JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Activation of HIV Transcription with Short-Course Vorinostat in HIV-Infected Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence in latently infected resting memory CD4+ T-cells is the major barrier to HIV cure. Cellular histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important in maintaining HIV latency and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may reverse latency by activating HIV transcription from latently infected CD4+ T-cells. We performed a single arm, open label, proof-of-concept study in which vorinostat, a pan-HDACi, was administered 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days to 20 HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). The primary endpoint was change in cell associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV RNA in total CD4+ T-cells from blood at day 14. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01365065). Vorinostat was safe and well tolerated and there were no dose modifications or study drug discontinuations. CA-US HIV RNA in blood increased significantly in 18/20 patients (90%) with a median fold change from baseline to peak value of 7.4 (IQR 3.4, 9.1). CA-US RNA was significantly elevated 8 hours post drug and remained elevated 70 days after last dose. Significant early changes in expression of genes associated with chromatin remodeling and activation of HIV transcription correlated with the magnitude of increased CA-US HIV RNA. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma HIV RNA, concentration of HIV DNA, integrated DNA, inducible virus in CD4+ T-cells or markers of T-cell activation. Vorinostat induced a significant and sustained increase in HIV transcription from latency in the majority of HIV-infected patients. However, additional interventions will be needed to efficiently induce virus production and ultimately eliminate latently infected cells.
Related JoVE Video
Factors associated with acute kidney injury in children receiving vancomycin.
Ann Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As higher vancomycin doses have been used in children, concern for acute kidney injury (AKI) has increased. Data describing factors associated with AKI, particularly dose-related factors, are limited.
Related JoVE Video
Limited HIV infection of central memory and stem cell memory CD4+ T cells is associated with lack of progression in viremic individuals.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A rare subset of HIV-infected individuals, designated viremic non-progressors (VNP), remain asymptomatic and maintain normal levels of CD4+ T-cells despite persistently high viremia. To identify mechanisms potentially responsible for the VNP phenotype, we compared VNPs (average >9 years of HIV infection) to HIV-infected individuals who have similar CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, but who are likely to progress if left untreated ("putative progressors", PP), thus avoiding the confounding effect of differences related to substantial CD4+ T cell depletion. We found that VNPs, compared to PPs, had preserved levels of CD4+ stem cell memory cells (TSCM (p<0.0001), which was associated with decreased HIV infection of these cells in VNPs (r?=?-0.649, p?=?0.019). In addition, VNPs had decreased HIV infection in CD4+ central memory (TCM) cells (p?=?0.035), and the total number of TCM cells was associated with increased proliferation of memory CD4+ T cells (r?=?0.733, p?=?0.01). Our results suggest that, in HIV-infected VNPs, decreased infection of CD4+ TCM and TSCM, cells are involved in preservation of CD4+ T cell homeostasis and lack of disease progression despite high viremia.
Related JoVE Video
Decreased HIV Type 1 Transcription in CCR5-?32 Heterozygotes During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Individuals who are heterozygous for the CCR5-?32 mutation provide a natural model to examine the effects of reduced CCR5 expression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence. We evaluated the HIV reservoir in 18 CCR5-?32 heterozygotes and 54 CCR5 wild-type individuals during suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Cell-associated HIV RNA levels (P = .035), RNA to DNA transcriptional ratios (P = .013), and frequency of detectable HIV 2-long terminal repeat circular DNA (P = .013) were significantly lower in CD4(+) T cells from CCR5-?32 heterozygotes. Cell-associated HIV RNA was significantly correlated with CCR5 surface expression on CD4(+) T cells (r(2) = 0.136; P = .002). Our findings suggest that curative strategies should further explore manipulation of CCR5.
Related JoVE Video
Programmed death-1 expression on CD4? and CD8? T cells in treated and untreated HIV disease.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is intense interest in the role of programmed death 1 (PD-1) in causing persistent T-cell dysfunction in HIV infection. However, the impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the expression of PD-1 on T cells is still poorly defined.
Related JoVE Video
Against the odds: complete outcrossing in a monoecious clonal seagrass Posidonia australis (Posidoniaceae).
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Seagrasses are marine, flowering plants with a hydrophilous pollination strategy. In these plants, successful mating requires dispersal of filamentous pollen grains through the water column to receptive stigmas. Approximately 40 % of seagrass species are monoecious, and therefore little pollen movement is required if inbreeding is tolerated. Outcrossing in these species is further impacted by clonality, which is variable, but can be extensive in large, dense meadows. Despite this, little is known about the interaction between clonal structure, genetic diversity and mating systems in hydrophilous taxa.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-infected individuals with low CD4/CD8 ratio despite effective antiretroviral therapy exhibit altered T cell subsets, heightened CD8+ T cell activation, and increased risk of non-AIDS morbidity and mortality.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined. Using data from four distinct clinical cohorts and three clinical trials, we show that a low CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-infected adults during otherwise effective ART (after CD4 count recovery above 500 cells/mm3) is associated with a number of immunological abnormalities, including a skewed T cell phenotype from naïve toward terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells, higher levels of CD8+ T cell activation (HLADR+CD38+) and senescence (CD28- and CD57+CD28-), and higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Changes in the peripheral CD4/CD8 ratio are also reflective of changes in gut mucosa, but not in lymph nodes. In a longitudinal study, individuals who initiated ART within six months of infection had greater CD4/CD8 ratio increase compared to later initiators (>2 years). After controlling for age, gender, ART duration, nadir and CD4 count, the CD4/CD8 ratio predicted increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Hence, a persistently low CD4/CD8 ratio during otherwise effective ART is associated with increased innate and adaptive immune activation, an immunosenescent phenotype, and higher risk of morbidity/mortality. This ratio may prove useful in monitoring response to ART and could identify a unique subset of individuals needed of novel therapeutic interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction and innate immune activation predict mortality in treated HIV infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While inflammation predicts mortality in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the prognostic significance of gut barrier dysfunction and phenotypic T-cell markers remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Peripheral neuropathy in primary HIV infection associates with systemic and central nervous system immune activation.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a frequent complication of chronic HIV infection. We prospectively studied individuals with primary HIV infection (<1 year after transmission) to assess the presence of and laboratory associations with PN in this early stage.
