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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cyclophosphamide/Fludarabine Nonmyeloablative Allotransplant for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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We compared survival outcomes following myeloablative (MAT) or cyclophosphamide/fludarabine (Cy/Flu) nonmyeloablative (NMAT) allotransplant for 165 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in remission or without frank relapse. Patients who received NMAT were more likely to be older, have secondary AML and lower performance status. At a median follow-up of 61 months, median event-free (EFS) and overall (OS) survival were not different between NMAT and MAT in univariate as well as multivariate analyses. Cy/Flu NMAT may provide similar disease control and survival compared to MAT in patients with AML in remission or without frank relapse.
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Multi-stakeholder collaboration in the redesign of family-centered rounds process.
Appl Ergon
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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A human factors approach to healthcare system redesign emphasizes the involvement of multiple healthcare stakeholders (e.g., patients and families, healthcare providers) in the redesign process. This study explores the experience of multiple stakeholders with collaboration in a healthcare system redesign project. Interviews were conducted with ten stakeholder representatives who participated in the redesign of the family-centered rounds process in a pediatric hospital. Qualitative interview data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A model of collaborative healthcare system redesign was developed, which defined four phases (i.e., setup of the redesign team, preparation for meetings, collaboration in meetings, follow-up after meetings) and two outcomes (i.e., team outcomes, redesign outcomes) of the collaborative process. Challenges to multi-stakeholder collaboration in healthcare system redesign, such as need to represent all relevant stakeholders, scheduling of meetings and managing different perspectives, were identified.
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Neurobiological risk factors for suicide: insights from brain imaging.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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This article reviews neuroimaging studies on neural circuitry associated with suicide-related thoughts and behaviors to identify areas of convergence in findings. Gaps in the literature for which additional research is needed are identified.
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Stimulated recall methodology for assessing work system barriers and facilitators in family-centered rounds in a pediatric hospital.
Appl Ergon
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Human factors and ergonomics methods are needed to redesign healthcare processes and support patient-centered care, in particular for vulnerable patients such as hospitalized children. We implemented and evaluated a stimulated recall methodology for collective confrontation in the context of family-centered rounds. Five parents and five healthcare team members reviewed video records of their bedside rounds, and were then interviewed using the stimulated recall methodology to identify work system barriers and facilitators in family-centered rounds. The evaluation of the methodology was based on a survey of the participants, and a qualitative analysis of interview data in light of the work system model of Smith and Carayon (1989, 2001). Positive survey feedback from the participants was received. The stimulated recall methodology identified barriers and facilitators in all work system elements. Participatory ergonomics methods such as the stimulated recall methodology allow a range of participants, including parents and children, to participate in healthcare process improvement.
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The active patient role and asthma outcomes in an underserved rural community.
J Rural Health
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Patient activation, an individual's knowledge, skills, and confidence for managing their own health and health care, can play an important role in the management of chronic conditions. However, few studies have examined patient activation in underserved rural communities. The purpose of this study was to describe patient activation and examine how patient activation is associated with adherence to asthma maintenance medication and disease control in a low-income rural population with asthma.
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Laboratory-induced cue reactivity among individuals with prescription opioid dependence.
Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Prescription opioid (PO) dependence is a critical health problem. Although examination of drug cue reactivity paradigms has advanced the understanding of risk factors for relapse for a variety of substances (e.g., cocaine, alcohol, nicotine), no PO specific drug cue paradigm has been developed. The current study addressed this gap in the literature and evaluated the ability of a newly developed PO drug cue paradigm to elicit subjective, physiological, and neuroendocrine changes among PO-dependent participants (n = 20) as compared to controls (n = 17). The drug cue paradigm included an induction script, viewing and handling paraphernalia (e.g., bottle of oxycontin pills, pill crusher) and watching a video depicting people using POs as well as places related to POs (e.g., pharmacies). Consistent with hypotheses, the PO group demonstrated significant pre- to post-cue increases on subjective ratings of craving, difficulty resisting POs, stress, and anger. The control group did not demonstrate significant changes on any of the subjective measures. Both the PO group and the control group evidenced significant pre- to post-cue increases in physiological responses (e.g., blood pressure, skin conductance), as expected given the arousing nature of the drug cue stimuli. The PO group, but not the control group, evidenced a significant pre- to post-cue increase in heart rate and salivary cortisol levels. The development and validation of a drug cue paradigm for POs may help inform future research and treatment development efforts for patients with PO dependence.
