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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Adolescent Weight Control: An Intervention Targeting Parent Communication and Modeling Compared With Minimal Parental Involvement.
J Pediatr Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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?Adolescent weight control interventions demonstrate variable findings, with inconsistent data regarding the appropriate role for parents. The current study examined the efficacy of a standard adolescent behavioral weight control (BWC) intervention that also targeted parent-adolescent communication and parental modeling of healthy behaviors (Standard Behavioral Treatment + Enhanced Parenting; SBT + EP) compared with a standard BWC intervention (SBT).? METHODS: ?49 obese adolescents (M age = 15.10; SD = 1.33; 76% female; 67.3% non-Hispanic White) and a caregiver were randomly assigned to SBT or SBT + EP. Adolescent and caregiver weight and height, parental modeling, and weight-related communication were obtained at baseline and end of the 16-week intervention.? RESULTS: ?Significant decreases in adolescent weight and increases in parental self-monitoring were observed across both conditions. Analyses of covariance revealed a trend for greater reduction in weight and negative maternal commentary among SBT condition participants.
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Concrete images of the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages reduces attraction to and selection of these beverages.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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In the present research, we offer a novel method for informing consumers about the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). With a series of experiments, we present evidence that this method curbs preference for SSBs and leads to more negative attitudes toward SSBs. We propose that people view SSBs more negatively and show less preference for SSBs when they are able to concretely visualize the quantity of sugar in SSBs. For example, we suggest that people might have more negative views toward the idea of consuming 28 sugar cubes (concrete information), compared to consuming "70g" of sugar (abstract information). Indeed, we found that, without any intervention, people struggle to convert sugar grams into a concrete, physical sugar representation (Experiment 1). But, when people are provided ways to convert abstract sugar-nutrition information into a concrete representation, they find SSBs less attractive (Experiment 2) and are less likely to select SSBs in favor of sugar-free beverage options (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings offer direct applications to the design of public-health messages and nutrition-education interventions. Such applications might benefit society in its battle with the obesity epidemic.
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Longitudinal associations among change in overweight status, fear of negative evaluation, and weight-related teasing among obese adolescents.
J Pediatr Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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To examine longitudinal bidirectional associations between changes in adolescents' weight status and psychosocial constructs.
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Exobasidium maculosum, a new species causing leaf and fruit spots on blueberry in the southeastern USA and its relationship with other Exobasidium spp. parasitic to blueberry and cranberry.
Mycologia
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA. To determine whether this disease is caused by a new species of Exobasidium, we studied the morphology and phylogenetic relationship of the causal fungus compared with other members of the genus, including the type species E. vaccinii and other species that parasitize blueberry and cranberry (V. macrocarpon). Both scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were used for morphological characterization. For phylogenetic analyses, we sequenced the large subunit of the rDNA (LSU) from 10 isolates collected from leaf or fruit spots of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium interspecific hybrid) from Georgia and North Carolina and six isolates from leaf spots of lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) from Maine and Nova Scotia, Canada. LSU was sequenced from isolates causing red leaf disease of lowbush blueberry and red leaf spot (E. rostrupii) and red shoot (E. perenne) of cranberry. In addition, LSU sequences from GenBank, including sequences with high similarity to the emerging parasite and from Exobasidium spp. parasitizing other Vaccinium spp. and related hosts, were obtained. All sequences were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results indicated that the emerging parasite in the southeastern USA differs morphologically and phylogenetically from other described species and is described herein as Exobasidium maculosum. Within the southeastern USA, clustering based on host species, host tissue type (leaf or fruit) or geographic region was not detected; however, leaf spot isolates from lowbush blueberry were genetically different and likely represent a unique species.
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The use of microbial gene abundance in the development of fuel remediation guidelines in polar soils.
