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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
May the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and sporadic Parkinson's disease?
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Abstract The research group has detected nitrosative stress and a singular version of nitrosylated serum ?-synuclein in serum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland has been proposed to be linked to this disease. The aim of the study was to know if the thyroid gland is involved in idiopathic PD and nitrosative stress. We studied 50 patients (early and advanced disease patients), 35 controls, and 6 subjects with thyroidectomy. Clinical characteristics, serum thyroperoxidase levels, and 3-nitrotyrosine proteins were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting methods were employed. The findings indicated that the prevalence of two thyroid dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) was not found to be different in patients relative to controls. However, the levels of the enzyme thyroperoxidase were found to be elevated in early disease patients (p<0.006), not in advanced disease subjects, and these levels were negatively correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (p<0.05), the indicators of nitrosative stress. The thyroidectomized subjects showed very low levels of serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (78% reduction vs. controls) and, among these proteins, the nitrosylated serum ?-synuclein was nearly absent. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and they could influence Parkinsonian nitrosative stress as well as nitrosylation of serum ?-synuclein, a potentially pathogenic factor. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2143-2148.
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Esophageal atresia in patients with anorectal malformations.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The presence of esophageal atresia (EA) in patients with an anorectal malformation (ARM) is well known. The purpose of this work is to find out the most common type of ARM associated to EA and the functional prognostic implication of this association, which has not been described in previous publications.
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Examining the relationship between sex and motivation in triathletes.
Percept Mot Skills
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Summary.-The present paper assesses the relationship between sex and motivation in triathletes utilising a multidimensional measurement of motivation in sports. Data were collected from 138 triathlon participants (age range 17-72 years): 95 men (M = 36.7 yr., SD = 10.7) and 43 women (M = 34.6 yr., SD = 9.9). Measures included the Sport Motivation Scale, a multi-dimensional measure to assess different types of athletes' motivations for practising their sport. Results showed a significant sex difference in amotivation, with women displaying lower scores; but amotivation scores were very low. The results were not dependent on competition level or age. Men and women competing at the international level in triathlon have similar motivational profiles.
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Assessment of MAGE-A expression in resected non-small cell lung cancer in relation to clinicopathologic features and mutational status of EGFR and KRAS.
Cancer Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major public health problem, accounting for more cancer-related deaths than any other cancer. Both immunotherapy, based on the expression of tumor-specific antigens, and targeted therapy, based on the presence of oncogenic mutations, are under development for NSCLC. In this study, we analyzed the expression of MAGE-A, a cancer-testis antigen, in tumors from a cohort of patients with resected NSCLC with respect to their clinicopathologic characteristics and their mutational status for the EGFR and KRAS genes. We found MAGE-A expression by IHC in 43% of the tumors. MAGE-A expression was significantly more frequent in squamous tumors than in adenocarcinomas, did not correlate with disease stage, but was correlated significantly with high tumor grade and worse survival. EGFR and KRAS mutations were present in adenocarcinomas, but not in squamous tumors. Whereas the presence of EGFR mutations did not seem to affect survival, the presence of KRAS mutations was associated with early-stage disease and better survival. MAGE-A expression was absent from adenocarcinomas with KRAS mutations, but not significantly different in tumors with or without EGFR mutations. Together, the reported results provide guidance for the design of combination therapies in patients with NSCLC.
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Effects of acute and repeated cocaine on markers for neural plasticity within the mesolimbic system in rats.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Repeated cocaine is known to induce morphological changes in dopaminergic circuits that are known to participate on cocaine-induced addictive changes.
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PINK1 deficiency sustains cell proliferation by reprogramming glucose metabolism through HIF1.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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PTEN-induced kinase-1 (PINK1) is a Ser/Thr kinase implicated in familial early-onset Parkinson's disease, and was first reported as a growth suppressor. PINK1 loss-of-function compromises both mitochondrial autophagy and oxidative phosphorylation. Here we report that PINK1 deficiency triggers hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF1?) stabilization in cultured Pink1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and primary cortical neurons as well as in vivo. This effect, mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, led to the upregulation of the HIF1 target, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1, which inhibits PDH activity. Furthermore, we show that HIF1? stimulates glycolysis in the absence of Pink1, and that the promotion of intracellular glucose metabolism by HIF1? stabilization is required for cell proliferation in Pink1(-/-) mice. We propose that loss of Pink1 reprograms glucose metabolism through HIF1?, sustaining increased cell proliferation.