Related JoVE Video
Low proportions of CD28- CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 can be reversed by early ART initiation and predict mortality in treated HIV infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Unlike cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and aging, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreases the proportion of CD28(-)CD8(+) T cells expressing CD57. Whether this abnormality predicts mortality in treated HIV infection and can be reversed by early antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains unknown.
Related JoVE Video
CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Activation Are Associated with HIV DNA in Resting CD4+ T Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association between the host immune environment and the size of the HIV reservoir during effective antiretroviral therapy is not clear. Progress has also been limited by the lack of a well-accepted assay for quantifying HIV during therapy. We examined the association between multiple measurements of HIV and T cell activation (as defined by markers including CD38, HLA-DR, CCR5 and PD-1) in 30 antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected adults. We found a consistent association between the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing HLA-DR and the frequency of resting CD4+ T cells containing HIV DNA. This study highlights the need to further examine this relationship and to better characterize the biology of markers commonly used in HIV studies. These results may also have implications for reactivation strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of HIV on CD8+ T cell CD57 expression is distinct from that of CMV and aging.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic antigenic stimulation by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is thought to increase "immunosenesence" of aging, characterized by accumulation of terminally differentiated CD28- CD8+ T cells and increased CD57, a marker of proliferative history. Whether chronic HIV infection causes similar effects is currently unclear.
Related JoVE Video
The HIV-1 reservoir in eight patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy is stable with few genetic changes over time.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The source and dynamics of persistent HIV-1 during long-term combinational antiretroviral therapy (cART) are critical to understanding the barriers to curing HIV-1 infection. To address this issue, we isolated and genetically characterized HIV-1 DNA from naïve and memory T cells from peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) from eight patients after 4-12 y of suppressive cART. Our detailed analysis of these eight patients indicates that persistent HIV-1 in peripheral blood and GALT is found primarily in memory CD4(+) T cells [CD45RO(+)/CD27((+/-))]. The HIV-1 infection frequency of CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood and GALT was higher in patients who initiated treatment during chronic compared with acute/early infection, indicating that early initiation of therapy results in lower HIV-1 reservoir size in blood and gut. Phylogenetic analysis revealed an HIV-1 genetic change between RNA sequences isolated before initiation of cART and intracellular HIV-1 sequences from the T-cell subsets after 4-12 y of suppressive cART in four of the eight patients. However, evolutionary rate analyses estimated no greater than three nucleotide substitutions per gene region analyzed during all of the 4-12 y of suppressive therapy. We also identified a clearly replication-incompetent viral sequence in multiple memory T cells in one patient, strongly supporting asynchronous cell replication of a cell containing integrated HIV-1 DNA as the source. This study indicates that persistence of a remarkably stable population of infected memory cells will be the primary barrier to a cure, and, with little evidence of viral replication, this population could be maintained by homeostatic cell proliferation or other processes.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected controllers and noncontrollers.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV-infected controllers have provided novel insights into mechanisms of viral control. We investigated the degree to which HIV DNA and RNA are present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of controllers.
Related JoVE Video
Prospective antiretroviral treatment of asymptomatic, HIV-1 infected controllers.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The study of HIV-infected "controllers" who are able to maintain low levels of plasma HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may provide insights for HIV cure and vaccine strategies. Despite maintaining very low levels of plasma viremia, controllers have elevated immune activation and accelerated atherosclerosis. However, the degree to which low-level replication contributes to these phenomena is not known. Sixteen asymptomatic controllers were prospectively treated with ART for 24 weeks. Controllers had a statistically significant decrease in ultrasensitive plasma and rectal HIV RNA levels with ART. Markers of T cell activation/dysfunction in blood and gut mucosa also decreased substantially with ART. Similar reductions were observed in the subset of "elite" controllers with pre-ART plasma HIV RNA levels below conventional assays (<40 copies/mL). These data confirm that HIV replication persists in controllers and contributes to a chronic inflammatory state. ART should be considered for these individuals (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01025427).
Related JoVE Video
Expression profile of host restriction factors in HIV-1 elite controllers.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several host-encoded antiviral factors suppress HIV-1 replication in a cell-autonomous fashion in vitro. The relevance of these defenses to the control of HIV-1 in vivo remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that cellular restriction of HIV-1 replication plays a significant role in the observed suppression of HIV-1 in "elite controllers", individuals who maintain undetectable levels of viremia in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We comprehensively compared the expression levels of 34 host restriction factors and cellular activation levels in CD4+ T cells and sorted T cell subsets between elite controllers, HIV-1-infected (untreated) non-controllers, ART-suppressed, and uninfected individuals.
