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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The presence of anti-Tat antibodies in HIV-infected individuals is associated with containment of CD4+ T-cell decay and viral load, and with delay of disease progression: results of a 3-year cohort study.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Tat is a key HIV-1 virulence factor, which plays pivotal roles in virus gene expression, replication, transmission and disease progression. After release, extracellular Tat accumulates in tissues and exerts effects on both the virus and the immune system, promoting immune activation and virus spreading while disabling the host immune defense. In particular, Tat binds Env spikes on virus particles forming a virus entry complex, which favors infection of dendritic cells and efficient transmission to T cells via RGD-binding integrins. Tat also shields the CCR5-binding sites of Env rendering ineffective virus neutralization by anti-Env antibodies (Abs). This is reversed by the anti-Tat Abs present in natural infection or induced by vaccination.
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Clinical and immunological outcomes according to adherence to first-line HAART in a urban and rural cohort of HIV-infected patients in Burkina Faso, West Africa.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Aim of our study is to investigate the clinical and immunological outcomes according to first-line HAART adherence in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients in Burkina Faso.
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Synthetic HIV-1 matrix protein p17-based AT20-KLH therapeutic immunization in HIV-1-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment: A phase I safety and immunogenicity study.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Therapeutic vaccination is a promising novel approach to treat HIV-1 infected people by boosting or redirecting immune system to neutralize critical HIV-1 antigens whose biological effects are relevant in the context of viral pathogenesis. With the aim to induce neutralizing antibodies to the matrix protein p17 we have developed a peptide-based immunogen (AT20-KLH) and evaluated its safety and immunogenicity.
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For timing of HAART is less more? CD4+/CD8+ ratio and CD4+ percentage as surrogate markers for more complex immunological features.
New Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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There is disagreement on the optimal timing of HAART initiation based on absolute CD4+ T-cell count (CD4+ count). We investigated if na?ve patients with CD4+ T-cell percentage (%CD4+) <29% or CD4+/CD8+ ratio <1 display signs of immune deterioration notwithstanding CD4+ count ?500 cells/?l. We found that these patients show B-cell aberrations and an impaired control of Torque Teno Virus replication. By contrast, patients with CD4+?500/?l, %CD4+?29% and CD4+/CD8+?1 displayed features of healthy subjects. Results obtained suggest that a combination of these parameters could be an adequate surrogate marker of immunological competence. This will be helpful in deciding when to start HAART.
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Simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir+lamivudine in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients: 24-weeks interim analysis from ATLAS-M trial.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We report interim 24-weeks efficacy data of ATLAS-M trial, a phase IV, multicentre, open-label, randomized study designed to show 48-weeks, non-inferior efficacy (margin of -12%) of treatment simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r)+lamivudine (3TC) versus maintaining 3-drugs ATV/r-based cART.
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Survival in HIV-infected patients after a cancer diagnosis in the cART Era: results of an italian multicenter study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We studied survival and associated risk factors in an Italian nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals after an AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) or non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) diagnosis in the modern cART era.
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Asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders in patients infected by HIV: fact or fiction?
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Neurocognitive disorders are emerging as a possible complication in patients infected with HIV. Even if asymptomatic, neurocognitive abnormalities are frequently detected using a battery of tests. This supported the creation of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) as a new entity. In a recent article published in BMC Infectious Diseases, Magnus Gisslén and colleagues applied a statistical approach, concluding that there is an overestimation of the actual problem. In fact, about 20% of patients are classified as neurocognitively impaired without a clear impact on daily activities. In the present commentary, we discuss the clinical implications of their findings. Although a cautious approach would indicate a stricter follow-up of patients affected by this disorder, it is premature to consider it as a proper disease. Based on a review of the data in the current literature we conclude that it is urgent to conduct more studies to estimate the overall risk of progression of the asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. Moreover, it is important to understand whether new biomarkers or neuroimaging tools can help to identify better the most at risk population. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/11/356.