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Comparison of glucose tolerance tests to detect the insulin sensitizing effects of a bout of continuous exercise.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The aim of the present study was to determine which of the available glucose tolerance tests (oral (OGTT) vs. intravenous (IVGTT)) could more readily detect the insulin sensitizing effects of a bout of continuous exercise. Ten healthy moderately fit young men (V?O2peak of 45.4 ± 1.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); age 27.5 ± 2.7 yr) underwent 4 OGTT and 4 IVGTT on different days following a standardized dinner and overnight fast. One test was performed immediately after 55 min of cycle-ergometer exercise at 60% V?O2peak. Insulin sensitivity index was determined during a 50 min IVGTT according to Tura (CISI) and from a 120 min OGTT using the Matsuda composite index (MISI). After exercise, MISI improved 29 ± 10% without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.182) due to its low reproducibility (coefficient of variation 16 ± 3%; intra-class reliability 0.846). However, CISI significantly improved (50 ± 4%; p < 0.001) after exercise showing better reproducibility (coefficient of variation 13 ± 4%; intra-class reliability 0.955). Power calculation revealed that 6 participants were required for detecting the effects of exercise on insulin sensitivity when using IVGTT, whereas 54 were needed when using OGTT. The superior response of CISI compared with MISI suggests the preferential use of IVGTT to assess the effects of exercise on insulin sensitivity when using a glucose tolerance test.
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Distribution of tract deficits in schizophrenia.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Gray and white matter brain changes have been found in schizophrenia but the anatomical organizing process underlying these changes remains unknown. We aimed to identify gray and white matter volumetric changes in a group of patients with schizophrenia and to quantify the distribution of white matter tract changes using a novel approach which applied three complementary analyses to diffusion imaging data.
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Varicocele repair in severe oligozoospermia: A case report of post-operative azoospermia.
World J Clin Cases
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Varicocele has been implicated as a cause in 35%-50% of patients with primary infertility and up to 81% of men with secondary infertility. Although a large number of reports have shown improvement in the semen parameters after correction of varicocele, other studies have suggested no benefit. We report the first case of azoospermia after surgery in a young infertile male patient with left-sided varicocele and severe oligozoospermia undergoing laparoscopic varicocelectomy. A pregnancy was only achieved with assisted reproductive technology because semen cryopreservation was performed before surgery. In the light of the above, the deterioration of sperm count after varicocele repair in patients with severe oligozoospermia could be due to irreversible impairment of spermatogenesis of such patients, together with the possible temporary damage of the surgical repair. This possible complication could therefore turn the severe oligozoospermia into an indication to perform cryopreservation before surgery, on both clinical and medico-legal grounds. Further research is needed before drawing definitive conclusions regarding the management of varicocele-related severe oligozoospermia.
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Chlamydomonas?NZF1, a tandem-repeated zinc finger factor involved in nitrate signalling by controlling the regulatory gene NIT2.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii?NIT2 gene plays a central role in nitrate assimilation, thus, nit2 mutants are not able to sense or to use nitrate for growth. NIT2 protein is an RWP-RK-type transcriptional factor related to nodule inception (Nin, NLP) proteins from plants. NIT2 expression is down-regulated in ammonium and up-regulated under nitrogen deprivation. However, intracellular nitrate is required to activate NIT2 for subsequent expression of NIA1 and other nitrate assimilation genes. In this work, mutants defective in nitrate sensing have been studied. The identification of genomic regions affected allows proposing putative loci/genes for nitrate signalling in the alga. Among them, a CrNZF1 (Nitrate?Zinc?Finger 1) that encodes a tandem zinc finger protein CCCH-type. In the nzf1 mutant, the expression of the regulatory gene NIT2 is decreased and also that of nitrate assimilation genes. In this mutant, polyadenylated forms of NIT2 with different lengths could be detected, whereas in the wild type there appeared preferentially the longest forms. CrNZF1 is proposed to regulate NIT2 polyadenylation and thus nitrate signalling and nitrate-dependent growth in the alga.
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The transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 is localized at excitatory synapses in the mouse dentate gyrus.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that plays an important role in pain perception and modulates neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity in the brain. TRPV1 function must lay on its anatomical distribution in the peripheral and central nervous system regions involved in the physiological roles of the channel. However, the anatomical localization of TRPV1 is well established in the periphery, but in the brain it is a matter of debate. While some studies support the presence of TRPV1 in several brain regions, recent evidences suggest a restricted distribution of the channel in the central nervous system. To investigate to what extent central TRPV1 function stands on a precise brain distribution of the channel, we examined the mouse hippocampal dentate molecular layer (ML) where TRPV1 mediates long-term synaptic plasticity. Using pre-embedding immunocytochemistry for high resolution electron microscopy, we show that TRPV1 immunoparticles are highly concentrated in postsynaptic dendritic spines to asymmetric perforant path synapses in the outer 2/3 of the ML. However, TRPV1 is poorly expressed at the excitatory hilar mossy cell synapses in the inner 1/3 of this layer. Importantly, the TRPV1 pattern distribution disappeared in the ML of TRPV1-knockout mice. Taken together, these findings support the notion of the presence of TRPV1 in a brain region where the channel has been shown to have a functional role, such as the perforant path synapses in the hippocampal dentate ML.