Related JoVE Video
The distribution of HIV DNA and RNA in cell subsets differs in gut and blood of HIV-positive patients on ART: implications for viral persistence.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Even with optimal antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in plasma, blood cells, and tissues. To develop new therapies, it is essential to know what cell types harbor residual HIV. We measured levels of HIV DNA, RNA, and RNA/DNA ratios in sorted subsets of CD4+ T cells (CCR7+, transitional memory, and effector memory) and non-CD4+ T leukocytes from blood, ileum, and rectum of 8 ART-suppressed HIV-positive subjects. Levels of HIV DNA/million cells in CCR7+ and effector memory cells were higher in the ileum than blood. When normalized by cell frequencies, most HIV DNA and RNA in the blood were found in CCR7+ cells, whereas in both gut sites, most HIV DNA and RNA were found in effector memory cells. HIV DNA and RNA were observed in non-CD4+ T leukocytes at low levels, particularly in gut tissues. Compared to the blood, the ileum had higher levels of HIV DNA and RNA in both CD4+ T cells and non-CD4+ T leukocytes, whereas the rectum had higher HIV DNA levels in both cell types but lower RNA levels in CD4+ T cells. Future studies should determine whether different mechanisms allow HIV to persist in these distinct reservoirs, and the degree to which different therapies can affect each reservoir.
Related JoVE Video
Antiretroviral therapy initiated within 6 months of HIV infection is associated with lower T-cell activation and smaller HIV reservoir size.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background.?CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell activation levels often remain elevated in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). T-cell activation predicts early death and blunted CD4+ T-cell recovery during ART and may affect persistent HIV reservoir size. We investigated whether very early ART initiation is associated with lower on-therapy immune activation and HIV persistence. Methods.?From a cohort of patients with early HIV infection (<6 months duration since infection) we identified persons who started ART early (<6 months after infection) or later (?2 years after infection) and maintained ?2 years of virologic suppression; at-risk HIV-negative persons were controls. We measured CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell activation (percent CD38(+)/HLA-DR(+)) and HIV reservoir size (based on HIV DNA and cell-associated RNA levels). Results.?In unadjusted analyses, early ART predicted lower on-therapy CD8(+) T-cell activation (n = 34; mean, 22.1%) than achieved with later ART (n = 32; mean, 28.8%; P = .009), although levels in early ART remained elevated relative to HIV-negative controls (P = .02). Early ART also predicted lower CD4+ T-cell activation than with later ART (5.3% vs 7.5%; P = .06). Early ART predicted 4.8-fold lower DNA levels than achieved with later ART (P = .005), and lower cell-associated RNA levels (difference in signal-to-cutoff ratio (S/Co), 3.2; P = .035). Conclusions.?ART initiation <6 months after infection is associated with lower levels of T-cell activation and smaller HIV DNA and RNA reservoir size during long-term therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogenetic relationships within the lizard clade Xantusiidae: using trees and divergence times to address evolutionary questions at multiple levels.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Xantusiidae (night lizards) is a clade of small-bodied, cryptic lizards endemic to the New World. The clade is characterized by several features that would benefit from interpretation in a phylogenetic context, including: (1) monophyletic status of extant taxa Cricosaura, Lepidophyma, and Xantusia; (2) a species endemic to Cuba (Cricosaura typica) of disputed age; (3) origins of the parthenogenetic species of Lepidophyma; (4) pronounced micro-habitat differences accompanied by distinct morphologies in both Xantusia and Lepidophyma; and (5) placement of Xantusia riversiana, the only vertebrate species endemic to the California Channel Islands, which is highly divergent from its mainland relatives. This study incorporates extensive new character data from multiple gene regions to investigate the phylogeny of Xantusiidae using the most comprehensive taxonomic sampling available to date. Parsimony and partitioned Bayesian analyses of more than 7 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from 11 loci all confirm that Xantusiidae is monophyletic, and comprises three well-supported clades: Cricosaura, Xantusia, and Lepidophyma. The Cuban endemic Cricosaura typica is well supported as the sister to all other xantusiids. Estimates of divergence time indicate that Cricosaura diverged from the (Lepidophyma+Xantusia) clade ? 81 million years ago (Ma), a time frame consistent with the separation of the Antilles from North America. Our results also confirm and extend an earlier study suggesting that parthenogenesis has arisen at least twice within Lepidophyma without hybridization, that rock-crevice ecomorphs evolved numerous times (>9) within Xantusia and Lepidophyma, and that the large-bodied Channel Island endemic X. riversiana is a distinct, early lineage that may form the sister group to the small-bodied congeners of the mainland.
Related JoVE Video
Challenges in detecting HIV persistence during potentially curative interventions: a study of the Berlin patient.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is intense interest in developing curative interventions for HIV. How such a cure will be quantified and defined is not known. We applied a series of measurements of HIV persistence to the study of an HIV-infected adult who has exhibited evidence of cure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a homozygous CCR5?32 donor. Samples from blood, spinal fluid, lymph node, and gut were analyzed in multiple laboratories using different approaches. No HIV DNA or RNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spinal fluid, lymph node, or terminal ileum, and no replication-competent virus could be cultured from PBMCs. However, HIV RNA was detected in plasma (2 laboratories) and HIV DNA was detected in the rectum (1 laboratory) at levels considerably lower than those expected in ART-suppressed patients. It was not possible to obtain sequence data from plasma or gut, while an X4 sequence from PBMC did not match the pre-transplant sequence. HIV antibody levels were readily detectable but declined over time; T cell responses were largely absent. The occasional, low-level PCR signals raise the possibility that some HIV nucleic acid might persist, although they could also be false positives. Since HIV levels in well-treated individuals are near the limits of detection of current assays, more sensitive assays need to be developed and validated. The absence of recrudescent HIV replication and waning HIV-specific immune responses five years after withdrawal of treatment provide proof of a clinical cure.