Integr Environ Assess Manag
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Terrestrial fuel spills in Antarctica commonly occur on ice-free land around research stations as the result of human activities. Successful spill clean-ups require appropriate targets that confirm contaminated sites are no longer likely to pose environmental risk following remediation. These targets are based on knowledge of the impacts of contaminants on the soil ecosystem and on the response of native biota to contamination. Our work examined the response of soil microbial communities to fuel contamination by measuring the abundance of genes involved in critical soil processes, and assessed the use of this approach as an indicator of soil health in the presence of weathered and fresh fuels. Uncontaminated and contaminated soils were collected from the site of remediation treatment of an aged diesel spill at Casey Station, East Antarctica in December 2012. Uncontaminated soil was spiked with fresh Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel to determine the response of the genes to fresh fuel. Partly remediated soil containing weathered SAB diesel was diluted with uncontaminated soil to simulate a range of concentrations of weathered fuel and used to determine the response of the genes to aged fuel. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to measure the abundance of rpoB, alkB, cat23, and nosZ in soils containing SAB diesel. Differences were observed between the abundance of genes in control soils versus soils containing weathered and fresh fuels. Typical dose-response curves were generated for genes in response to the presence of fresh fuel. In contrast, the response of these genes to the range of weathered fuel appeared to be due to dilution, rather than to the effect of the fuel on the microbial community. Changes in microbial genes in response to fresh contamination have potential as a sensitive measure of soil health and for assessments of the effect of fuel spills in polar soils. This will contribute to the development of remediation guidelines to assist in management decisions on when the impact of a fuel spill warrants remediation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;9999:1-7. © 2014 SETAC.
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Moving towards multiple site outcomes in spinal cord injury pain clinical trials: An issue of clustered observations in trial design and analysis.
J Spinal Cord Med
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Introduction Pain remains a problem for many with spinal cord injury (SCI), and there is a need for sound, randomized clinical trials examining the efficacy of existing and novel therapeutics. SCI-related pain is complex, as more than one type of pain is often experienced. The purpose of this report is to (i) demonstrate how to design and power calculation of a clinical trial of SCI pain using multiple pain sites per individual; (ii) discuss consequences of failing to adjust for this; and (iii) provide intraclass correlation (ICC) estimates for common pain outcome measures that may be used to power future clinical trials in SCI pain. Method Using an existing dataset from a past SCI pain clinical trial, the ICC was calculated for common pain outcome measures to illustrate appropriate corrections for powering, analyzing and interpreting results from multiple pain sites per individual. The problem associated with not accounting for multiple pain sites per individual and the effect on the Type I error rate is also shown. Results and Discussion Not accounting for the ICC can lead to (1) incorrect power estimates in the design of a trial, and (2) an inflated Type I error rate with a higher likelihood of misinterpretation of outcomes. Conclusions Powering for future SCI pain trials and statistical analysis of trial outcomes may be substantially compromised if methods do not account for the intra-individual associations between pain sites, ultimately affecting study interpretations and evidence-based practice. We present ICC estimates based on SCI pain data for purposes of estimating power for future trials.
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Protein Structure Optimisation With a "Lamarckian" Ant Colony Algorithm.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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We describe the LamarckiAnt algorithm: a search algorithm that combines the features of a "Lamarckian" genetic algorithm and ant colony optimisation. We have implemented this algorithm for optimisation of BLN model proteins, which have frustrated energy landscapes and represent a challenge for global optimisation algorithms. We demonstrate that LamarckiAnt performs competitively with other state-of-the-art optimisation algorithms.
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Have regional inequalities in life expectancy widened within the European Union between 1991 and 2008?
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Health inequalities have widened within and between many European countries over recent decades, but Europe-wide sub-national trends have been largely overlooked. For regions across the European Union (EU), we assess how geographical inequalities (i.e., between regions) and sociospatial inequalities (i.e., between regions grouped by an area-level measure of average household income) in male and female life expectancy have changed between 1991 and 2008.
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Particulate air pollution and health inequalities: a Europe-wide ecological analysis.
Int J Health Geogr
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Environmental disparities may underlie the unequal distribution of health across socioeconomic groups. However, this assertion has not been tested across a range of countries: an important knowledge gap for a transboundary health issue such as air pollution. We consider whether populations of low-income European regions were a) exposed to disproportionately high levels of particulate air pollution (PM10) and/or b) disproportionately susceptible to pollution-related mortality effects.