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The effect of kinesio taping on calf pain and extensibility immediately after its application and after a duathlon competition.
Res Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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A sample of 34 duathlete volunteers was recruited from the competitors in a duathlon sprint. Calf pain and extensibility measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after taping, and 10-15 minutes after competition. Kinesio tape (KT) was applied on the calf of duathletes 20-90 minutes before the competition, only on one of their legs, with the other leg acting as a control. Repeated measures ANOVA results on calf extensibility did not show statistically significant differences [F(2) = 0.180; p = 0.836]. Nevertheless, Friedman test results on calf pain showed statistically significant differences [?(2)(2) = 10.111; p = 0.006]. Additionally, post hoc pairwise comparison showed statistically significant differences from baseline to after competition (p = 0.006). Applying KT on calves seems to reduce muscle pain produced by the competition among duathletes with no apparent musculoskeletal disorder. Kinesio tape (KT) application, however, does not affect the calf extensibility immediately and after a duathlon competition.
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The oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid, regulates neuronal energy metabolism.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Vitamin C is an essential factor for neuronal function and survival, existing in two redox states, ascorbic acid (AA), and its oxidized form, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). Here, we show uptake of both AA and DHA by primary cultures of rat brain cortical neurons. Moreover, we show that most intracellular AA was rapidly oxidized to DHA. Intracellular DHA induced a rapid and dramatic decrease in reduced glutathione that was immediately followed by a spontaneous recovery. This transient decrease in glutathione oxidation was preceded by an increase in the rate of glucose oxidation through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and a concomitant decrease in glucose oxidation through glycolysis. DHA stimulated the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the PPP. Furthermore, we found that DHA stimulated the rate of lactate uptake by neurons in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Thus, DHA is a novel modulator of neuronal energy metabolism by facilitating the utilization of glucose through the PPP for antioxidant purposes.
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Serotonin depletion induces 'waiting impulsivity' on the human four-choice serial reaction time task: cross-species translational significance.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Convergent results from animal and human studies suggest that reducing serotonin neurotransmission promotes impulsive behavior. Here, serotonin depletion was induced by the dietary tryptophan depletion procedure (TD) in healthy volunteers to examine the role of serotonin in impulsive action and impulsive choice. We used a novel translational analog of a rodent 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT)-- the human 4-CSRTT--and a reward delay-discounting questionnaire to measure effects on these different forms of 'waiting impulsivity'. There was no effect of TD on impulsive choice as indexed by the reward delay-discounting questionnaire. However, TD significantly increased 4-CSRTT premature responses (or impulsive action), which is remarkably similar to the previous findings of effect of serotonin depletion on rodent 5-CSRTT performance. Moreover, the increased premature responding in TD correlated significantly with individual differences on the motor impulsivity subscale of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale. TD also improved the accuracy of performance and speeded responding, possibly indicating enhanced attention and reward processing. The results suggest: (i) the 4-CSRTT will be a valuable addition to the tests already available to measure impulsivity in humans in a direct translational analog of a test extensively used in rodents; (ii) TD in humans produces a qualitatively similar profile of effects to those in rodents (ie, enhancing premature responding), hence supporting the conclusion that TD in humans exerts at least some of its effects on central serotonin; and (iii) this manipulation of serotonin produces dissociable effects on different measures of impulsivity, suggesting considerable specificity in its modulatory role.
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Brain metabolism during hallucination-like auditory stimulation in schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are typically characterized by rich emotional content. Despite the prominent role of emotion in regulating normal perception, the neural interface between emotion-processing regions such as the amygdala and auditory regions involved in perception remains relatively unexplored in AVH. Here, we studied brain metabolism using FDG-PET in 9 remitted patients with schizophrenia that previously reported severe AVH during an acute psychotic episode and 8 matched healthy controls. Participants were scanned twice: (1) at rest and (2) during the perception of aversive auditory stimuli mimicking the content of AVH. Compared to controls, remitted patients showed an exaggerated response to the AVH-like stimuli in limbic and paralimbic regions, including the left amygdala. Furthermore, patients displayed abnormally strong connections between the amygdala and auditory regions of the cortex and thalamus, along with abnormally weak connections between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by limbic-thalamic structures might be involved in the pathophysiology of AVH and may potentially account for the emotional features that characterize hallucinatory percepts in schizophrenia.
