. Since the GPIIb/IIIa receptor is among the key integrins involved in platelet aggregation and, therefore, thrombus formation, the development of GPIIb/IIIa antagonists (e.g., abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban) has become an attractive strategy for antiplatelet therapy with an expected strong and specific effect. All three drugs are administered intravenously, and large-scale clinical trials have demonstrated a clear clinical benefit and good safety profile in high-risk patients, especially those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the adverse events related to thrombosis or bleeding are still reported in patients undergoing therapy with GPIIb/IIIa antagonists and reflect a variable interindividual responsiveness. Therefore, some form of laboratory monitoring is required to optimize the effects of a drug or to indicate that it needs replacing with other antithrombotic agents, as well as for identifying and enhancing the platelet inhibition in this subgroup of patients to improve the clinical outcome and reduce bleeding complications. As such, the aim of this article is to provide an update on the mechanism of action and use of functional testing methods to assess antiplatelet efficacy in patients undergoing therapy with GPIIb/IIIa antagonists.
Related JoVE Video
The ROMA (Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm) for estimating the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in women presenting with pelvic mass: is it really useful?
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The study is aimed at evaluating the performance of the predictive model ROMA (Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm), which utilizes the combination of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and CA125 values to assess the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in women with a pelvic mass.
Related JoVE Video
Real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification of free DNA in serum of patients with polyps and colorectal cancers.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent causes of cancer related deaths worldwide. Recently, the use of cell-free DNA as diagnostic tools to identify cancer has been investigated. The aim of this work was to assess whether circulating DNA could be considered a useful marker for detection of early stage CRC and polyps.
Related JoVE Video
Disseminated intravascular coagulation in obstetric and gynecologic disorders.
Semin. Thromb. Hemost.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by a massive, widespread, and ongoing activation of the coagulation system, secondary to a variety of clinical conditions. Many obstetric complications, such as abruptio placentae, amniotic fluid embolism, endotoxin sepsis, retained dead fetus, post-hemorrhagic shock, hydatidiform mole, and gynecologic malignancies, might trigger DIC. In these gynecologic and obstetric settings, DIC is usually associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. No single laboratory test is sensitive or specific enough to diagnose DIC definitively, but it can be diagnosed by using a combination of multiple clinical and laboratory tests that reflect the pathophysiology of the syndrome. At present, the therapeutical approach to pregnancy- and gynecologic-related DIC comprises the specific and aggressive treatment of the underlying disease, eventually followed by a supportive blood product replacement therapy and restoration of physiological anticoagulant pathways. This article reviews the etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis, and therapy of pregnancy- and gynecologic-related DIC.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide association study of blood pressure extremes identifies variant near UMOD associated with hypertension.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypertension is a heritable and major contributor to the global burden of disease. The sum of rare and common genetic variants robustly identified so far explain only 1%-2% of the population variation in BP and hypertension. This suggests the existence of more undiscovered common variants. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 1,621 hypertensive cases and 1,699 controls and follow-up validation analyses in 19,845 cases and 16,541 controls using an extreme case-control design. We identified a locus on chromosome 16 in the 5 region of Uromodulin (UMOD; rs13333226, combined P value of 3.6 × 10?¹¹). The minor G allele is associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR [95%CI]: 0.87 [0.84-0.91]), reduced urinary uromodulin excretion, better renal function; and each copy of the G allele is associated with a 7.7% reduction in risk of CVD events after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status (H.R.?=?0.923, 95% CI 0.860-0.991; p?=?0.027). In a subset of 13,446 individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements, we show that rs13333226 is independently associated with hypertension (unadjusted for eGFR: 0.89 [0.83-0.96], p?=?0.004; after eGFR adjustment: 0.89 [0.83-0.96], p?=?0.003). In clinical functional studies, we also consistently show the minor G allele is associated with lower urinary uromodulin excretion. The exclusive expression of uromodulin in the thick portion of the ascending limb of Henle suggests a putative role of this variant in hypertension through an effect on sodium homeostasis. The newly discovered UMOD locus for hypertension has the potential to give new insights into the role of uromodulin in BP regulation and to identify novel drugable targets for reducing cardiovascular risk.