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Lysylated phospholipids stabilize models of bacterial lipid bilayers and protect against antimicrobial peptides.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Aminoacylated phosphatidylglycerols are common lipids in bacterial cytoplasmic membranes. Their presence in Staphylococcus aureus has been linked to increased resistance to a number of antibacterial agents, including antimicrobial peptides. Most commonly, the phosphatidylglycerol headgroup is esterified to lysine, which converts anionic phosphatidylglycerol into a cationic lipid with a considerably increased headgroup size. In the present work, we investigated the interactions of two well-studied antimicrobial peptides, cecropin A and mastoparan X, with lipid vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), containing varying fractions of an aminoacylated phosphatidylethanolamine, a stable analog of the corresponding phosphatidylglycerol-derivative. To differentiate between the effects of headgroup size and charge on peptide-lipid interactions, we synthesized two different derivatives. In one, the headgroup was modified by the addition of lysine, and in the other, by glutamine. The modification by glutamine results in a phospholipid with a headgroup size comparable to that of the lysylated version. However, whereas lysyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (Lys-PE) is cationic, glutaminyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (Gln-PE) is zwitterionic. We found that binding of mastoparan X and cecropin A was not significantly altered if the content of aminoacylated phosphatidylethanolamines did not exceed 20mol.%, which is the concentration found in bacterial membranes. However, a lysyl-phosphatidylethanolamine content of 20mol% significantly inhibits dye release from lipid vesicles, to a degree that depends on the peptide. In the case of mastoparan X, dye release is essentially abolished at 20mol.% lysyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, whereas cecropin A is less sensitive to the presence of lysyl-phosphatidylethanolamine. These observations are understood through the complex interplay between peptide binding and membrane stabilization as a function of the aminoacylated lipid content. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova.
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Development and validation of PRISM: a survey tool to identify diabetes self-management barriers.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Although most children with type 1 diabetes do not achieve optimal glycemic control, no systematic method exists to identify and address self-management barriers. This study develops and validates PRISM (Problem Recognition in Illness Self-Management), a survey-based tool for efficiently identifying self-management barriers experienced by children/adolescents with diabetes and their parents.
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Translational analysis of effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on human infant cries and rat pup ultrasonic vocalizations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Spectral and temporal features of human infant crying may detect neurobehavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Finding comparable measures of rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) would promote translational analyses by controlling the effects of correlated variables that confound human studies. To this end, two studies examined the sensitivity of similar acoustic structures in human infant and rat pup vocalizations to effects of PCE. In Study 1, cry sounds of 107 one month-old infants were spectrum analyzed to create a novel set of measures and to detect the presence of hyperphonation - a qualitative shift to an atypically high fundamental frequency (basic pitch) associated with neurobehavioral insult. Infants with PCE were compared to infants with prenatal polydrug-exposure (PPE) without cocaine and with infants in a standard comparison (SC) group with no prenatal drug exposure. In Study 2, USVs of 118 five day-old rat pups with either PCE, prenatal saline exposure or no prenatal exposures were spectrum analyzed to detect the presence of frequency shifts - acoustic features that have a frequency waveform similar to that of hyperphonation. Results of study 1 showed PCE had two sets of sex-dependent effects on human infants: PCE males had higher pitched cries with more dysphonation (turbulence); PCE females had longer pauses between fewer cry sounds that were of lower amplitude than comparison groups. PCE and PPE infants had more cries with hyperphonation than SC infants. In study 2, PCE pups had a greater percentage of USVs with shift in the acoustic structure than pups in the two control groups. As such, the novel measures of human infant crying and rat pup USVs were sensitive to effects of PCE. These studies provide the first known translational analysis of similar acoustic structures of vocalizations in two species to detect adverse effects of prenatal drug exposure.