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Green cities and health: a question of scale?
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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Cities are expanding and accommodating an increasing proportion of the worlds population. It is important to identify features of urban form that promote the health of city dwellers. Access to green space has been associated with health benefits at both individual and neighbourhood level. We investigated whether a relationship between green space coverage and selected mortality rates exists at the city level in the USA.
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Microproteomic analysis of 10,000 laser captured microdissected breast tumor cells using short-range sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and porous layer open tubular liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Precise proteomic profiling of limited levels of disease tissue represents an extremely challenging task. Here, we present an effective and reproducible microproteomic workflow for sample sizes of only 10,000 cells that integrates selective sample procurement via laser capture microdissection (LCM), sample clean-up and protein level fractionation using short-range SDS-PAGE, followed by ultrasensitive LC-MS/MS analysis using a 10 ?m i.d. porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column. With 10,000 LCM captured mouse hepatocytes for method development and performance assessment, only 10% of the in-gel digest, equivalent to ?1000 cells, was needed per LC-MS/MS analysis. The optimized workflow was applied to the differential proteomic analysis of 10,000 LCM collected primary and metastatic breast cancer cells from the same patient. More than 1100 proteins were identified from each injection with >1700 proteins identified from three LCM samples of 10,000 cells from the same patient (1123 with at least two unique peptides). Label free quantitation (spectral counting) was performed to identify differential protein expression between the primary and metastatic cell populations. Informatics analysis of the resulting data indicated that vesicular transport and extracellular remodeling processes were significantly altered between the two cell types. The ability to extract meaningful biological information from limited, but highly informative cell populations demonstrates the significant benefits of the described microproteomic workflow.
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Is particulate air pollution associated with health and health inequalities in New Zealand?
Health Place
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2011
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Air pollution can increase mortality risk and may also exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes. This New Zealand study investigated whether exposure to particulate air pollution (PM(10)) was associated with mortality and health inequalities. Annual mean PM(10) estimates for urban Census Area Units (CAUs) were linked to cause-specific mortality data. A dose-response relationship was found between PM(10) and respiratory disease mortality, including at concentrations below the existing annual average guideline value of 20?gm(-3). Establishing and enforcing a lower guideline value is likely to have population health benefits. However, socioeconomic inequalities in respiratory disease mortality were not significantly elevated with PM(10) exposure.
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Environmental justice and health: a study of multiple environmental deprivation and geographical inequalities in health in New Zealand.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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There is an increasing interest in the unequal socio-spatial distribution of environmental goods and bads and the associated implications for geographical inequalities in health. Until recently, research in this area has focused on solitary environmental characteristics and has been hindered by the absence of geographically-specific measures that recognise the multifactorial nature of the physical environment. However, recent work in the United Kingdom has developed an area-level multivariate index of health-related physical environmental deprivation that captures both pathogenic and salutogenic environmental characteristics. Applications of this index have demonstrated that, at the national level, multiple environmental deprivation increased as the degree of income deprivation rose. Further, after adjusting for key confounders, there was a significant association between multiple environmental deprivation and the health outcomes of local residents. In the current study we tested the methods developed in the UK to create the New Zealand Multiple Environmental Deprivation Index (NZ-MEDIx) for small areas across the country (n = 1860). We considered whether socially disadvantaged places in New Zealand had higher levels of multiple environmental deprivation, and if environmental disadvantage exerted an influence on health after adjustment for key confounders such as socioeconomic status. We found that although neighbourhoods with higher levels of multiple environmental deprivation tended to have greater social disadvantage, this association was not linear. Further, multiple environmental deprivation tended to exert a modest effect on health that was independent of the age, sex and socioeconomic structure of the population. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to develop an index of multiple environmental deprivation in an alternative national context which has utility in epidemiological investigations.
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Targeting body image schema for smoking cessation among college females: rationale, program description, and pilot study results.