Related JoVE Video
An ecological genetic delineation of local seed-source provenance for ecological restoration.
Ecol Evol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An increasingly important practical application of the analysis of spatial genetic structure within plant species is to help define the extent of local provenance seed collection zones that minimize negative impacts in ecological restoration programs. Here, we derive seed sourcing guidelines from a novel range-wide assessment of spatial genetic structure of 24 populations of Banksia menziesii (Proteaceae), a widely distributed Western Australian tree of significance in local ecological restoration programs. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 100 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations (?PT = 0.18). Pairwise population genetic dissimilarity was correlated with geographic distance, but not environmental distance derived from 15 climate variables, suggesting overall neutrality of these markers with regard to these climate variables. Nevertheless, Bayesian outlier analysis identified four markers potentially under selection, although these were not correlated with the climate variables. We calculated a global R-statistic using analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) to test the statistical significance of population differentiation and to infer a threshold seed collection zone distance of ?60 km (all markers) and 100 km (outlier markers) when genetic distance was regressed against geographic distance. Population pairs separated by >60 km were, on average, twice as likely to be significantly genetically differentiated than population pairs separated by <60 km, suggesting that habitat-matched sites within a 30-km radius around a restoration site genetically defines a local provenance seed collection zone for B. menziesii. Our approach is a novel probability-based practical solution for the delineation of a local seed collection zone to minimize negative genetic impacts in ecological restoration.
Related JoVE Video
Low molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 signals via protein kinase C and myofibrillar proteins to protect against postischemic cardiac dysfunction.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Among its many biological roles, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) acutely protects the heart from dysfunction associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our laboratory has demonstrated that this is due to the activity of the low molecular weight (LMW) isoform of FGF2 and that FGF2-mediated cardioprotection relies on the activity of protein kinase C (PKC); however, which PKC isoforms are responsible for LMW FGF2-mediated cardioprotection, and their downstream targets, remain to be elucidated. To identify the PKC pathway(s) that contributes to postischemic cardiac recovery by LMW FGF2, mouse hearts expressing only LMW FGF2 (HMWKO) were bred to mouse hearts not expressing PKC? (PKC?KO) or subjected to a selective PKC? inhibitor (?V(1-2)) before and during I/R. Hearts only expressing LMW FGF2 showed significantly improved postischemic recovery of cardiac function following I/R (P < 0.05), which was significantly abrogated in the absence of PKC? (P < 0.05) or presence of PKC? inhibition (P < 0.05). Hearts only expressing LMW FGF2 demonstrated differences in actomyosin ATPase activity as well as increases in the phosphorylation of troponin I and T during I/R compared with wild-type hearts; several of these effects were dependent on PKC? activity. This evidence indicates that both PKC? and PKC? play a role in LMW FGF2-mediated protection from cardiac dysfunction and that PKC? signaling to the contractile apparatus is a key step in the mechanism of LMW FGF2-mediated protection against myocardial dysfunction.
Related JoVE Video
Immunosenescence is associated with presence of Kaposis sarcoma in antiretroviral treated HIV infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some antiretroviral treated HIV-infected patients develop Kaposis sarcoma despite long-term suppression of HIV replication. These Kaposis sarcoma lesions are consistent with Kaposis sarcoma observed in the elderly uninfected population (classical Kaposis sarcoma). We investigated potential mechanisms for this phenomenon, focusing on measures of immune activation and T-cell senescence.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical findings and prognostic factors for dogs undergoing cholecystectomy for gall bladder mucocele.
Vet Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report clinical findings and explore prognostic factors for dogs that had cholecystectomy for gall bladder mucocele.
Related JoVE Video
Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.
Related JoVE Video
Cellular Composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to characterize the cellular composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a healthy state and in the setting of chronic pleocytosis associated with HIV-1 (HIV) infection, multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to identify and quantitate cellular phenotypes in CSF derived from HIV-uninfected healthy controls and HIV-infected subjects across a spectrum of disease and treatment. CD4+ T cells were the most frequent CSF population and the CD4:CD8 ratio was significantly increased in the CSF compared to blood (p?=?0.0232), suggesting preferential trafficking of CD4+ over CD8+ T cells to this compartment. In contrast, in HIV-infection, CD8+ T cells were the major cellular component of the CSF and were markedly increased compared to HIV-uninfected subjects (p<0.001). As with peripheral blood, the CSF CD4:CD8 ratio was reversed in HIV-infected subjects compared to HIV-uninfected subjects. Monocytes, B cells and NK cells were rare in the CSF in both groups, although absolute counts of CSF NK cells and B cells were significantly increased in HIV-infected subjects (p<0.05). Our studies show that T cells are the major cellular component of the CSF in HIV-infected and uninfected subjects. The CSF pleocytosis characteristic of HIV infection involves all lymphocyte subsets we measured, except for CD4+ T cells, but is comprised primarily of CD8+ T cells. The reduced proportion of CD4+ T cells in the CSF may reflect both HIV-related peripheral loss and changes in trafficking patterns in response to HIV infection in the central nervous system.