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Genetic assessments and parentage analysis of captive Bolson tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus) inform their "rewilding" in New Mexico.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus) is the first species of extirpated megafauna to be repatriated into the United States. In September 2006, 30 individuals were translocated from Arizona to New Mexico with the long-term objective of restoring wild populations via captive propagation. We evaluated mtDNA sequences and allelic diversity among 11 microsatellite loci from the captive population and archived samples collected from wild individuals in Durango, Mexico (n?=?28). Both populations exhibited very low genetic diversity and the captive population captured roughly 97.5% of the total wild diversity, making it a promising founder population. Genetic screening of other captive animals (n?=?26) potentially suitable for reintroduction uncovered multiple hybrid G. flavomarginatus×G. polyphemus, which were ineligible for repatriation; only three of these individuals were verified as purebred G. flavomarginatus. We used these genetic data to inform mate pairing, reduce the potential for inbreeding and to monitor the maintenance of genetic diversity in the captive population. After six years of successful propagation, we analyzed the parentage of 241 hatchlings to assess the maintenance of genetic diversity. Not all adults contributed equally to successive generations. Most yearly cohorts of hatchlings failed to capture the diversity of the parental population. However, overlapping generations of tortoises helped to alleviate genetic loss because the entire six-year cohort of hatchlings contained the allelic diversity of the parental population. Polyandry and sperm storage occurred in the captives and future management strategies must consider such events.
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Substance use disorders and PTSD: An exploratory study of treatment preferences among military veterans.
Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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Substance use disorders (SUDs) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur among Veterans and are associated with poor treatment outcomes. Historically, treatments for SUDs and PTSD have been delivered sequentially and independently. More recently, however, integrated treatments have shown promise. This study investigated Veterans perceptions of the interrelationship between SUDs and PTSD, as well as treatment preferences.
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Internet safety education for youth: stakeholder perspectives.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among US youth; risks to internet use include cyberbullying, privacy violations and unwanted solicitation. Internet safety education may prevent these negative consequences; however, it is unclear at what age this education should begin and what group is responsible for teaching this topic.
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Parent perceptions of childrens hospital safety climate.
BMJ Qual Saf
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Because patients are at the frontline of care where safety climate is closely tied to safety events, understanding patient perceptions of safety climate is crucial. We sought to develop and evaluate a parent-reported version of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and to relate parent-reported responses to parental need to watch over their childs care to ensure mistakes are not made.
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Risk vs benefit in diabetes pharmacotherapy: a rational approach to choosing pharmacotherapy in type 2 diabetes.
Curr. Diab. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Type 2 diabetes now affects more than 1 in 10 US adults and is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expense. There are increasing numbers of available pharmacotherapies, with established agents as well as newer drugs developed from hormones in the incretin pathway, among others. New data are accumulating continuously with respect to potential benefits of both long-standing and new agents, as well as risks identified through post-marketing surveillance. Here we review the commonly prescribed pharmacotherapy options with attention to recently published information and provide a rational approach to choice of therapy.
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Strategies for improving family engagement during family-centered rounds.
J Hosp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Family-centered rounds (FCR) are recommended as standard practice in the pediatric inpatient setting; however, limited data exist on best practices promoting family engagement during rounds.
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Abnormal brain synchrony in Down Syndrome.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Down Syndrome is the most common genetic cause for intellectual disability, yet the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in Down Syndrome is unknown. We compared fMRI scans of 15 individuals with Down Syndrome to 14 typically developing control subjects while they viewed 50 min of cartoon video clips. There was widespread increased synchrony between brain regions, with only a small subset of strong, distant connections showing underconnectivity in Down Syndrome. Brain regions showing negative correlations were less anticorrelated and were among the most strongly affected connections in the brain. Increased correlation was observed between all of the distributed brain networks studied, with the strongest internetwork correlation in subjects with the lowest performance IQ. A functional parcellation of the brain showed simplified network structure in Down Syndrome organized by local connectivity. Despite increased interregional synchrony, intersubject correlation to the cartoon stimuli was lower in Down Syndrome, indicating that increased synchrony had a temporal pattern that was not in response to environmental stimuli, but idiosyncratic to each Down Syndrome subject. Short-range, increased synchrony was not observed in a comparison sample of 447 autism vs. 517 control subjects from the Autism Brain Imaging Exchange (ABIDE) collection of resting state fMRI data, and increased internetwork synchrony was only observed between the default mode and attentional networks in autism. These findings suggest immature development of connectivity in Down Syndrome with impaired ability to integrate information from distant brain regions into coherent distributed networks.