Behav Modif
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Smoking among young adults is a significant public health problem. Despite the negative health effects, many young women smoke for weight and body image reasons. Understanding the factors that prompt young women to initiate and continue smoking is important for designing smoking cessation interventions. The aim of the current article is to outline a potential pathway for smoking behavior among young women, specifically applying a cognitive bias framework previously used to describe disordered eating behaviors. This article provides the rationale for using two different treatments targeting body image schema among female smokers. The authors describe the development, feasibility, and acceptability of these two treatment approaches among a sample of female college smokers (N = 24). Preliminary pilot data are presented as well as the significance and implications for future clinical interventions.
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A comparison of green space indicators for epidemiological research.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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The potential for natural environments to be salutogenic has received growing interest from epidemiologists, but there has been no critical examination of the extent to which associations between green space and health might vary according to the indicator of green space coverage used.
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Associations between parent behavior and adolescent weight control.
J Pediatr Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2010
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To evaluate associations between parent behaviors (i.e., parent weight change, self-monitoring of their behavior, and feeding practices and attitudes) and changes in adolescent BMI and weight following 16-weeks of behavioral weight control (BWC) intervention.
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In situ proteomic analysis of human breast cancer epithelial cells using laser capture microdissection: annotation by protein set enrichment analysis and gene ontology.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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Identification of molecular signatures that allow detection of the transition from normal breast epithelial cells to malignant invasive cells is a critical component in the development of diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventative strategies for human breast cancer. Substantial efforts have been devoted to deciphering breast cancer etiology at the genome level, but only a limited number of studies have appeared at the proteome level. In this work, we compared individual in situ proteome profiles of nonpatient matched nine noncancerous, normal breast epithelial (NBE) samples with nine estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (luminal subtype), invasive malignant breast epithelial (MBE) samples by combining laser capture microdissection (LCM) and quantitative shotgun proteomics. A total of 12,970 unique peptides were identified from the 18 samples, and 1623 proteins were selected for quantitative analysis using spectral index (SpI) as a measure of protein abundance. A total of 298 proteins were differentially expressed between NBE and MBE at 95% confidence level, and this differential expression correlated well with immunohistochemistry (IHC) results reported in the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database. To assess pathway level patterns in the observed expression changes, we developed protein set enrichment analysis (PSEA), a modification of a well-known approach in gene expression analysis, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Unlike single gene-based functional term enrichment analyses that only examines pathway overrepresentation of proteins above a given significance threshold, PSEA applies a weighted running sum statistic to the entire expression data to discover significantly enriched protein groups. Application of PSEA to the expression data in this study revealed not only well-known ER-dependent and cellular morphology-dependent protein abundance changes, but also significant alterations of downstream targets for multiple transcription factors (TFs), suggesting a role for specific gene regulatory pathways in breast tumorigenesis. A parallel GOMiner analysis revealed both confirmatory and complementary data to PSEA. The combination of the two annotation approaches yielded extensive biological feature mapping for in depth analysis of the quantitative proteomic data.
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Diversion down under - Programs for offenders with mental illnesses in Australia.
Int J Law Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2010
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This article provides an overview of mental health courts and diversion programs operating for offenders with mental illnesses in Australia. Methods of diversion that have been established in Australia include Magistrates courts diversion programs, psychiatric court liaison services and legislative powers of diversion. Some of the problems associated with diversionary options are discussed and recommendations for reform made. It is argued that no matter what form diversionary programs take, detailed consideration must be given to how the court or program will be evaluated and that sufficient funding be allocated for ongoing evaluation.
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Catastrophizing, acceptance, and interference: laboratory findings, subjective report, and pain willingness as a moderator.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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The present study investigated the effects of both catastrophizing and the pain willingness component of acceptance on interference in daily activities and task performance during experimentally induced ischemic pain. In addition, the potential moderating role of pain willingness on the relationship between catastrophizing and degree of pain interference was also examined.