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The systemic administration of oleoylethanolamide exerts neuroprotection of the nigrostriatal system in experimental Parkinsonism.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and has been described to exhibit neuroprotective properties when administered locally in animal models of several neurological disorder models, including stroke and Parkinsons disease. However, there is little information regarding the effectiveness of systemic administration of OEA on Parkinsons disease. In the present study, OEA-mediated neuroprotection has been tested on in vivo and in vitro models of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OH-DA)-induced degeneration. The in vivo model was based on the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin 6-OH-DA, which generates Parkinsonian symptoms. Rats were treated 2 h before and after the 6-OH-DA treatment with systemic OEA (0.5, 1, and 5 mg/kg). The Parkinsonian symptoms were evaluated at 1 and 4 wk after the development of lesions. The functional status of the nigrostriatal system was studied through tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1, oxidation marker) immunostaining as well as by monitoring the synaptophysin content. In vitro cell cultures were also treated with OEA and 6-OH-DA. As expected, our results revealed 6-OH-DA induced neurotoxicity and behavioural deficits; however, these alterations were less severe in the animals treated with the highest dose of OEA (5 mg/kg). 6-OH-DA administration significantly reduced the striatal TH-immunoreactivity (ir) density, synaptophysin expression, and the number of nigral TH-ir neurons. Moreover, 6-OH-DA enhanced striatal HO-1 content, which was blocked by OEA (5 mg/kg). In vitro, 0.5 and 1 ? m of OEA exerted significant neuroprotection on cultured nigral neurons. These effects were abolished after blocking PPAR? with the selective antagonist GW6471. In conclusion, systemic OEA protects the nigrostriatal circuit from 6-OH-DA-induced neurotoxicity through a PPAR?-dependent mechanism.
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Enhanced cytotoxic activity of bile acid cisplatin derivatives by conjugation with gold nanoparticles.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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This article explores the potential cytotoxic activity of bile-acid cisplatin derivatives like bisursodeoxycholate(ethylenediamine)platinum(II), PtU2, when conjugated with gold nanoparticles, being a promising alternative to cisplatin in the treatment of cancer due to their lower toxicity. For our purpose we analyzed the intracellular delivery ability of these compounds after conjugation with 20-nm gold nanoparticles (PtU2-AuNPs) in the MG63 (osteosarcoma) cell line. Same platinum uptake after incubation with PtU2 and PtU2-AuNPs-derivatives is associated with a higher cytotoxic activity in case of the platinum-gold nanoparticle conjugate, the overall IC50 of PtU2 being reduced more than 10 fold for these new conjugates. When conjugated with gold nanoparticles, this bile-acid derivative is more efficient than the platinum compound alone in terms of their cytotoxic activity.
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Human papillomavirus genotypes in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with anal pathology in Madrid, Spain.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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We studied anal specimens to determine the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and co-infection occurrence. This information will contribute to the knowledge of HPV genotype distributions and provide an estimate of the prevalence of different oncogenic HPV genotypes found in patients in Madrid (Spain).
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Nitric oxide controls nitrate and ammonium assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Nitrate and ammonium are major inorganic nitrogen sources for plants and algae. These compounds are assimilated by means of finely regulated processes at transcriptional and post-translational levels. In Chlamydomonas, the expression of several genes involved in high-affinity ammonium (AMT1.1, AMT1.2) and nitrate transport (NRT2.1) as well as nitrate reduction (NIA1) are downregulated by ammonium through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. At the post-translational level, nitrate/nitrite uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) are also inhibited by ammonium, but the mechanisms implicated in this regulation are scarcely known. In this work, the effect of NO on nitrate assimilation and the high-affinity ammonium uptake was addressed. NO inhibited the high-affinity uptake of ammonium and nitrate/nitrite, as well as the NR activity, in a reversible form. In contrast, nitrite reductase and glutamine synthetase activities were not affected. The in vivo and in vitro studies suggested that NR enzyme is inhibited by NO in a mediated process that requires the cell integrity. These data highlight a role of NO in inorganic nitrogen assimilation and suggest that this signalling molecule is an important regulator for the first steps of the pathway.
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Molybdenum metabolism in plants.
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The viability of plants relies on molybdenum, which after binding to the organic moiety of molybdopterin forms the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and acquires remarkable redox properties. Moco is in the active site of critical molybdoenzymes, which use to work as small electron transport chains and participate in N and S metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, toxic compound transformations and other important processes not only in plants but also in all the other kingdoms of life. Molybdate metabolism in plants is reviewed here, with special attention to two main aspects, the different molybdate transporters that with a very high affinity participate in molybdenum acquisition and the recently discovered Moco enzyme amidoxime-reducing component. Their functionality is starting to be understood.
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Underestimation of the pentose-phosphate pathway in intact primary neurons as revealed by metabolic flux analysis.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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The rates of glucose oxidized at glycolysis and pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) in neurons are controversial. Using [3-(3)H]-, [1-(14)C]-, and [6-(14)C]glucose to estimate fluxes through these pathways in resting, intact rat cortical primary neurons, we found that the rate of glucose oxidized through PPP was, apparently, ?14% of total glucose metabolized. However, inhibition of PPP rate-limiting step, glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) dehydrogenase, increased approximately twofold the glycolytic rate; and, knockdown of phosphoglucose isomerase increased ?1.8-fold the PPP rate. Thus, in neurons, a considerable fraction of fructose-6-phosphate returning from the PPP contributes to the G6P pool that re-enters PPP, largely underestimating its flux.