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Effect of communication style and physician-family relationships on satisfaction with pediatric chronic disease care.
Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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Over 8% of children have a chronic disease and many are unable to adhere to treatment. Satisfaction with chronic disease care can impact adherence. We examine how visit satisfaction is associated with physician communication style and ongoing physician-family relationships. We collected surveys and visit videos for 75 children ages 9-16 years visiting for asthma, diabetes, or sickle cell disease management. Raters assessed physician communication style (friendliness, interest, responsiveness, and dominance) from visit videos. Quality of the ongoing relationship was measured with four survey items (parent-physician relationship, child-physician relationship, comfort asking questions, and trust in the physician), while a single item assessed satisfaction. Correlations and chi square were used to assess association of satisfaction with communication style or quality of the ongoing relationship. Satisfaction was positively associated with physician to parent (p < 0.05) friendliness. Satisfaction was also associated with the quality of the ongoing parent-physician (p < 0.001) and child-physician relationships (p < 0.05), comfort asking questions (p < 0.001), and trust (p < 0.01). This shows that both the communication style and the quality of the ongoing relationship contribute to pediatric chronic disease visit satisfaction.
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Influence of race and socioeconomic status on engagement in pediatric primary care.
Patient Educ Couns
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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To understand the association of race/ethnicity with engagement in pediatric primary care and examine how any racial/ethnic disparities are influenced by socioeconomic status.
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Problematic internet use among US youth: a systematic review.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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To investigate study quality and reported prevalence among the emergent area of problematic Internet use (PIU) research conducted in populations of US adolescents and college students.
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Development of translational methods in spectral analysis of human infant crying and rat pup ultrasonic vocalizations for early neurobehavioral assessment.
Front Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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The purpose of this article is to describe the development of translational methods by which spectrum analysis of human infant crying and rat pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) can be used to assess potentially adverse effects of various prenatal conditions on early neurobehavioral development. The study of human infant crying has resulted in a rich set of measures that has long been used to assess early neurobehavioral insult due to non-optimal prenatal environments, even among seemingly healthy newborn and young infants. In another domain of study, the analysis of rat put USVs has been conducted via paradigms that allow for better experimental control over correlated prenatal conditions that may confound findings and conclusions regarding the effects of specific prenatal experiences. The development of translational methods by which cry vocalizations of both species can be analyzed may provide the opportunity for findings from the two approaches of inquiry to inform one another through their respective strengths. To this end, we present an enhanced taxonomy of a novel set of common measures of cry vocalizations of both human infants and rat pups based on a conceptual framework that emphasizes infant crying as a graded and dynamic acoustic signal. This set includes latency to vocalization onset, duration and repetition rate of expiratory components, duration of inter-vocalization-intervals and spectral features of the sound, including the frequency and amplitude of the fundamental and dominant frequencies. We also present a new set of classifications of rat pup USV waveforms that include qualitative shifts in fundamental frequency, similar to the presence of qualitative shifts in fundamental frequency that have previously been related to insults to neurobehavioral integrity in human infants. Challenges to the development of translational analyses, including the use of different terminologies, methods of recording, and spectral analyses are discussed, as well as descriptions of automated processes, software solutions, and pitfalls.
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Combined norepinephrine/serotonergic reuptake inhibition: effects on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin in the rat.
Front Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Background: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior (MB), although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent MB in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression, and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on MB, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. MB and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days 1 and 6 respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day 7. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease MB and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. Results: Amitriptyline and desipramine differentially reduced MB, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in maternal care.
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Cocaine Exposure and Childrens Self-Regulation: Indirect Association via Maternal Harshness.