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The association between green space and cause-specific mortality in urban New Zealand: an ecological analysis of green space utility.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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There is mounting international evidence that exposure to green environments is associated with health benefits, including lower mortality rates. Consequently, it has been suggested that the uneven distribution of such environments may contribute to health inequalities. Possible causative mechanisms behind the green space and health relationship include the provision of physical activity opportunities, facilitation of social contact and the restorative effects of nature. In the New Zealand context we investigated whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in green space exposure and whether green space exposure was associated with cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular disease and lung cancer). We subsequently asked what is the mechanism(s) by which green space availability may influence mortality outcomes, by contrasting health associations for different types of green space.
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Early patterns of food intake in an adolescent weight loss trial as predictors of BMI change.
Eat Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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To determine whether baseline intake or initial changes in intake of fruits (F), vegetables (V), snack foods (SF), and reduced-calorie snack foods (RCSF) during standard behavioral weight loss treatment predict BMI reductions among overweight adolescents. Given conflicting messages between child and adult weight loss interventions, the role of RCSF in adolescent weight control was of particular interest.
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Behavioral weight control treatment with supervised exercise or peer-enhanced adventure for overweight adolescents.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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To evaluate the efficacy of behavioral weight control intervention with a peer-enhanced activity intervention versus structured aerobic exercise in decreasing body mass index (BMI) and z-BMI in overweight adolescents.
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Gender differences in relationships between urban green space and health in the United Kingdom.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Natural environments, or green spaces, have been associated with a wide range of health benefits. Gender differences in neighbourhood effects on health have been found in a number of studies, although these have not been explored in relation to green space. We conducted the first UK-wide study of the relationship between urban green space and health, and the first such study to investigate gender differences in this relationship. An ecological approach was used. Two land use datasets were used to create a proportional green space measure (% by area) at the UK Census Area Statistic ward scale. Our sample consisted of 6432 urban wards, with a total population of 28.6 million adults aged 16-64 years in 2001. We selected health outcomes that were plausibly related to green space (cardiovascular disease mortality, respiratory disease mortality and self-reported limiting long-term illness) and another that was expected to be unrelated (lung cancer mortality). Negative binomial regression models examined associations between urban green space and these health outcomes, after controlling for relevant confounders. Gender differences in these associations were observed and tested. Male cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease mortality rates decreased with increasing green space, but no significant associations were found for women. No protective associations were observed between green space and lung cancer mortality or self-reported limiting long-term illness for either men or women. Possible explanations for the observed gender differences in the green space and health relationship are gender differences in perceptions and usage of urban green spaces. We conclude that it is important not to assume uniform health benefits of urban green space for all population subgroups. Additionally, urban green space measures that capture quality as well as quantity could be more suited to studying green space and health relationships for women.
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Evidence-based selection of environmental factors and datasets for measuring multiple environmental deprivation in epidemiological research.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2009
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This Environment and Human Health project aims to develop a health-based summary measure of multiple physical environmental deprivation for the UK, akin to the measures of multiple socioeconomic deprivation that are widely used in epidemiology. Here we describe the first stage of the project, in which we aimed to identify health-relevant dimensions of physical environmental deprivation and acquire suitable environmental datasets to represent population exposure to these dimensions at the small-area level. We present the results of this process: an evidence-based list of environmental dimensions with population health relevance for the UK, and the spatial datasets we obtained and processed to represent these dimensions. This stage laid the foundations for the rest of the project, which will be reported elsewhere.
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Effects of Behavioral Weight Control Intervention on Binge Eating Symptoms Among Overweight Adolescents.
Psychol Sch
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2009
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This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 indicate a significant reduction in binge eating symptoms following participation in a 16-week weight control intervention, F(1,60) = 9.43, p<.01 and F(1,98) = 20.98, p<.01, respectively. Several significant relationships between measures of self-concept and binge eating symptoms were noted, with lower self-concept scores related to higher binge eating symptoms scores at baseline. Changes in binge eating symptoms were also related to changes in physical appearance self-concept, global self-concept and physical self-worth at the end of the intervention. In conclusion, findings from this study support an emerging body of evidence suggesting that dietary restriction, as practiced through participation in a weight control intervention, leads to a reduction in binge eating symptoms among overweight adolescents.