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High prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in HIV-infected males.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Age-related co-morbidities including osteoporosis are relevant in patients responding to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Vertebral fractures are common osteoporotic fractures and their diagnosis is useful for managing at-risk individuals. However, there are few data from HIV-infected patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with vertebral fractures in a population of HIV-infected males. A cross-sectional study of 160 HIV-infected patients with available chest X-rays was conducted from 1998 to 2010. One hundred and sixty-three males with comparable age and with no history of HIV infection were recruited as controls. Semi-quantitative evaluation of vertebral heights in lateral chest X-rays and quantitative morphometry assessment of centrally digitized images using dedicated morphometry software were utilized to detect prevalent vertebral fractures. The result showed that the vertebral fractures were detected in 43/160 (26.9%) HIV-infected patients and in 21/163 (12.9%) controls (P = 0.002). In HIV-infected patients with fractures, 27 had two or more fractures and ten patients had severe fractures. The prevalence of any fractures and multiple fractures in HIV-infected patients receiving cART (29.6 and 20.0%) was slightly higher than in HIV-infected patients not exposed to cART (17.1 and 5.7%), but significantly higher than control subjects (12.9 and 3.7%). At multivariable analyses, body mass index and diabetes mellitus were independently correlated with vertebral fractures in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that a significant proportion of HIV-infected males receiving cART showed vertebral fractures. Furthermore, proactive diagnosis of vertebral fragility fractures is particularly relevant in patients who are overweight or suffer from diabetes.
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Evaluation of liver fibrosis: concordance analysis between noninvasive scores (APRI and FIB-4) evolution and predictors in a cohort of HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C and B infection.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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There is lack of data on the incidence of liver fibrosis (LF) progression in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) monoinfection and risk factors for LF.
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Cryptogenic liver diseases: sailing by sight from HIV co-infection with hepatitis viruses to HIV mono-infection through the Pillars of Hercules.
Curr. HIV Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Liver injury in the HIV-positive population has been classically associated with hepatitis B or C viruses (HBV and HCV). While HBV or HCV co-infections have represented "Pillars of Hercules" for hepatic disease (not further beyond), it is now time to move forward and shed light on liver disease in HIV-infected patients without HBV or HCV co-infections. Indeed, over the last years, liver disease in HIV-mono-infected patients has emerged and fated to become one of the main non AIDS-related complications. Although several cases have specific etiologies (e.g., alcohol abuse), other cases are most challenging for the clinicians because the actual causes are only hypothesized, such as it is difficult to treat them appropriately. This new clinical entity has been named "cryptogenic" liver disease; it is polymorphic (e.g., hepatic steatosis, nodular regenerative hyperplasia or noncirrhotic portal hypertension) and multifactorial in nature, but HIV per se may play a key role. In this paper, we present a critical review of the relevant literature data, focusing on practical implications (including diagnostic tools and differential diagnosis), and delineate priorities for future research on this important topic.
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Phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of slime production by conventional and molecular microbiological techniques.
Microbiol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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Twenty-nine staphylococcal isolates from different clinical samples were tested for slime production: phenotypic characterization was carried out using Christensen test (tube test) and Congo red agar plate test (CRA plate test), while the presence and expression of icaA and icaD genes were evaluated by real-time PCR. In 79.3% of studied strains there was a concordance between slime production and presence of icaA and icaD genes, and between lack of slime production and absence of both or only one of the tested genes. In four of five strains where positive phenotype was not associated with the presence of ica genes, gene co-expression (evaluated by mRNA determination) was lacking, while in only a case out of five, there was the presence of transcripts without phenotype. Our study, for the first time, introduces real-time PCR for the detection of both icaA and icaD genes and their mRNA and, furthermore, addresses the relationship between slime phenotype absence and mRNA expression, in clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci.
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Six cases of sepsis caused by Pantoea agglomerans in a teaching hospital.
New Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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Pantoea agglomerans is an environmental organism which may seldom cause opportunistic infections. Here we report on a 6 case outbreak in a teaching hospital. Within three months . agglomerans was isolated from blood cultures of 5 patients from oncology and 1 patient from ICU departments. P. agglomerans was in pure culture in 5 cases, while in the last one Rahnella aquatilis and Candida famata were also isolated. Therefore, P. agglomerans is able to produce nosocomial infections in patients with primary pathology often associated with immune suppression.
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Increase in standard cholesterol and large HDL particle subclasses in antiretroviral-naïve patients prescribed efavirenz compared to atazanavir/ritonavir.
HIV Clin Trials
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Cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients is related, at least in part, to serum lipid alterations before and after HAART. Lipoprotein-particle subclasses may also have an effect, but comparative data after standard HAART regimens are limited.