Related JoVE Video
Raltegravir treatment intensification does not alter cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 infection or immunoactivation in subjects on suppressive therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite suppression of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA by antiretroviral therapy to levels below clinical assay detection, infection and immune activation may persist within the central nervous system and possibly lead to continued brain injury. We hypothesized that intensifying therapy would decrease cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infection and immune activation.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-1 infection abrogates CD8+ T cell mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling responses.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are dynamic and sensitive regulators of T cell function and differentiation. Altered MAPK signaling has been associated with the inflammatory and autoimmune diseases lupus and arthritis and with some pathogenic viral infections. HIV-1 infection is characterized by chronic immune inflammation, aberrantly heightened CD8(+) T cell activation levels, and altered T cell function. The relationship between MAPK pathway function, HIV-1-induced activation (CD38 and HLA-DR), and exhaustion (Tim-3) markers in circulating CD8(+) T cells remains unknown. Phosphorylation of the MAPK effector proteins ERK and p38 was examined by "phosflow" flow cytometry in 79 recently HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral-treatment-naïve adults and 21 risk-matched HIV-1-negative controls. We identified a subset of CD8(+) T cells refractory to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation (referred to as p-ERK1/2-refractory cells) that was greatly expanded in HIV-1-infected adults. The CD8(+) p-ERK1/2-refractory cells were highly activated (CD38(+) HLA-DR(+)) but not exhausted (Tim-3 negative), tended to have low CD8 expression, and were enriched in intermediate and late transitional memory states of differentiation (CD45RA(-) CD28(-) CD27(+/-)). Targeting MAPK pathways to restore ERK1/2 signaling may normalize immune inflammation levels and restore CD8(+) T cell function during HIV-1 infection.
Related JoVE Video
HLA-DR(negative), CD34(negative) hypergranular acute myeloid leukemia with trisomy 6 and del(5)(q22q33): case report and review of the literature.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a unique pediatric case of hypergranular acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes. The patient presented with moderate leukocytosis with neutrophilia with left-shift maturation and dysplasia, anemia, and multiple sclerotic bone lesions. The bone marrow was hypercellular with a predominance of myeloblast cells and/or abnormal promyelocytes with hypergranular cytoplasm. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping showed that the leukemic cells were positive for CD13, CD33, and myeloperoxidase, and negative for HLA-DR and CD34. Morphology and immunophenotyping were highly suggestive of acute promyelocytic leukemia. The classic t(15;17) or other RAR? rearrangements were not detected by cytogenetic or molecular assays, ruling out acute promyelocytic leukemia. Standard cytogenetic analysis showed that the karyotype of the predominant clone was 47,XY,+6 with evidence of clonal evolution to 47,XY,+6,del(5)(q22q33). A literature and database review showed that trisomy 6 is a rare occurrence in hematological malignancies and, to our knowledge, has never been reported in association with del(5)(q22q33) in a child presenting with hypergranular acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes. We present a current review of the literature and summarize the clinical features of 57 cases of trisomy 6 as the primary chromosomal abnormality in hematological disease.
Related JoVE Video
Multisite comparison of high-sensitivity multiplex cytokine assays.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The concentrations of cytokines in human serum and plasma can provide valuable information about in vivo immune status, but low concentrations often require high-sensitivity assays to permit detection. The recent development of multiplex assays, which can measure multiple cytokines in one small sample, holds great promise, especially for studies in which limited volumes of stored serum or plasma are available. Four high-sensitivity cytokine multiplex assays on a Luminex (Bio-Rad, BioSource, Linco) or electrochemiluminescence (Meso Scale Discovery) platform were evaluated for their ability to detect circulating concentrations of 13 cytokines, as well as for laboratory and lot variability. Assays were performed in six different laboratories utilizing archived serum from HIV-uninfected and -infected subjects from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Womens Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and commercial plasma samples spanning initial HIV viremia. In a majority of serum samples, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were detectable with at least three kits, while IL-1? was clearly detected with only one kit. No single multiplex panel detected all cytokines, and there were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) between laboratories and/or lots with all kits. Nevertheless, the kits generally detected similar patterns of cytokine perturbation during primary HIV viremia. This multisite comparison suggests that current multiplex assays vary in their ability to measure serum and/or plasma concentrations of cytokines and may not be sufficiently reproducible for repeated determinations over a long-term study or in multiple laboratories but may be useful for longitudinal studies in which relative, rather than absolute, changes in cytokines are important.
Related JoVE Video
Valganciclovir reduces T cell activation in HIV-infected individuals with incomplete CD4+ T cell recovery on antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elevated immune activation persists during treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and is associated with blunted CD4 recovery and premature mortality, but its causes remain incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that asymptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication might contribute to immune activation in this setting.
Related JoVE Video
A randomized, controlled trial of raltegravir intensification in antiretroviral-treated, HIV-infected patients with a suboptimal CD4+ T cell response.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are not able to achieve a normal CD4(+) T cell count despite prolonged, treatment-mediated viral suppression. We conducted an intensification study to assess whether residual viral replication contributes to replenishment of the latent reservoir and whether mucosal HIV-specific T cell responses limit the reservoir size.