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Motivation and patch treatment for HIV+ smokers: a randomized controlled trial.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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To test the efficacy of two smoking cessation interventions in a HIV positive (HIV+) sample: standard care (SC) treatment plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) versus more intensive motivationally enhanced (ME) treatment plus NRT.
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Impact of bupropion and cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression on positive affect, negative affect, and urges to smoke during cessation treatment.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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Bupropion and cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for depression have been used as components of treatments designed to alleviate affective disturbance during smoking cessation. Studies of treatment-related changes in precessation affect or urges to smoke are needed to evaluate the proposed mechanisms of these treatments.
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Metabolic profiling of Helicobacter pylori glycosylation.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Metabolic oligosaccharide engineering was used to profile glycoproteins of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori.
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Mediators of the relationship between nicotine replacement therapy and smoking abstinence among people living with HIV/AIDS.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS and poses unique health risks. Smoking cessation programs tailored to this population have documented improved smoking outcomes with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The current study examined 6-month abstinence rates from a randomized clinical trial targeting 412 HIV-positive adult current smokers (51% European American, 19% African American, and 17% Hispanic American) and tested whether psychosocial variables, such as self-efficacy and decisional balance, mediated the relationship between NRT and long-term abstinence. Meeting criteria for complete mediation, 6-month smoking abstinence rates improved significantly with increases in these mediators, and the association of NRT and smoking abstinence was no longer significant once changes in self-efficacy and decisional balance were taken into account . Failure to translate gains in self-efficacy among African Americans into improved abstinence rates accounted for racial/ethnic differences among participants. Specific psychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy, may be particularly amenable to change in cessation interventions and should be addressed with greater awareness of how cultural and social contextual factors impact treatment response among people living with HIV/AIDS.
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Smoking and drinking among college students: "its a package deal".
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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This paper reports on qualitative research on smoking in contexts associated with drinking among college students. Although a plethora of survey research has shown a positive association between smoking and alcohol use, little attention has been given to the utility functions of these co-occurring behaviors.
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Contributions of volumetrics of the hippocampus and thalamus to verbal memory in temporal lobe epilepsy patients.
Brain Cogn
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Recent theories have posited that the hippocampus and thalamus serve distinct, yet related, roles in episodic memory. Whereas the hippocampus has been implicated in long-term memory encoding and storage, the thalamus, as a whole, has been implicated in the selection of items for subsequent encoding and the use of retrieval strategies. However, dissociating the memory impairment that occurs following thalamic injury as distinguished from that following hippocampal injury has proven difficult. This study examined relationships between MRI volumetric measures of the hippocampus and thalamus and their contributions to prose and rote verbal memory functioning in 18 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Results revealed that bilateral hippocampal and thalamic volume independently predicted delayed prose verbal memory functioning. However, bilateral hippocampal, but not thalamic, volume predicted delayed rote verbal memory functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that bilateral thalamic volume independently predicted immediate prose, but not immediate rote, verbal recall, whereas bilateral hippocampal volume was not associated with any of these immediate memory measures. These findings underscore the cognitive significance of thalamic atrophy in chronic TLE, demonstrating that hippocampal and thalamic volume make quantitatively, and perhaps qualitatively, distinct contributions to episodic memory functioning in TLE patients. They are also consistent with theories proposing that the hippocampus supports long-term memory encoding and storage, whereas the thalamus is implicated in the executive aspects of episodic memory.
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Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: an intergenerational perspective on tobacco control.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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Adolescence is an important period of risk for the development of lifelong smoking behaviors. Compelling, although inconsistent, evidence suggests a relationship between parental smoking and the risk of smoking initiation during adolescence. This study investigates unresolved issues concerning the strength and nature of the association between parent smoking and offspring smoking initiation.
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A prospective study of weight gain during the college freshman and sophomore years.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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To assess the prevalence of weight gain among male and female college freshmen.