Front Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Objectives: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and childrens self-regulation at 3?years of child age. In addition to direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on childrens self-regulation, we hypothesized there would be indirect associations between cocaine exposure and self-regulation via higher maternal harshness and poor autonomic regulation in infancy. Methods: The sample consisted of 216 mother-infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 non-exposed). Infant autonomic regulation was measured at 7?months of age during an anger/frustration task, maternal harshness was coded from observations of mother-toddler interactions at 2?years of age, and childrens self-regulation was measured at 3?years of age using several laboratory paradigms. Results: Contrary to hypotheses, there were no direct associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and childrens self-regulation. However, results from testing our conceptual model including the indirect effects via maternal harshness or infant parasympathetic regulation indicated that this model fit the data well, ?(2) (23)?=?34.36, p?>?0.05, Comparative Fit Index?=?0.95, RMSEA?=?0.05. Cocaine using mothers displayed higher intensity of harshness toward their toddlers during lab interactions across a variety of tasks at 2?years of age (??=?0.23, p?
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Feeling bad on Facebook: depression disclosures by college students on a social networking site.
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
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Depression is common and frequently undiagnosed among college students. Social networking sites are popular among college students and can include displayed depression references. The purpose of this study was to evaluate college students Facebook disclosures that met DSM criteria for a depression symptom or a major depressive episode (MDE).
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Medical student outcomes after family-centered bedside rounds.
Acad Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2011
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Family-centered bedside rounds (FCBRs) are recommended to improve trainee education, patient outcomes, and family satisfaction. However, bedside teaching has waned in recent years, potentially leading to less teaching and more concern for trainees. We examined medical students concerns, teaching evaluations, and attitudes after experiencing FCBRs during the pediatric clerkship.
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Care of the underserved: faculty development needs assessment.
J Natl Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2010
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Because role models are crucial to training physicians to care for the underserved, we examined pediatric facultys knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, skills, and precepting behaviors regarding care for this population.
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A phase I trial of high-dose clofarabine, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with primary refractory and relapsed and refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Clofarabine has significant single-agent activity in patients with indolent and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and synergizes with DNA-damaging drugs. Treatment, however, may be associated with severe and prolonged myelosuppression. We conducted a phase I trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of clofarabine in combination with high-dose etoposide and cyclophosphamide followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients received clofarabine at 30-70 mg/m(2)/day on days -6 to -2 in successive cohorts, in combination with etoposide 60 mg/kg (day -8), and cyclophosphamide 100 mg/kg (day -6), followed by filgrastim-mobilized PBSC on day 0. Sixteen patients of median age 57 (range: 32-67) years with diffuse large B cell (n = 8), follicular (n = 5), or mantle cell (n = 3) lymphoma that was either primary refractory (n = 2) or relapsed and refractory (n = 14) were treated at 5 clofarabine dose levels: 30 (n = 3), 40 (n = 3), 50 (n = 3), 60 (n = 3), and 70 mg/m(2)/day (n = 4) in combination with etoposide and cyclophosphamide. All patients had grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxicity was evenly distributed across all 5 dose levels, and included diarrhea (n = 3), mucositis (n = 1), nausea (n = 1), reversible elevation of alanine aminotranferease/aspartate aminotransferase (AST/ALT) (n = 1) or bilirubin (n = 1), and hemorrhagic cystitis (n = 1); all resolved by day +30 following transplantation. The MTD was not reached. No treatment-related deaths occurred. At day +30, 13 patients achieved a complete remission (CR) or unconfirmed CR (CR(U)), and 2 patients achieved a partial response, for an overall response rate of 94%. After a median follow-up of 691 days, the 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 63% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43%-91%) and 68% (95% CI: 49%-96%), respectively. We recommend clofarabine 70 mg/m(2)/day × 5 days as a phase II dose in combination with high-dose etoposide and cyclophosphamide for further testing as a preparative regimen in NHL patients undergoing autologous PBSC transplantation.