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A unified nomenclature of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER family members in plants.
Trends Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Members of the plant NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER (NRT1/PTR) family display protein sequence homology with the SLC15/PepT/PTR/POT family of peptide transporters in animals. In comparison to their animal and bacterial counterparts, these plant proteins transport a wide variety of substrates: nitrate, peptides, amino acids, dicarboxylates, glucosinolates, IAA, and ABA. The phylogenetic relationship of the members of the NRT1/PTR family in 31 fully sequenced plant genomes allowed the identification of unambiguous clades, defining eight subfamilies. The phylogenetic tree was used to determine a unified nomenclature of this family named NPF, for NRT1/PTR FAMILY. We propose that the members should be named accordingly: NPFX.Y, where X denotes the subfamily and Y the individual member within the species.
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New Insights on the 7-azaindole Photophysics: The Overlooked Role of Its Non Phototautomerizable Hydrogen Bonded Complexes.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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In this paper we explore the formation and the photophysical properties of the scarcely studied open hydrogen bonded aggregates of 7-Azaindole, 7AI. Thus, we have analyzed the influence that the increase of the 7AI concentration and the decrease of the temperature have on the 7AI photophysics. To help the interpretation of the results, the 7AI-Pyridine system has been used as the model for the analysis of the photophysical properties attributable to the open Npyrrolic - HNpyridinic hydrogen bonded aggregates. Also, the hydrogen bond interactions have been studied by means of the atom in molecule approach from the Bader theory. Experimental and theoretical results support that the formation of open hydrogen bonded aggregates, (-7AI-)n with n???2 can efficiently compete with that of the profusely studied centro-symmetric cyclic dimer (7AI)2. Moreover, these aggregates suffer a proton-driven electron transfer process that strongly quenches their room temperature fluorescence and, therefore, masks their presence in the 7AI solutions. Therefore, because most of the studies on the 7AI photophysics have been interpreted without considering the existence of such aggregates and, more important, ignoring its quenching process, many conclusions obtained from these studies should be carefully revised.
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Paroxysmal movement disorders and episodic ataxias.
Handb Clin Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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This chapter summarizes clinical symptoms of some paroxysmal dyskinesias (PDs) of infancy and childhood, as well as episodic ataxias. PDs refer to a complex group of disorders whose main feature is the occurrence of sudden, intermittent attacks of abnormal postures and involuntary movements. PDs can sometimes be symptomatic (secondary PDs), but usually an underlying cerebral lesion is not present (primary PDs). Some of the primary PDs are transient, such as benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy. Chronic PDs are subdivided into nonkinesigenic (Mount and Reback type), kinesigenic (Kertesz type), and exercise-induced (Lance type) but cases that overlap with these types are on record. They are autosomal dominant inherited conditions. The myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 gene is responsible for nonkinesigenic PDs. To date, the genetic basis of kinesigenic PDs remains unknown. Several clinical entities associated epilepsy with PDs, such as infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA). Exercise-induced PD type can be produced by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene that encodes Glut1 (glucose transporter type1). Episodic ataxias are inherited disorders of intermittent ataxia. The attacks are brief and triggered by abrupt exercise and emotional stimulus. Between attacks, palpebral and hand muscle myokymia is often seen in episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1). In episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) interictal nystagmus is usually present. Some of these latter patients develop progressive ataxia with vermian atrophy. This disorder is associated with mutations in the human Ca channel alfa 1 subunit CACN1A4 gene.
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Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. Current users of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to past users (n=33) and never users (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases.
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Environmental circumstances influencing tic expression in children.
Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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To assess the clinical features and severity of tics and environmental factors influencing tic expression in a cohort of children with tic disorders.
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May the evaluation of nitrosative stress through selective increase of 3-nitrotyrosine proteins other than nitroalbumin and dominant tyrosine-125/136 nitrosylation of serum ?-synuclein serve for diagnosis of sporadic Parkinsons disease?
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Nitrosative stress, where nitrosylation of tyrosine (Tyr) leading to 3-nitrotyrosine proteins or free 3-nitrotyrosine is the most prominent change, has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism in Parkinsons disease (PD). Levels of 3-nitrotyrosine proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with PD have not been studied. Nitrosative stress-induced protein changes in serum and CSF were analyzed in patients with PD (n=54) and controls (n=40). Herein, we demonstrate the presence of nitrosative stress in serum and CSF of patients with early PD leading to selective increase of 3-nitrotyrosine proteins other than nitroalbumin, without free 3-nitrotyrosine (Hoehn-Yahr stage 1, p<0.05; stage 2, p<0.01). Among 3-nitrotyrosine proteins, nitro-?-synuclein (N-?Syn) was detected in serum, not CSF, and the sites of Tyr nitrosylation were observed to be modified in patients with early PD. Thus, the intensity of nitrosylation of Tyr125/136 residues is enhanced (stage 1, p<0.05; stage 2, p<0.01), and that of the Tyr39 site is reduced (stage 1, p<0.05), and the ratio between both parameters (?-synuclein with nitrosylated tyrosines 125 and 136 [N-?Syn-Tyr125/136]:?-synuclein with nitrosylated tyrosine 39 [N-?Syn-Tyr39] ratio) is significantly higher in patients with early PD (p<0.01). These observations lead to the hypothesis that evaluating nitrosative stress through enhanced levels of 3-nitrotyrosine proteins in serum and CSF without changes in nitroalbumin, together with the profile of tyrosine nitrosylation of serum ?Syn characterized by dominant nitrosylation of Tyr125/136, could serve for the diagnosis of sporadic PD.