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Gene expression profiling of the tumor microenvironment during breast cancer progression.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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The importance of the tumor microenvironment in breast cancer has been increasingly recognized. Critical molecular changes in the tumor stroma accompanying cancer progression, however, remain largely unknown. We conducted a comparative analysis of global gene expression changes in the stromal and epithelial compartments during breast cancer progression from normal to preinvasive to invasive ductal carcinoma.
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Depressive symptoms and pain evaluations among persons with chronic pain: catastrophizing, but not pain acceptance, shows significant effects.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Cognitive factors such as catastrophic thoughts regarding pain, and conversely, ones acceptance of that pain, may affect emotional functioning among persons with chronic pain conditions. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of both catastrophizing and acceptance on affective ratings of experimentally induced ischemic pain and also self-reports of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven individuals with chronic back pain completed self-report measures of catastrophizing, acceptance, and depressive symptoms. In addition, participants underwent an ischemic pain induction procedure and were asked to rate the induced pain. Catastrophizing showed significant effects on sensory and intensity but not affective ratings of the induced pain. Acceptance did not show any significant associations, when catastrophizing was also in the model, with any form of ratings of the induced pain. Catastrophizing, but not acceptance, was also significantly associated with self-reported depressive symptoms when these two variables were both included in a regression model. Overall, results indicate negative thought patterns such as catastrophizing appear to be more closely related to outcomes of perceived pain severity and affect in persons with chronic pain exposed to an experimental laboratory pain stimulus than does more positive patterns as reflected in measures of acceptance.
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How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?
Adolesc Fam Health
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend smoking status was by far the strongest predictor across smoking stages. Gender differences indicated males with one or more daily smoking friends are at higher risk for regular smoking relative to females. Fathers smoking status had a direct effect on teen smoking across all stages, whereas mothers smoking was significant in influencing which stage of smoking teens exhibited. Moreover, maternal smoking status had an indirect effect by moderating the association between teen smoking and the closeness of the mother-teen relationship. Mothers who smoke were found to have a stronger impact on the transition to regular smoking compared to mothers who do not smoke regardless of the number of smoking friends the teen reports. Results have implications for stage-matched and family-based prevention and intervention programs.
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Effects of nicotine on spinal cord injury pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled crossover trial.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil
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One factor affecting spinal cord injury (SCI)-related pain may be nicotine. Case reports have described a worsening of neuropathic pain from smoking and relief from abstinence. Neurobiological correlates also implicate the potential effect of nicotine on SCI-related pain.
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Effects of nicotine on spinal cord injury pain vary among subtypes of pain and smoking status: results from a randomized, controlled experiment.
J Pain
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Smoking has been associated with increased pain severity in general chronic pain populations. Less is known about the effects of smoking and nicotine on the multifaceted and often complex subtypes of pain that frequently occur following spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of nicotine on self-reported pain among individuals with SCI and to determine if the effect of nicotine varied by pain subtype. A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design was used to determine the effect of nicotine exposure on subtypes of SCI-related pain among smokers and nonsmokers. A complex relationship emerged, such that the degree of reported pain with exposure to 2 mg of nicotine compared to placebo varied according to pain type and smoking status of the subject. Pain sites that had characteristics of both neuropathic and musculoskeletal symptoms (deemed complex neuropathic pain sites) exhibited pain reduction after nicotine exposure in nonsmokers. In sharp contrast, smokers with this form of pain exhibited an increase in pain severity. Data were also examined descriptively to determine potentially unique factors associated with complex neuropathic pain that may explain trends associated with clinically relevant changes following nicotine exposure. In sum, smoking or tobacco use history may determine the analgesic (or enhanced pain perception) effect of nicotine on post-SCI pain.
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Streptococcus viridans tubo-ovarian abscess in an adolescent virgin.