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Pending laboratory tests and the hospital discharge summary in patients discharged to sub-acute care.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Previous studies have noted a high (41%) prevalence and poor discharge summary communication of pending laboratory (lab) tests at the time of hospital discharge for general medical patients. However, the prevalence and communication of pending labs within a high-risk population, specifically those patients discharged to sub-acute care (i.e., skilled nursing, rehabilitation, long-term care), remains unknown.
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Development and evaluation of an instrument to measure community pharmacists self-efficacy beliefs about communicating with Spanish-speaking patients.
Res Social Adm Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Hispanics are the largest growing population in the United States, and their use of prescription medications can be influenced by the education and counseling they receive from pharmacists. However, little is known about pharmacists communication with patients who speak Spanish or factors that can influence such communication.
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Effects of chronic and intermittent cocaine treatment on dominance, aggression, and oxytocin levels in post-lactational rats.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Little is known about mechanisms underlying female rodent aggression during the late postpartum period with no pups present. Studies of aggression, dominance, and oxytocin (OT) response in cocaine-treated females are sparse.
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Present and Prospective Pharmacotherapy for the Management of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Clin Med Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
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Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic condition prevalent worldwide. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, comprising 90% to 95% of all cases. Over the last few decades, the importance of glycemic control and its impact on prevention of diabetes-related complications has been documented in multiple clinical trials. As most patients with type 2 diabetes will require pharmacologic intervention to achieve and maintain appropriate glycemic control, new medications targeting different aspects of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes have been a significant focus of research and development. During the last decade, multiple new medications for diabetes management have become available: these medications have novel mechanisms of action, differences in effectiveness, and varying side effect profiles which will be reviewed in this article. Some of these newer medications, such as the GLP-1 analogues and DPP-4 inhibitors, have become widely accepted as therapeutic options for the management of type 2 diabetes.Additional classes of glucose-lowering medications are expected to become available in the near future. This manuscript will summarize available data regarding these newer and prospective medications for the management of type 2 diabetes.
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Learning to participate: effect of child age and parental education on participation in pediatric visits.
Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Childrens participation in health care improves outcomes, yet little is known about factors that affect participation. We examine how child age and parental education affect participation. Visit videotapes were coded to reflect key visit tasks: information giving, information gathering, and relationship building. Multivariable models were used to analyze how participation was associated with child age and parental education. For each year of child age, physicians did 3% more information gathering, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.01-1.06, but reduced relationship building by 4%, IRR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.94-0.97. Children of college-graduate parents spoke twice as much information-giving talk, IRR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.07-4.17, and nearly 5 times as much relationship-building talk, IRR = 4.74, 95% CI = 1.45-15.52, as children with less educated parents. Results suggest physicians might attend to relationship building with older children and work to improve participation of children of less educated parents.
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A constitutively active form of neurokinin 1 receptor and neurokinin 1 receptor-mediated apoptosis in glioblastomas.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Previous studies have shown that neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) occurs naturally in human glioblastomas and its stimulation causes cell proliferation. In the present study we show that stimulation of NK1R in human U373 glioblastoma cells by substance P increases Akt phosphorylation by 2.5-fold, with an EC(50) of 57 nM. Blockade of NK1R lowers basal phosphorylation of Akt, indicating the presence of a constitutively active form of NK1R; similar results are seen in U251 MG and DBTRG-05 glioblastoma cells. Linkage of NK1R to Akt implicates NK1R in apoptosis of glioblastoma cells. Indeed, treatment of serum-starved U373 cells with substance P reduces apoptosis by 53 +/- 1% (p < 0.05), and treatment with NK1R antagonist L-733,060 increases apoptosis by 64 +/- 16% (p < 0.01). Further, the blockade of NK1R in human glioblastoma cells with L-733,060 causes cleavage of Caspase-3 and proteolysis of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Experiments designed to elucidate the mechanism of NK1R-mediated Akt phosphorylation revealed total involvement of non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src and phosphatidyl-3-kinase, a partial involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor, and no involvement of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-related kinase. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate a key role for NK1R in glioblastoma apoptosis.
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Simultaneous prenatal ethanol and nicotine exposure affect ethanol consumption, ethanol preference and oxytocin receptor binding in adolescent and adult rats.
