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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Clinical evaluation of a line probe assay kit for the identification of Mycobacterium species and detection of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis].
Kekkaku
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) involves resistance to both isoniazid and rifampicin, which makes the treatment of tuberculosis very difficult. Extensive drug resistance (XDR) occurs when, in addition to isoniazid and rifampicin resistance, the microorganisms are resistant to a fluoroquinolone and an injectable agent (e.g., kanamycin, amikacin, or capreomycin). Generally, drug susceptibility testing takes more than 3-4 weeks after the initial cultivation. There is an urgent need to identify methods that can rapidly detect both the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the status of drug resistance.
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Doctors delay in endobronchial tuberculosis.
Kekkaku
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of doctors delay in diagnosing endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) and to elucidate the risk factors contributing to the delay.
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[Evaluation of tuberculosis treatment including levofloxacin (LVFX) in cases who could not continue standard regimen].
Kekkaku
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate tuberculosis treatment including levofloxacin (LVFX) and to investigate the effectiveness of changing drug regimens at our hospital.
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[A case of tuberculous pleurisy developing contralateral effusion during anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy].
Kekkaku
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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A 55-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of chest pain, fever, and right pleural effusion that was exudative and lymphocyte-dominant with a high level of adenosine deaminase (ADA). Since her blood QuantiFERON-TB 3G test (QFT) was positive, she was diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy. After initiation of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, her symptoms improved. Later, liquid culture of the pleural effusion turned positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. On the 18th day of treatment, her chest X-ray and computed tomography exhibited pleural effusion in a moderate amount in the left thorax, with subsiding pleural effusion in the right thorax. Thoracocentesis demonstrated that the left thorax effusion was also exudative and lymphocyte-dominant, with elevated QFT response and high ADA concentration, suggesting tuberculous pleurisy. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected in the culture of a left pleural biopsy specimen obtained by thoracoscopy. We assumed that the left pleural effusion was due to paradoxical worsening because (1) on admission no effusion or lung parenchymal lesion was detected in the left hemithorax, (2) on the 14th day of treatment she was afebrile without pleural effusion on both sides, and (3) the bacilli were sensitive to the drugs she had been taking regularly. We performed drainage of the left effusion and continued the same anti-tuberculosis drugs, which led to the elimination of all her symptoms and of the pleural effusion on both sides. In conclusion, paradoxical worsening should be included in the differential diagnosis when contralateral pleural effusion is detected during the treatment of tuberculosis.
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[Tuberculosis screening of foreigners in European, North-American, and Oceanian countries].
Kekkaku
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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To plan a tuberculosis control program of foreign-born people in Japan, we reviewed the policies of tuberculosis screening on entrance for immigrants and non-immigrant visitors other than refugees and asylum-seekers in European, North American and Oceanic countries.
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[A case of cold abscess of the chest wall due to thoracic drainage for tuberculous pleuritis].
Kekkaku
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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A 56-year-old man underwent thoracic drainage for two weeks for tuberculous pleuritis. He was put on antituberculosis chemotherapy with INH (400 mg), RFP (450 mg), and EB (750 mg). Two months later, he developed an elastic hard subcutaneous mass in the area of the previous thoracic drainage. The mass was 10 cm in diameter, warm, reddish and painful. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed localized and encapsulated empyema in the left thoracic space and a subcutaneous abscess with rim enhancement in the left lateral chest wall. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a dumbbell abscess in the subcutaneous tissue communicating with the empyema through the chest wall. A needle aspiration of the subcutaneous abscess had acid-fast bacilli smears of 2+ and tested positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thus, he was diagnosed with a cold abscess of the chest, with the empyema in the thoracic space draining into the chest wall through the cut for artificial drainage. Continuation of the anti-tuberculosis treatment and the drainage of the empyema with repeated aspiration reduced the subcutaneous mass, and the clinical and radiological course was favorable. Both the smear and culture for acid-fast test became negative. After completion of chemotherapy, there has been no disease recurrence.
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Identification of katG mutations associated with high-level isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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Isoniazid (INH) is an effective first-line antituberculosis drug. KatG, a catalase-peroxidase, converts INH to an active form in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and katG mutations are major causes of INH resistance. In the present study, we sequenced katG of 108 INH-resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates. Consequently, 9 novel KatG mutants with a single-amino-acid substitution were found. All of these mutants had significantly lower INH oxidase activities than the wild type, and each mutant showed various levels of activity. Isolates having mutations with relatively low activities showed high-level INH resistance. On the basis of our results and known mutations associated with INH resistance, we developed a new hybridization-based line probe assay for rapid detection of INH-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates.