Related JoVE Video
Homozygosity for the EPHX2 K55R polymorphism increases the long-term risk of ischemic stroke in men: a study in Swedes.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The soluble epoxide hydrolase (gene name EPHX2) is responsible for metabolism of 8,9 11,12 and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, vasodilator and anti-inflammatory substances. There are several functional polymorphisms in the EPHX2 gene: two of them, the K55R and R287Q, showing an altered metabolic activity in vitro, were associated with coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke in previous studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four polymorphisms in the EPHX2 gene on blood pressure levels, hypertension prevalence, and risk of incident cardiovascular events in a large sample of middle-aged Swedes.
Related JoVE Video
The utility of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in patients with a pelvic mass.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although CA125 is the most widely used cancer marker in the diagnostic approach of pelvic masses in women, its clinical usefulness is limited because it lacks expression of the antigen in the early stages of disease. The human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is frequently over-expressed in ovarian cancer, whereas its expression in normal tissues, including the ovary, is low. The aim of this study was to assess the concentration of both HE4 and CA125 in patients with different forms of benign and malign pelvic masses.
Related JoVE Video
Postoperative variation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite substantial advances in radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, surgical management remains the standard of care, especially in patients with no evidence of distant metastases and who are fit for surgery. It is traditionally known, however, that patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal malignancies suffer from a high rate of infective complications and there is little information on the behavior of C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Chromosome translocation frequency after radioiodine thyroid remnant ablation: a comparison between recombinant human thyrotropin stimulation and prolonged levothyroxine withdrawal.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thyroid remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients is traditionally performed after levothyroxine withdrawal. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) administration increases serum TSH levels without inducing hypothyroidism.
Related JoVE Video
Procalcitonin values after dialysis is closely related to type of dialysis membrane.
Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infections account for considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Diagnosis of infection in HD patients is challenging because the most used laboratory parameters may be increased even in the absence of infection. In this setting, procalcitonin (PCT) could be useful for detection of systemic bacterial infections.
Related JoVE Video
Prediction of blood pressure changes over time and incidence of hypertension by a genetic risk score in Swedes.
Hypertension
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have pinpointed different single nucleotide polymorphisms consistently associated with blood pressure (BP) and hypertension prevalence. However, little data exist regarding single nucleotide polymorphisms predicting BP variation over time and hypertension incidence. The aim of this study was to confirm the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), based on 29 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms, with cross-sectional BP and hypertension prevalence and to challenge its prediction of BP change over time and hypertension incidence in >17 000 middle-aged Swedes participating in a prospective study, the Malmö Preventive Project, investigated at baseline and over a 23-year average period of follow-up. The GRS was associated with higher systolic and diastolic BP values both at baseline (? ± SEM, 0.968 ± 0.102 mm Hg and 0.585 ± 0.064 mm Hg; P<1E-19 for both) and at reinvestigation (? ± SEM, 1.333 ± 0.161 mm Hg and 0.724 ± 0.086 mm Hg; P<1E-15 for both) and with increased hypertension prevalence (odds ratio [95% CI], 1.192 [1.140-1.245] and 1.144 [1.107-1.183]; P<1E-15 for both). The GRS was positively associated with change (?) in BP (? ± SEM, 0.033 ± 0.008 mm Hg/y and 0.023 ± 0.004 mm Hg/y; P<1E-04 for both) and hypertension incidence (odds ratio [95% CI], 1.110 [1.065-1.156]; P=6.7 E-07), independently from traditional risk factors. The relative weight of the GRS was lower in magnitude than obesity or prehypertension, but comparable with diabetes mellitus or a positive family history of hypertension. A C-statistics analysis does not show any improvement in the prediction of incident hypertension on top of traditional risk factors. Our data from a large cohort study show that a GRS is independently associated with BP increase and incidence of hypertension.
Related JoVE Video
The role of osteoprotegerin in cardiovascular disease.
Ann. Med.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a 401 amino acid N-glycosylated protein, which is highly expressed in a large number of tissues. OPG mainly binds to two ligands, i.e. RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand) and TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor- related apoptosis-inducing ligand). Upon binding to the former ligand, OPG inhibits the activation of osteoclasts and promotes apoptosis of osteoclasts, whereas the binding of OPG with TRAIL prevents apoptosis of tumor cells. There is now emerging evidence that OPG participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases by amplifying the adverse effects of inflammation and several traditional risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Some epidemiological studies also showed a positive association between OPG levels and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the main biochemical, physiological, and pathological aspects of OPG biology in cardiovascular disease.