Neurotoxicol Teratol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Ethanol consumption and smoking during pregnancy are common, despite the known adverse effects on the fetus. The teratogenicity of each drug independently is well established; however, the effects of concurrent exposure to ethanol and nicotine in preclinical models remain unclear. This study examined the impact of simultaneous prenatal exposure to both ethanol and nicotine on offspring ethanol preference behaviors and oxytocin system dynamics. Rat dams were given liquid diet (17% ethanol derived calories (EDC)) on gestational day (GD) 5 and 35% EDC from GD 6-20 and concurrently an osmotic minipump delivered nicotine (3-6mg/kg/day) from GD 4-postpartum day 10. Offspring were tested for ethanol preference during adolescence (postnatal day (PND) 30-43) and again at adulthood (PND 60-73), followed by assays for oxytocin mRNA expression and receptor binding in relevant brain regions. Prenatal exposure decreased ethanol preference in males during adolescence, and decreased consumption and preference in females during adulthood compared to controls. Oxytocin receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus was increased in adult prenatally exposed males only. Prenatal exposure to these drugs sex-specifically decreased ethanol preference behavior in offspring unlike reports for either drug separately. The possible role of oxytocin in reduction of ethanol consumption behavior is highlighted.
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Thermodynamics of Zn2+ binding to Cys2His2 and Cys2HisCys zinc fingers and a Cys4 transcription factor site.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
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The thermodynamics of Zn(2+) binding to three peptides corresponding to naturally occurring Zn-binding sequences in transcription factors have been quantified with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). These peptides, the third zinc finger of Sp1 (Sp1-3), the second zinc finger of myelin transcription factor 1 (MyT1-2), and the second Zn-binding sequence of the DNA-binding domain of glucocorticoid receptor (GR-2), bind Zn(2+) with Cys(2)His(2), Cys(2)HisCys, and Cys(4) coordination, respectively. Circular dichroism confirms that Sp1-3 and MyT1-2 have considerable and negligible Zn-stabilized secondary structure, respectively, and indicate only a small amount for GR-2. The pK(a)s of the Sp1-3 cysteines and histidines were determined by NMR and used to estimate the number of protons displaced by Zn(2+) at pH 7.4. ITC was also used to determine this number, and the two methods agree. Subtraction of buffer contributions to the calorimetric data reveals that all three peptides have a similar affinity for Zn(2+), which has equal enthalpy and entropy components for Sp1-3 but is more enthalpically disfavored and entropically favored with increasing Cys ligands. The resulting enthalpy-entropy compensation originates from the Zn-Cys coordination, as subtraction of the cysteine deprotonation enthalpy results in a similar Zn(2+)-binding enthalpy for all three peptides, and the binding entropy tracks with the number of displaced protons. Metal and protein components of the binding enthalpy and entropy have been estimated. While dominated by Zn(2+) coordination to the cysteines and histidines, other residues in the sequence affect the protein contributions that modulate the stability of these motifs.
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Pharmacists provision of information to Spanish-speaking patients: a social cognitive approach.
Res Social Adm Pharm
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Hispanics with limited English proficiency face communication challenges that affect medication use and outcomes. Pharmacists are poised to help patients use medications safely and effectively; however, scant research has explored factors that may impact pharmacists communication with Spanish-speaking patients (SSPs).
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Medical student self-efficacy with family-centered care during bedside rounds.
Acad Med
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Factors that support self-efficacy in family-centered care (FCC) must be understood in order to foster FCC in trainees. Using social cognitive theory, the authors examined (1) how three supportive experiences (observing role models, practicing for mastery, and receiving feedback) influence self-efficacy with FCC during rounds and (2) whether the influence of these supportive experiences was mediated by self-efficacy with three key FCC tasks (relationship building, information exchange, and decision making).
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Obstructive sleep apnea and incidence of postoperative delirium after elective knee replacement in the nondemented elderly.
Anesthesiology
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Postoperative delirium, a common complication in the elderly, can occur following any type of surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality; it may also be associated with subsequent cognitive problems. Effective therapy for postoperative delirium remains elusive because the causative factors of delirium are likely multiple and varied.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.