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Effect of kinesio tape application on calf pain and ankle range of motion in duathletes.
J Hum Kinet
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the kinesio tape immediately after its application and after a duathlon competition on calf pain and the ankle range of motion in duathletes. A sample of 28 duathletes (age 29.11 ± 10.35 years; body height 172.57 ± 6.17 cm; body mass 66.63 ± 9.01 kg; body mass index 22.29 ± 2.00 kg/m(2)) were recruited from the competitors in a duathlon sprint. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after taping and 10 to 15 minutes after ending the duathlon competition. The kinesio tape was applied on the calf of duathletes 20 to 90 minutes before the competition, only on one of their legs (experimental leg) with the other leg acting as a control (control leg) in a randomized order. According to the between-group comparison, no differences were found immediately after the application of the kinesio tape and after the competition in the ankle range of motion and calf pain. However, a significant difference from baseline to immediately after taping was found in the ankle range of motion in the experimental leg. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf seems to immediately increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, but not after a duathlon competition. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf does not reduce muscle pain immediately or after a duathlon competition, but it appears to control an increase in pain.
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A vaginal drain of a pelvic abscess due to colonic diverticulitis.
World J Clin Cases
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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Although well recognized for tubo-ovarian abscesses, we report, in our best knowledge, the first case of a vaginal drain of a pelvic abscess due to colonic diverticulitis. A 78-year-old patient presented with abdominal and pelvic pain, fever (39.3?°C) and an elevated white blood cell count (18500/mL). After abdominopelvic computed tomography the patient was presumed to have a pelvic abscess, which developed as a complication of the sigmoid diverticulitis. Due to the numerous intervening structures that create obstacles to safe percutaneous access, we planned a trans-vaginal drain. A rapid recovery was obtained within 2 d from the procedure and, at present, the follow-up was uneventful after 18 mo. We believe that transvaginal drain of pelvic abscess could be a useful alternative, when percutaneous approach is not feasible.
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Oscillatory underpinnings of mismatch negativity and their relationship with cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Impairments in mismatch negativity (MMN) generation have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, underlying oscillatory activity of MMN deficits in schizophrenia and the relationship with cognitive impairments have not been investigated in detail. Time-frequency power and phase analyses can provide more detailed measures of brain dynamics of MMN deficits in schizophrenia.
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Testosterone in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naive men with nonaffective psychosis: a test of the accelerated aging hypothesis.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Schizophrenia has been associated with age-related abnormalities, including abnormal glucose tolerance, increased pulse pressure, increased inflammation, abnormal stem cell signaling, and shorter telomere length. These metabolic abnormalities and other findings suggest that schizophrenia and related disorders might be associated with accelerated aging. Testosterone activity has a progressive decline with increasing age.
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Prognostic influence of loss of blood group A antigen expression in pathologic stage I non-small-cell lung cancer.
Arch. Bronconeumol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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In the scientific literature, contradictory results has been published on the prognostic value of the loss of expression of blood group antigen A (BAA) in lung cancer. The objective of our study was to analyze this fact in our surgical series.
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The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii molybdenum cofactor enzyme crARC has a Zn-dependent activity and protein partners similar to those of its human homologue.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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The ARC (amidoxime reducing component) proteins are molybdenum cofactor (Moco) enzymes named hmARC1 and hmARC2 (human ARCs [hmARCs]) in humans and YcbX in Escherichia coli. They catalyze the reduction of a broad range of N-hydroxylated compounds (NHC) using reducing power supplied by other proteins. Some NHC are prodrugs or toxic compounds. YcbX contains a ferredoxin (Fd) domain and requires the NADPH flavin reductase CysJ to reduce NHC. In contrast, hmARCs lack the Fd domain and require a human cytochrome b5 (hCyt b5) and a human NADH Cyt b5 reductase (hCyt b5-R) to reduce NHC. The ARC proteins in the plant kingdom are uncharacterized. We demonstrate that Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants defective in Moco biosynthesis genes are sensitive to the NHC N(6)-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP). The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ARC protein crARC has been purified and characterized. The six Chlamydomonas Fds were isolated, but none of them are required by crARC to reduce HAP. We have also purified and characterized five C. reinhardtii Cyt b5 (crCyt b5) and two flavin reductases, one that is NADPH dependent (crCysJ) and one that is NADH dependent (crCyt b5-R). The data show that crARC uses crCyt b5-1 and crCyt b5-R to reduce HAP. The crARC has a Zn-dependent activity, and the presence of Zn increases its V(max) more than 14-fold. In addition, all five cysteines of crARC were substituted by alanine, and we demonstrate that the fully conserved cysteine 252 is essential for both Moco binding and catalysis. Therefore, it is proposed that crARC belongs to the sulfite oxidase family of Moco enzymes.