Related JoVE Video
A low T regulatory cell response may contribute to both viral control and generalized immune activation in HIV controllers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV-infected individuals maintaining undetectable viremia in the absence of therapy (HIV controllers) often maintain high HIV-specific T cell responses, which has spurred the development of vaccines eliciting HIV-specific T cell responses. However, controllers also often have abnormally high T cell activation levels, potentially contributing to T cell dysfunction, CD4+ T cell depletion, and non-AIDS morbidity. We hypothesized that a weak T regulatory cell (Treg) response might contribute to the control of viral replication in HIV controllers, but might also contribute to generalized immune activation, contributing to CD4+ T cell loss. To address these hypotheses, we measured frequencies of activated (CD38+ HLA-DR+), regulatory (CD4+CD25+CD127(dim)), HIV-specific, and CMV-specific T cells among HIV controllers and 3 control populations: HIV-infected individuals with treatment-mediated viral suppression (ART-suppressed), untreated HIV-infected "non-controllers" with high levels of viremia, and HIV-uninfected individuals. Despite abnormally high T cell activation levels, controllers had lower Treg frequencies than HIV-uninfected controls (P = 0.014). Supporting the propensity for an unusually low Treg response to viral infection in HIV controllers, we observed unusually high CMV-specific CD4+ T cell frequencies and a strong correlation between HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses and generalized CD8+ T cell activation levels in HIV controllers (P ? 0.001). These data support a model in which low frequencies of Tregs in HIV controllers may contribute to an effective adaptive immune response, but may also contribute to generalized immune activation, potentially contributing to CD4 depletion.
Related JoVE Video
Immune activation, CD4+ T cell counts, and viremia exhibit oscillatory patterns over time in patients with highly resistant HIV infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The rates of immunologic and clinical progression are lower in patients with drug-resistant HIV compared to wild-type HIV. This difference is not fully explained by viral load. It has been argued that reductions in T cell activation and/or viral fitness might result in preserved target cells and an altered relationship between the level of viremia and the rate of CD4+ T cell loss. We tested this hypothesis over time in a cohort of patients with highly resistant HIV. Fifty-four antiretroviral-treated patients with multi-drug resistant HIV and detectable plasma HIV RNA were followed longitudinally. CD4+ T cell counts and HIV RNA levels were measured every 4 weeks and T cell activation (CD38/HLA-DR) was measured every 16 weeks. We found that the levels of CD4+ T cell activation over time were a strong independent predictor of CD4+ T cell counts while CD8+ T cell activation was more strongly associated with viremia. Using spectral analysis, we found strong evidence for oscillatory (or cyclic) behavior in CD4+ T cell counts, HIV RNA levels, and T cell activation. Each of the cell populations exhibited an oscillatory behavior with similar frequencies. Collectively, these data suggest that there may be a mechanistic link between T cell activation, CD4+ T cell counts, and viremia and lends support for the hypothesis of altered predator-prey dynamics as a possible explanation of the stability of CD4+ T cell counts in the presence of sustained multi-drug resistant viremia.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-specific CD4+ T cells may contribute to viral persistence in HIV controllers.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)--infected individuals maintaining plasma HIV RNA levels <75 copies/mL in the absence of therapy ("HIV controllers") often maintain high HIV-specific T cell responses, which likely contribute to the control of viral replication. Despite robust immune responses, these individuals never eradicate HIV infection. We hypothesized that HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells might serve as target cells for HIV, contributing to viral persistence in this setting.
Related JoVE Video
Minocycline fails to modulate cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection or immune activation in chronic untreated HIV-1 infection: results of a pilot study.
AIDS Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has been shown to attenuate central nervous system (CNS) lentivirus infection, immune activation, and brain injury in model systems. To initiate assessment of minocycline as an adjuvant therapy in human CNS HIV infection, we conducted an open-labelled pilot study of its effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood biomarkers of infection and immune responses in 7 viremic subjects not taking antiretroviral therapy.
Related JoVE Video
T cell activation predicts carotid artery stiffness among HIV-infected women.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV disease is associated with increased arterial stiffness, which may be related to inflammation provoked by HIV-related immune perturbation. We assessed the association of T cell markers of immune activation and immunosenescence with carotid artery stiffness among HIV-infected women.
Related JoVE Video
T cell activation and senescence predict subclinical carotid artery disease in HIV-infected women.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased risk of cardiovascular events. It is unknown whether T cell activation and senescence, 2 immunologic sequelae of HIV infection, are associated with vascular disease among HIV-infected adults.
Related JoVE Video
Development of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune recovery uveitis is associated with Th17 cell depletion and poor systemic CMV-specific T cell responses.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (IRIS) are a spectrum of inflammatory conditions associated with opportunistic infections and occurring in approximately16% of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients given antiretroviral therapy. It has been proposed that these conditions are linked by a dysregulated immune system that is prone to exaggerated responses. However, immunologic studies have been limited by the availability of longitudinal samples from patients with IRIS and appropriate matched control subjects. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune recovery uveitis (IRU) is an IRIS occurring in up to 38% of patients with CMV retinitis. Although the pathologic immune responses occur in the eye, immune dysregulation that allows for development of pathologic responses is presumably caused by faulty systemic immune cell reconstitution.
Related JoVE Video
Differences in HIV burden and immune activation within the gut of HIV-positive patients receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The gut is a major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that distinct immune environments within the gut may support varying levels of HIV.
Related JoVE Video
Ecological specialization in mycorrhizal symbiosis leads to rarity in an endangered orchid.