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[Two cases of tuberculosis after treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with infliximab].
Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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We report two cases of tuberculosis (TB) after treatment with infliximab (IFX) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The first case, a 69-year-old woman with RA, developed miliary TB with acute respiratory distress syndrome 21 months after initiation of IFX therapy. Sputum samples revealed smears and cultures positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and also positive polymerase chain reaction for TB (PCR-TB); in addition urine samples were smear-negative and culture-positive for TB. She was treated with corticosteroid pulse therapy and anti-tuberculosis drugs, and recovered. The second case, a 51-year-old man with RA, had had contact with a tuberculosis patient four years after initiation of IFX therapy. One year later, he developed pulmonary and pleural tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected in the bronchial lavage fluid and pleural effusion (smear-negative and culture- and PCR-TB positive). He clinically improved by treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs. In both cases, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) tests revealed positive responses although the QuantiFERON TB-2G tests were not positive. We suggest that the ELISPOT test may be useful as a supportive diagnostic tool for tuberculosis in immunocompromised conditions including RA treated with a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitor.
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The value of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients whose pre-bronchoscopic sputum specimens were negative both for smear and PCR analyses.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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This study assessed the diagnostic rate of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) using fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBS) in patients with suspected PTB, and negative pre-bronchoscopy smear and polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) in sputum.
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Identification of MICA as a susceptibility gene for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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Host genetic susceptibility to adult pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease remains unknown. To identify genetic loci for the disease, we prepared 3 sets of pooled DNA samples from 300 patients and 300 sex-matched control subjects and genotyped 19,651 microsatellite markers in a case-control manner. D6S0009i-located in the MICA (major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A) gene, which encodes a ligand of the NKG2D receptor-had the lowest P value in pooled and individual DNA typing. The A6 allele of the microsatellite was significantly associated with female patients (P <. 001), whereas the classical HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 alleles did not show significant association. Functional analysis of allelic expression imbalance revealed that A6-derived messenger RNA was more highly expressed than non-A6-derived messenger RNA in human bronchial epithelial cells. MICA was expressed in bronchiolar epithelium, alveolar macrophages, and granulomatous lesions. These findings suggest that MICA might be one of the immune molecules affecting the pathogenesis of the disease.
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Prevalence and risk factors for tuberculosis infection among hospital workers in Hanoi, Viet Nam.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
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Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) to health care workers (HCWs) is a global issue. Although effective infection control measures are expected to reduce nosocomial TB, HCWs infection has not been assessed enough in TB high burden countries. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TB infection and its risk factors among HCWs in Hanoi, Viet Nam.
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Superiority of nebulized corticosteroids over dry powder inhalers in certain patients with cough variant asthma or cough-predominant asthma.
Allergol Int
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The particle distribution might differ between nebulizer therapy and metered-dose inhaler (MDI) or dry powder inhaler (DPI) therapy because the particles repeatedly enter/re-enter the airways with the nebulizer. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) were administered with a nebulizer to assess the benefit of changes in the distribution of particles in patients with cough variant asthma (CVA) and cough-predominant asthma (CPA).
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Association of SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) polymorphisms with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection.
Hum. Immunol.
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Although genetic variants in SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) have been associated with mycobacterial diseases, these findings have not been extensively validated in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. This study investigated the genomic structure of SLC11A1 and its association with MAC infection. Nineteen polymorphic loci were genotyped in European descendents and the Japanese population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) structures and frequencies of major haplotypes differed between these 2 populations. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen from the data set, and 6 polymorphic sites were genotyped in 122 pulmonary MAC cases and 211 controls from Japan. We observed that the T allele of rs2279014 in the 3 untranslated region was associated with protection from MAC disease when comparing allele frequencies with an odds ratio of 0.582 (95% confidence interval 0.379-0.894, p = 0.013). The frequencies of haplotypes constructed with the above 6 variants did not differ between cases and controls. Allele-specific expression imbalance of SLC11A1 mRNA was evaluated in peripheral blood cells from heterozygous individuals, but no difference was observed among haplotypes. Although the significance was modest, rs2279014 is in strong LD with nearby SNPs and further studies are required for conclusive validation.
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Inter-rater agreement in the assessment of abnormal chest X-ray findings for tuberculosis between two Asian countries.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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Inter-rater agreement in the interpretation of chest X-ray (CXR) films is crucial for clinical and epidemiological studies of tuberculosis. We compared the readings of CXR films used for a survey of tuberculosis between raters from two Asian countries.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.