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Pharmacokinetics of a long-acting ceftiofur formulation (ceftiofur crystalline free acid) in the ball python (Python regius).
J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of a long-acting formulation of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) following intramuscular injection in ball pythons (Python regius). Six adult ball pythons received an injection of CCFA (15 mg/kg) in the epaxial muscles. Blood samples were collected by cardiocentesis immediately prior to and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 144, 192, 240, 288, 384, 480, 576, 720, and 864 hr after CCFA administration. Plasma ceftiofur concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was applied to the data. Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 7.096 +/- 1.95 microg/ml and occurred at (Tmax) 2.17 +/- 0.98 hr. The area under the curve (0 to infinity) for ceftiofur was 74.59 +/- 13.05 microg x h/ml and the elimination half-life associated with the terminal slope of the concentration-time curve was 64.31 +/- 14.2 hr. Mean residence time (0 to infinity) was 46.85 +/- 13.53 hr. CCFA at 15 mg/kg was well tolerated in all the pythons. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for bacterial isolates from snakes are not well established. For MIC values of < or =0.1 microg/ml, a single dose of CCFA (15 mg/kg) provides adequate plasma concentrations for at least 5 days in the ball python. For MICs > or =0.5 microg/ml, more frequent dosing or a higher dosage may be required.
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Mutations in HFE and TFR2 genes in a Spanish patient with hemochromatosis.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Iron overload disease has a wide variety of genotypes. The genetic study of this disease confirms its hereditary nature and enables us to provide genetic counseling for first-degree relatives. We performed magnetic resonance imaging and liver biopsy in an asymptomatic patient with more than 1,000 µg/L of serum ferritin and studied the genes involved in this condition. The phenotype of iron overload is confirmed by a predominantly periportal pattern of iron deposits in the liver suggestive of genetic disease. In the case we present the molecular study revealed a double heterozygosity for the mutations c.187C>G (p.H63D) and c.840C>G (p.F280L) in the HFE and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) genes, respectively.
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Spectral and photophysical properties of ?-carboline (1-azacarbazole) in aqueous solutions.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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The absorption and fluorescence spectra of ?-carboline, 9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole, AC, in organic aprotic solvents containing different water proportions and in acid/base aqueous solutions inside and outside the pH range have been examined. In the organic aprotic solvents, the addition of increasing concentrations of water sequentially quenches and shifts to the red the fluorescence spectra of AC. These spectral changes have been rationalized assuming the formation, at the lower water concentrations, of a discrete ground state non-cyclic weakly fluorescent AC hydrate emitting at 376 nm that, upon increasing the water concentrations, evolves to a higher order AC poly hydrate emitting at 397 nm. The changes of the AC absorption spectra in aqueous acid/basic solutions indicate the existence of three ground state prototropic species; the pyridinic protonated cation, C (pK(a) = 4.10 ± 0.05), the neutral, N (pK(a) = 14.5 ± 0.2), and the pyrrolic deprotonated anion, A. Conversely, the changes of the AC fluorescence spectra in these media indicate the existence of four excited state species emitting at 376 nm, 397 nm, 460 nm and 465 nm. Since the emissions at 376 nm and 397 nm satisfactorily match those of the hydrates observed in the organic-water mixtures, they were consistently assigned to two differently hydrated ground state N species. The remaining emissions at 460 nm and 465 nm have been assigned without ambiguity, on the basis of their excitation spectra, to the C and A species, respectively. The excited-state pK(a)s of the prototropic species of AC have been estimated by using the Förster-Weller cycle.
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Electronic spectra and photophysics of the ?-carboline (1-azacarbazole) monomer.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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The UV-vis electronic absorption and emission spectra of ?-carboline or 1-azacarbazole, 9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole, AC, have been investigated in aprotic solvents. Radiative, k(r), non-radiative, k(nr), rate constants and natural lifetimes, ?(N), of the AC monomer in hexane and acetonitrile, obtained from the experimentally determined fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes, have been compared with those theoretically estimated. The closeness between these experimental and theoretical data, the small Stokes shifts, the mirror image relationship between the absorption and fluorescence spectra and the close correspondence between the absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra, provide good evidences that the emission of AC monomer occurs directly from its lowest singlet excited state. The mono- and multi-parametric analyses of the AC solvatochromism indicate that the polarity-polarizability, the hydrogen bond donor and the hydrogen bond acceptor properties of the solvent preferentially stabilize the singlet excited over the ground state. These analyses also reveal that photoexcitation reinforces the hydrogen bond donor and acceptor properties of the AC, becoming the pyridinic nitrogen atom more basic and the pyrrolic group more acid.
