Saguinus niger popularly known as Sauim, is a Brazilian North primate. Sympathetic chain investigation would support traumatic and/or cancer diagnosis which are little described in wild animals. The aim of this study was to describe the morphology and distribution of sympathetic chain in order to supply knowledge for neurocomparative research. Three female young animals that came death by natural causes were investigated. Animals were fixed in formaldehyde 10% and dissected along the sympathetic chain in neck, thorax and abdomen. Cranial cervical ganglion was located at the level of carotid bifurcation, related to carotid internal artery. In neck basis the vagosympathetic trunk divides into the sympathetic trunk and the parasympathetic vagal nerve. Sympathetic trunk ran in dorsal position and originated the stellate ganglia, formed by the fusion of caudal cervical and first thoracic ganglia. Vagal trunk laid ventrally to heart and formed the cardiac plexus. In abdomen, on the right side, were found the celiac ganglion and cranial mesenteric ganglion; in the left side these ganglia were fusioned into the celiac-mesenteric ganglion displaced closely to the celiac artery. In both sides, the caudal mesenteric ganglion was located near to the caudal mesenteric artery.
Saimiri sciureus is a New World non-human primate (NHP) that inhabits Brazilian rain forests. Surgical interventions in wild NHPs can be considered common both for experimental studies procedures and corrective procedures for endangered species. Among various anesthetic procedures, the epidural anesthesia or blockades, depending on the surgical procedure, might be considered elective for wild monkeys, mostly based on its safeness, efficiency and non-time consuming characteristics. However its safeness would be limiting because of the spinal cord arrangement. Notwithstanding the available former studies on New World NHP anatomy, the description of the medullar cone of Saimiri sciureus is still scarce. Therefore, we believe that the better understanding the medullar cone of Saimiri sciureus would contribute to improve the applicability of epidural procedures in the species. Vertebrae architecture of Saimiri sciureus was composed by 9 lumbar, 3 sacral and 18 coccygeal vertebrae, and the medullar cone measured about 3.3 cm. We can conclude that the conus medullaris in Saimiri sciureus is situated more caudally in comparison to other species.
Recently, superior cervical ganglionectomy has been performed to investigate a variety of scientific topics from regulation of intraocular pressure to suppression of lingual tumour growth. Despite these recent advances in our understanding of the functional mechanisms underlying superior cervical ganglion (SCG) growth and development after surgical ablation, there still exists a need for information concerning the quantitative nature of the relationships between the removed SCG and its remaining contralateral ganglion and between the remaining SCG and its modified innervation territory. To this end, using design-based stereological methods, we have investigated the structural changes induced by unilateral ganglionectomy in sheep at three distinct timepoints (2, 7 and 12 weeks) after surgery. The effects of time, and lateral (left-right) differences, were examined by two-way analyses of variance and paired t-tests. Following removal of the left SCG, the main findings were: (i) the remaining right SCG was bigger at shorter survival times, i.e. 74% at 2 weeks, 55% at 7 weeks and no increase by 12 weeks, (ii) by 7 weeks after surgery, the right SCG contained fewer neurons (no decrease at 2 weeks, 6% fewer by 7 weeks and 17% fewer by 12 weeks) and (iii) by 7 weeks, right SCG neurons were also larger and the magnitude of this increase grew substantially with time (no rise at 2 weeks, 77% by 7 weeks and 215% by 12 weeks). Interaction effects between time and ganglionectomy-induced changes were significant for SCG volume and mean perikaryal volume. These findings show that unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy has profound effects on the contralateral ganglion. For future investigations, it would be interesting to examine the interaction between SCGs and their innervation targets after ganglionectomy. Is the ganglionectomy-induced imbalance between the sizes of innervation territories the milieu in which morphoquantitative changes, particularly changes in perikaryal volume and neuron number, occur? Mechanistically, how would those changes arise? Are there any grounds for believing in a ganglionectomy-triggered SCG cross-innervation and neuroplasticity?
Parte superior do formulário Digite um texto ou endereço de um site ou traduza um documento. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological changes in lung parenchyma of pigs affected by interstitial lung disease induced after the infusion of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs). Ten female swines were submitted to pulmonary fibrosis induced by a single dose of intratracheal bleomicine sulfate. Animals were arranged into two groups: Group 1: induced-disease control and Group 2: cell therapy using BMMCs. Both groups were clinically evaluated for 180 days. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed at 90 and 180 days. BMMC sampling was performed in cell therapy group at 90 days. Euthanasia was performed, and samples were collected for histology and immunohistochemistry. The 90-days HRCT demonstrated typical interstitial lesions in pulmonary parenchyma similarly to human disease. The 180-days HRCT in Group 1 demonstrated advanced stages of the disease when compared with Group 2. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests the presence of pre-existent vessels and neoformed vessels as well as predominant young cells in the injured parenchyma of Group 2. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests that cell therapy would promote a reconstructive response. Histology and HRCT analysis suggest a positive application of swine as a model for a bleomicine inducing of fibrotic interstitial pulmonary disease.
Saimiri sciureus is one of the smallest Cebidae native of Amazon region and also found at the biological reserve of northeast Atlantic forest. It is an omnivore animal, with diversified diet that directly influences the lingual mucosa, which includes certain types of papillae with different organization levels. The present study attempted to describe the morphological and ultrastructure aspects of the dorsal surface of the S. sciureus. Five tongues of de S. sciureus were analyzed from three males and two females who died from natural causes and were obtained from breeding colonies of CENP-Ananindeua-PA. Main macroscopic features were a general triangular shape with a craniocaudal elongation pointed apex. Tissue samples--apex, body, and root of tongue--were fixed in modified Karnovsky solution, following standard scanning protocol, mounted in stubs, coated by gold, and analyzed by Scanning Electron Macroscopy (SEM). Four types of papillae were described: filiform (along all tissue extension with 154 ?m of diameter), fungiform (along all tissue extension with 272 ?m of diameter), vallate [just three units in caudal (dorsal) portion with 830 ?m of diameter] and foliate (one pair at caudolateral surface with ? 13 projections and 3000 ?m in length). Data analysis indicates that the distribution and ultra structural morphology of the S. sciureus lingual papillae are some similar to other primates.
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