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Terrestrial orchid germination, growth and development are closely linked to the establishment and maintenance of a relationship with a mycorrhizal fungus. Mycorrhizal dependency and specificity varies considerably between orchid taxa but the degree to which this underpins rarity in orchids is unknown. In the context of examining orchid rarity, large scale in vitro and in situ germination trials complemented by DNA sequencing were used to investigate ecological specialization in the mycorrhizal interaction of the rare terrestrial orchid Caladenia huegelii. Common and widespread sympatric orchid congeners were used for comparative purposes. Germination trials revealed an absolute requirement for mycorrhisation with compatibility barriers to germination limiting C. huegelii to a highly specific and range limited, efficacious mycorrhizal fungus. DNA sequencing confirmed fidelity between orchid and fungus across the distribution range of C. huegelii and at key life history stages within its life cycle. It was also revealed that common congeners could swap or share fungal partners including the fungus associated with the rare orchid but not vice versa. Data from this study provides evidence for orchid rarity as a cause and consequence of high mycorrhizal specialization. This interaction must be taken into account in efforts to mitigate the significant extinction risk for this species from anthropogenically induced habitat change and illustrates the importance of understanding fungal specificity in orchid ecology and conservation.
Related JoVE Video
IL-2 immunotherapy to recently HIV-1 infected adults maintains the numbers of IL-17 expressing CD4+ T (T(H)17) cells in the periphery.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the manipulation of IL-17 producing CD4+ T cells (T(H)17) on a per-cell basis in humans in vivo. Previous studies on the effects of IL-2 on IL-17 secretion in non-HIV models have shown divergent results. We hypothesized that IL-2 would mediate changes in IL-17 levels among recently HIV-1-infected adults receiving anti-retroviral therapy. We measured cytokine T cell responses to CD3/CD28, HIV-1 Gag, and CMV pp65 stimulation, and changes in multiple CD4+ T cell subsets. Those who received IL-2 showed a robust expansion of naive and total CD4+ T cell counts and T-reg counts. However, after IL-2 treatment, the frequency of T(H)17 cells declined, while counts of T(H)17 cells did not change due to an expansion of the CD4+ naïve T cell population (CD27+CD45RA+). Counts of HIV-1 Gag-specific T cells declined modestly, but CMV pp65 and CD3/CD28 stimulated populations did not change. Hence, in contrast with recent studies, our results suggest IL-2 is not a potent in vivo regulator of T(H)17 cell populations in HIV-1 disease. However, IL-2-mediated T-reg expansions may selectively reduce responses to certain antigen-specific populations, such as HIV-1 Gag.
Related JoVE Video
Cytomegalovirus-specific T cells persist at very high levels during long-term antiretroviral treatment of HIV disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In healthy, HIV seronegative, CMV seropositive adults, a large proportion of T cells are CMV-specific. High-level CMV-specific T cell responses are associated with accelerated immunologic aging ("immunosenesence") in the elderly population. The impact of untreated and treated HIV infection on the frequency of these cells remains undefined.
Related JoVE Video
DNA evidence for nonhybrid origins of parthenogenesis in natural populations of vertebrates.
Evolution
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Naturally occurring unisexual reproduction has been documented in less than 0.1% of all vertebrate species. Among vertebrates, true parthenogenesis is known only in squamate reptiles. In all vertebrate cases that have been carefully studied, the clonal or hemiclonal taxa have originated through hybridization between closely related sexual species. In contrast, parthenogenetic reproduction has arisen in invertebrates by a variety of mechanisms, including likely cases of "spontaneous" (nonhybrid) origin, a situation not currently documented in natural populations of vertebrates. Here, we present molecular data from the Neotropical night lizard genus Lepidophyma that provides evidence of independent nonhybrid origins for diploid unisexual populations of two species from Costa Rica and Panama. Our mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies are congruent with respect to the unisexual taxa. Based on 14 microsatellite loci, heterozygosity (expected from a hybrid origin) is low in Lepidophyma reticulatum and completely absent in unisexual L. flavimaculatum. The unique value of this system will allow direct comparative studies between parthenogenetic and sexual lineages in vertebrates, with an enormous potential for this species to be a model system for understanding the mechanisms of nonhybrid parthenogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Analyses and comparisons of telomerase activity and telomere length in human T and B cells: insights for epidemiology of telomere maintenance.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Telomeres are the DNA-protein complexes that protect the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The cellular enzyme telomerase counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric DNA. A growing body of literature links shorter telomere length and lower telomerase activity with various age-related diseases and earlier mortality. Thus, leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and telomerase activity are emerging both as biomarkers and contributing factors for age-related diseases. However, no clinical study has directly examined telomerase activity and telomere length in different lymphocyte subtypes isolated from the same donors, which could offer insight into the summary measure of leukocyte telomere maintenance. We report the first quantitative data in humans examining both levels of telomerase activity and telomere length in four lymphocyte subpopulations from the same donors-CD4+, CD8+CD28+ and CD8+CD28- T cells and B cells, as well as total PBMCs-in a cohort of healthy women. We found that B cells had the highest telomerase activity and longest telomere length; CD4+ T cells had slightly higher telomerase activity than CD8+CD28+ T cells, and similar telomere length. Consistent with earlier reports that CD8+CD28- T cells are replicatively senescent cells, they had the lowest telomerase activity and shortest telomere length. In addition, a higher percentage of CD8+CD28- T cells correlated with shorter total PBMC TL (r=-0.26, p=0.05). Interestingly, telomerase activities of CD4+ and CD8+CD28+ T cells from the same individual were strongly correlated (r=0.55, r<0.001), indicating possible common mechanisms for telomerase activity regulation in these two cell subtypes. These data will facilitate the understanding of leukocyte aging and its relationship to human health.
Related JoVE Video
Trisomy 9p and Prader-Willi syndromes in an infant resulting from a de-novo unbalanced t(9;15) translocation.