Related JoVE Video
The Renalase Asp37Glu polymorphism is not associated with hypertension and cardiovascular events in an urban-based prospective cohort: the Malmö Diet and cancer study.
BMC Med. Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Renalase (gene name RNLS), a recently discovered enzyme with monoamine oxidase activity, is implicated in the degradation of catecholamines. Recent studies delineate a possible role of this enzyme in blood pressure (BP) maintenance and cardiac protection and two single nucleotide polymorphisms, RNLS rs2576178 A > G and rs2296545 C > G have been associated with hypertension. The latter SNP leads to a non synonymous Asp to Glu substitution deleting a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding site with possible impaired functionality. We tested the hypothesis that these polymorphisms could affect BP levels, hypertension prevalence, and risk of incident cardiovascular events in middle-aged Swedes.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of a regular, standardized meal on clinical chemistry analytes.
Ann Lab Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Preanalytical variability, including biological variability and patient preparation, is an important source of variability in laboratory testing. In this study, we assessed whether a regular light meal might bias the results of routine clinical chemistry testing.
Related JoVE Video
The functional variant V433M of the CYP4F2 and the metabolic syndrome in Swedes.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The genetic basis of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is largely unknown but a link with salt sensitivity is recognized. The cytochrome P450 isoform 4F2 (CYP4F2) is involved in renal production of 20-hydroxyeicosatethraenoic acid (20-HETE), a natriuretic substance associated with salt sensitivity. The same enzyme is implicated in ?-hydroxylation of very long and medium chain fatty acids in the liver suggesting its possible influence on gluco-metabolic components of MetS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of CYP4F2 V433M, a functional polymorphism previously associated with hypertension via renal salt reabsorption, on the individual components of MetS and MetS itself.
Related JoVE Video
The role of resistin in colorectal cancer.
Clin. Chim. Acta
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To date the role of resistin in colorectal cancer (CRC) is far from being elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum resistin levels and CRC in relation to known risk/protective factors including anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory parameters as well as lifestyle individual characteristics.
Related JoVE Video
The concentration of high-sensitivity troponin I, galectin-3 and NT-proBNP substantially increase after a 60-km ultramarathon.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Background: The leading mechanisms responsible for the most prevalent and serious cardiac injuries include myocardiocyte stretch, myocardiocyte necrosis and cardiac fibrosis, which can now be reliably mirrored by measurement of natriuretic peptides, cardiospecific troponins and galectin-3, respectively. Although a large amount of knowledge has been gathered about the behavior and clinical significance of these biomarkers in patients with cardiac disorders, less information is available on their biology in paraphysiological conditions, including high-intensity endurance exercise. Methods: The study population consisted of 18 trained athletes, who performed a 60-km ultramarathon run. Blood was collected before the run (i.e., "baseline") and immediately after the end of the ultramarathon ("post-marathon") for measurement of serum high-sensitivity troponin I (TnI), NT-proBNP and galectin-3. Results: The concentration of all biomarkers measured in the post-marathon samples was remarkably increased as compared with the values obtained on baseline specimens. In particular, the median increase was 3.3 for TnI, 3.5 for NT-proBNP and 2.4 for galectin-3, respectively. The frequency of values exceeding the diagnostic threshold did not differ at baseline and after the ultramarathon for TnI (6% vs. 25%; p=0.15), instead was significantly increased for NT-proBNP (0% vs. 28%; p=0.016) and galectin-3 (0% vs. 67%; p<0.001). No significant correlation was found among the increase of any of the three biomarkers. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that high-intensity endurance exercise is associated with biochemical abnormalities that may reflect adverse consequences on cardiac structure and biology.
Related JoVE Video
EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE (CPAP) ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA/HYPOPNEA. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS.
Chest
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Continuous positive airway pressure (cPAP) is considered the therapy of choice for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but the extent to which it can reduce blood pressure (BP) is still under debate.We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to quantify the effect size of the reduction of BP by cPAP therapy compared to other "passive" (sham cPAP, tablets of placebo, conservative measures) or "active" (oral appliance, antihypertensive drugs) treatments.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.