Pediatr Int
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A tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) is a common complication of pelvic inflammatory disease in premenopausal women; however, in virginal females, TOAs are an exceedingly rare occurrence. Within this rare subset of patients, there is almost always an underlying condition, such as vaginal voiding, or a concomitant disease process. A virginal adolescent female with no prior medical history presented with a large pelvic mass which proved to be a TOA. An exploratory laparotomy was eventually required to establish the diagnosis. Open drainage and antibiotic therapy successfully treated the patient. With only the organism, Streptococcus viridians, isolated in her cultures, an etiology of direct ascension from the lower genitourinary tract is implicated. We believe this to be the youngest case of a TOA occurring in a virginal adolescent female without a predisposing condition. A TOA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses in previously healthy pediatric patients regardless of their sexual activity.
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Two-year follow-up of an adolescent behavioral weight control intervention.
Pediatrics
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This study examined the 24-month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of a group-based behavioral weight control (BWC) program combined with either activity-based peer intervention or aerobic exercise.
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Mortality inequalities by environment type in New Zealand.
Health Place
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In previous work a multivariate measure of health-related physical environment - the Multiple Environmental Deprivation Classification (MEDClass) - was created to investigate relationships between exposure to differing types of physical environment and health for the UK. Associations between MEDClass and all cause mortality, mortality from certain specific causes, and self-reported morbidity, independent of the level of socio-economic deprivation, were found. In this short report we determine whether the MEDClass approach has potential for international replication and whether the relationships with health prevails. We use New Zealand as a case study. Six environmental clusters were identified and similar associations between environmental classification and health outcomes were observed. Whilst this report shows that the framework used to create MEDClass can be transferred to an international context, we are reminded of the need to engage locally with place based research upon which an evidence base of cumulative impacts of the environment can be built.
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Mechanism-based screen establishes signalling framework for DNA damage-associated G1 checkpoint response.
PLoS ONE
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DNA damage activates checkpoint controls which block progression of cells through the division cycle. Several different checkpoints exist that control transit at different positions in the cell cycle. A role for checkpoint activation in providing resistance of cells to genotoxic anticancer therapy, including chemotherapy and ionizing radiation, is widely recognized. Although the core molecular functions that execute different damage activated checkpoints are known, the signals that control checkpoint activation are far from understood. We used a kinome-spanning RNA interference screen to delineate signalling required for radiation-mediated retinoblastoma protein activation, the recognized executor of G(1) checkpoint control. Our results corroborate the involvement of the p53 tumour suppressor (TP53) and its downstream targets p21(CIP1/WAF1) but infer lack of involvement of canonical double strand break (DSB) recognition known for its role in activating TP53 in damaged cells. Instead our results predict signalling involving the known TP53 phosphorylating kinase PRPK/TP53RK and the JNK/p38MAPK activating kinase STK4/MST1, both hitherto unrecognised for their contribution to DNA damage G1 checkpoint signalling. Our results further predict a network topology whereby induction of p21(CIP1/WAF1) is required but not sufficient to elicit checkpoint activation. Our experiments document a role of the kinases identified in radiation protection proposing their pharmacological inhibition as a potential strategy to increase radiation sensitivity in proliferating cancer cells.
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Integrated proteomic, transcriptomic, and biological network analysis of breast carcinoma reveals molecular features of tumorigenesis and clinical relapse.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
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Gene and protein expression changes observed with tumorigenesis are often interpreted independently of each other and out of context of biological networks. To address these limitations, this study examined several approaches to integrate transcriptomic and proteomic data with known protein-protein and signaling interactions in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer tumors. An approach that built networks from differentially expressed proteins and identified among them networks enriched in differentially expressed genes yielded the greatest success. This method identified a set of genes and proteins linking pathways of cellular stress response, cancer metabolism, and tumor microenvironment. The proposed network underscores several biologically intriguing events not previously studied in the context of ER+ breast cancer, including the overexpression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the overexpression of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1. A gene-based expression signature biomarker built from this network was significantly predictive of clinical relapse in multiple independent cohorts of ER+ breast cancer patients, even after correcting for standard clinicopathological variables. The results of this study demonstrate the utility and power of an integrated quantitative proteomic, transcriptomic, and network analysis approach to discover robust and clinically meaningful molecular changes in tumors.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.