Clin. Dysmorphol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trisomy 9p is a well-described dysmorphic syndrome. The physical features include hypertelorism, down-slanting palpebral fissures, deep-set eyes, down-turned corners of the mouth, and mild skeletal anomalies including hypoplastic terminal phalanges. We report an infant born with some of the typical features of trisomy 9p syndrome, as well as additional features that include extreme joint hyperlaxity with subluxation of the knees and elbows, arachnodactyly, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. The karyotype revealed an unbalanced chromosome complement. Specifically, a derivative chromosome from a de-novo unbalanced translocation of chromosomes 9 and 15 resulted in partial trisomy of 9pter to 9q13 and deletion of the long arm of chromosome 15 proximal to band q13. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization studies and methylation analysis by Southern blotting revealed deletion of the SNRPN locus on the paternally derived chromosome 15, consistent with Prader-Willi syndrome. This infant represents the first reported case of trisomy 9p syndrome with total anomalous pulmonary venous return and hypoplasia of the amygdala and hippocampus, with the additional finding of Prader-Willi syndrome resulting from a derivative chromosome arising from an unbalanced de-novo t(9;15) translocation.
Related JoVE Video
Plasma levels of bacterial DNA correlate with immune activation and the magnitude of immune restoration in persons with antiretroviral-treated HIV infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The significance of elevated plasma levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in persons with chronic HIV infection remains undefined. We measured LPS levels by use of limulus lysate assay, and DNA sequences encoding bacterial ribosomal 16S RNA (16S rDNA) were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reactions in plasma samples obtained from 242 donors. Plasma levels of 16S rDNA were significantly higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects than in uninfected subjects, and they correlated with LPS levels. Higher levels of 16S rDNA were associated with higher levels of T cell activation and with lower levels of CD4 T cell restoration during antiretroviral therapy. Antiretroviral therapy reduces but does not fully normalize plasma levels of bacterial 16S rDNA, an index of microbial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract. High levels of 16S rDNA during therapy are strongly associated with reduced increases in the CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, irrespective of plasma HIV RNA levels. These findings are consistent with the importance of microbial translocation in immunodeficiency and T cell homeostasis in chronic HIV infection.
Related JoVE Video
High CD8+ T cell activation marks a less differentiated HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell response that is not altered by suppression of viral replication.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship of elevated T cell activation to altered T cell differentiation profiles, each defining features of HIV-1 infection, has not been extensively explored. We hypothesized that anti-retroviral suppression of T cell activation levels would lead to alterations in the T cell differentiation of total and HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell responses among recently HIV-1 infected adults.
Related JoVE Video
Human herpesvirus replication and abnormal CD8+ T cell activation and low CD4+ T cell counts in antiretroviral-suppressed HIV-infected patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most HIV-infected patients receiving virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy continue to have abnormal, generalized T cell activation. We explored whether the degree of ongoing cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposis sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) replication was associated with higher virus-specific T cell activation and the failure to achieve normal absolute CD4+ T cell counts in the face of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
Related JoVE Video
A CMV DNA vaccine primes for memory immune responses to live-attenuated CMV (Towne strain).
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CMV-seronegative subjects vaccinated intramuscularly or intradermally with a DNA vaccine encoding pp65, IE1, and gB were administered live-attenuated CMV (Towne) to characterize immune priming by the DNA vaccine. CMV-specific memory T-cells (detected by standard ELISPOT assay in only 20% of subjects) were detected by IFN-gamma cultured ELISPOT assay in 60% of subjects primed intramuscularly and correlated with immune responses after Towne. The median time to first pp65 T-cell and gB antibody response after Towne was 14 days for DNA-primed subjects vs. 28 days for controls administered Towne only (p=0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Furthermore, there was a trend toward more DNA-vaccinated subjects than controls developing a gB-specific IFN-gamma T-cell response after Towne administration (47% vs. 0%, p=0.06).
Related JoVE Video
Cell-based measures of viral persistence are associated with immune activation and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-expressing CD4+ T cells.
J. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?Studies aimed at defining the association between host immune responses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence during therapy are necessary to develop new strategies for cure.
Related JoVE Video
A randomized controlled trial assessing the effects of raltegravir intensification on endothelial function in treated HIV infection.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether intensification with raltegravir improves endothelial function in antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected individuals.
Related JoVE Video
Hematopoietic precursor cells isolated from patients on long-term suppressive HIV therapy did not contain HIV-1 DNA.
J. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We address the key emerging question of whether Lin(-)/CD34(+) hematopoietic precursor cells (HPCs) represent an important latent reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during long-term suppressive therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G antibody is associated with subclinical carotid artery disease among HIV-infected women.
J. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been implicated in immune activation and accelerated progression of immunodeficiency from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. We hypothesized that CMV is associated with vascular disease in HIV-infected adults.
Related JoVE Video
Geriatric trauma: demographics, injuries, and mortality.
J Orthop Trauma
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify injuries that elderly sustain during high-energy trauma and determine which are associated with mortality.
Related JoVE Video
A comparison of methods for measuring rectal HIV levels suggests that HIV DNA resides in cells other than CD4+T cells, including myeloid cells.
AIDS
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compared different techniques for measuring gut HIV reservoirs and assessed for HIV in non-CD4T cells. HIV DNA levels were similar when measured from rectal biopsies and isolated rectal cells, while HIV RNA tended to be higher in rectal cells. HIV DNA levels in total rectal cells were greater than those predicted from levels in sorted CD4T cells, suggesting a reservoir in non-CD4T cells, and HIV DNA was detected in sorted myeloid cells (7/7 patients).
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.