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Malaria and hiv in adults: when the parasite runs into the virus.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis
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Malaria and HIV/AIDS are among the principal causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the international communitys efforts to reduce incidence and prevalence of these diseases, they remain a global public health problem. Clinical manifestations of malaria may be more severe in HIV infected patients, which have higher risks of severe malaria and malaria related death. Co-infected pregnant women, children and international travelers from non-malaria endemic countries are at higher risk of clinical complications. However, there is a paucity and conflicting data regarding malaria and HIV co-infection, particularly on how HIV infection can modify the response to antimalarial drugs and about drug-interactions between antiretroviral agents and artemisinin-based combined regimens. Moreover, consulting HIV-infected international travelers and physicians specialized in HIV care and travel medicine should prescribe an adequate chemoprophylaxis in patients travelling towards malaria endemic areas and pay attention on interactions between antiretrovirals and antimalarial prophylaxis drugs in order to prevent clinical complications of this co-infection.This review aims to evaluate the available international literature on malaria and HIV co-infection in adults providing a critical comprehensive review of nowadays knowledge.
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Impact of detectable human cytomegalovirus DNAemia on viro-immunological effectiveness of HAART in HIV-infected patients naive to antiretroviral therapy.
New Microbiol.
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Our objective was to explore whether positive human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNAemia at baseline impaired CD4+ T-cell increase after 1 year of HAART. A sub-study of a randomized clinical trial in selected patients with <200 cell/mm CD4+ at baseline was conducted. Six out of 30 patients had detectable HCMV DNAemia at baseline, all reaching HCMV suppression at week 52 after HAART (only 1 of them was treated with valgancyclovir). No significant differences were found between patients with detectable or undetectable HCMV DNAemia in terms of CD4+ T-cell increase and HIV RNA response to HAART. Although some data may favor HCVM pre-emptive therapy to decrease immune activation, our results do not indicate that this practice may increase CD4+ T-cell count after HAART. At the same time, HAART proved effective in reducing HCMV DNAemia without the need for a specific therapy.
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Unboosted atazanavir for treatment of HIV infection: rationale and recommendations for use.
Drugs
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Atazanavir (Reyataz®) is a protease inhibitor (PI) for the treatment of HIV infection. Several trials have demonstrated the good efficacy and toxicity profile of atazanavir boosted by ritonavir (atazanavir/r). However, several toxicity events and pharmacokinetic issues due to drug-to-drug interactions (partly related to ritonavir) may complicate atazanavir/r therapy. This is why regimens with unboosted atazanavir have been experimented with and are used in clinical practice. The aim of this article is to identify the clinical settings in which unboosted atazanavir may be a safe and effective option for the long-term control of HIV replication. Despite the fact that a favourable lipid profile and good gastrointestinal tolerability have been reported in comparative trials, unboosted atazanavir should not be considered an optimal choice for treatment-naive patients. In fact, boosting with ritonavir produces higher atazanavir plasma levels, which are beneficial in terms of efficacy, especially in untreated patients with high plasma HIV RNA. Clinical data indicate that, in patients with sustained undetectable HIV RNA and without previous virological failure or HIV drug resistance-associated mutations, a switch to unboosted atazanavir-based regimens is a feasible option to control and prevent toxicity events, especially in patients who cannot tolerate ritonavir and in those with severe hyperbilirubinaemia on atazanavir/r. Moreover, while unboosted atazanavir must not be used in pregnant women, it is a recommended option in special populations, such as patients with moderate liver insufficiency. Lastly, unboosted atazanavir in combination with raltegravir may allow the construction of a well tolerated and effective regimen without nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in patients for whom these drugs are contraindicated. In conclusion, there is a good rationale, significant clinical interest and accumulating clinical experience with unboosted atazanavir-based regimens, although this formulation should be used only in specific situations and as a maintenance strategy. Moreover, therapeutic drug monitoring could be useful in specific circumstances (such as in patients with liver impairment or in case of potential drug-drug interactions).
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Prospective evaluation of bone markers, parathormone and 1,25-(OH)? vitamin D in HIV-positive patients after the initiation of tenofovir/emtricitabine with atazanavir/ritonavir or efavirenz.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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Increased risk of fractures and osteoporosis have been associated with the use of antiretroviral drugs. There is a paucity of prospective evaluations of bone markers after the initiation of drugs currently recommended to treat HIV infection and results on the evolution of these markers are conflicting. Lastly, the effect of tenofovir on 1,25-(OH)? vitamin D is uncertain.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.