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Molybdenum metabolism in the alga Chlamydomonas stands at the crossroad of those in Arabidopsis and humans.
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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Molybdenum (Mo) is a very scarce element whose function is fundamental in living beings within the active site of Mo-oxidoreductases, playing key roles in the metabolism of N, S, purines, hormone biosynthesis, transformation of drugs and xenobiotics, etc. In eukaryotes, each step from Mo acquisition until its incorporation into a biologically active molybdenum cofactor (Moco) together with the assembly of this Moco in Mo-enzymes is almost understood. The deficiency in function of a particular molybdoenzyme can be critical for the survival of the organism dependent on the pathway involved. However, incapacity in forming a functional Moco has a pleiotropic effect in the different processes involving this cofactor. A detailed overview of Mo metabolism: (a) specific transporters for molybdate, (b) the universal biosynthesis pathway for Moco from GTP, (c) Moco-carrier and Moco-binding proteins for Moco transfer and (d) Mo-enzymes, is analyzed in light of recent findings and three systems are compared, the unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas, the plant Arabidopsis and humans.
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Platinum complexes for multi-parametric assays using microarray systems.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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Here, we present a two novel fluorescent dyes ethylenediaminechlorocholylglycinateplatinum(II), [Pt(CG)Cl(en)] complex 1 and bisursodeoxycholate(ethylenediamine)platinum(II), [Pt(UDC)(2)(en)] complex 2 based on well-known cis-platin chemistry. These platinum complexes contain cholylglycinate (CG) and ursodeoxycholate (UDC) as ligands. These compounds enable qualitative detection of double-helix DNA and quantitative detection (from pg to ?g). These novel compounds have absorption and emission spectra in a difference range as the common ones (for example: cyanine dyes such as Cy3, Cy5, Cy7,…); therefore, it could allow the multi-parametric detection of DNA arrays, incrementing the capacity of experimental performance per one single array. As a consequence, it will increase the amount of data info obtained per chip. The combination of the intrinsic property of this compounds with the optical properties in different fluorescence channels, can allow introducing a new molecule with a wide range of possible applications in DNA arrays.
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Procedures for controlling the size, structure and optical properties of CdS quantum dots during synthesis in aqueous solution.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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We report an easy approach for the synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots (CdS QDs) with high luminescence and temporal stability through the reaction of Cd(2+) and S(2-) in the presence of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) as a capping reagent in aqueous medium, under normal pressure and room temperature. The influence of several experimental variables, including temperature, pH, the Cd/S ratio and the Cd/MAA ratio, on the optical properties of the QDs obtained was studied systematically. The experimental results indicate that these variables play an important role in determining the size and state of the surface of the nanoparticles, and hence their luminescent properties and temporal stability. The general aspects of nanocrystal nucleation and growth in the synthesis of nanocrystals were studied. The best conditions for the synthesis of nanoparticles of high quality are also reported. The CdS nanocrystals obtained exhibited a narrow PL band, with reproducible room-temperature quantum yields.
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Frequency of ectopic and supernumerary intrathymic parathyroid glands in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism: analysis of 461 patients undergoing initial parathyroidectomy with bilateral cervical thymectomy.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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The frequency of intrathymic parathyroid glands (IPGs) in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) varies considerably between 14.8% and 45.3%. Total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation and subtotal parathyroidectomy are the most accepted surgical procedures to treat patients with rHPT. However, routine bilateral cervical thymectomy (BCT) is still discussed, although controversially.
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Reverse genetics in Chlamydomonas: a platform for isolating insertional mutants.
Plant Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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A method was developed to identify insertional mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii disrupted for selected target genes. The approach relies on the generation of thousands of transformants followed by PCR-based screenings that allow for identification of strains harboring the introduced marker gene within specific genes of interest. Our results highlight the strengths and limitations of two independent screens that differed in the nature of the marker DNA used (PCR-amplified fragment containing the plasmid-free marker versus entire linearized plasmid with the marker) and in the strategies used to maintain and store transformants.
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Algae and humans share a molybdate transporter.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Almost all living organisms need to obtain molybdenum from the external medium to achieve essential processes for life. Activity of important enzymes such as sulfite oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and nitrate reductase is strictly dependent on the presence of Mo in its active site. Cells take up Mo in the form of the oxianion molybdate, but the molecular nature of the transporters is still not well known in eukaryotes. MOT1 is the first molybdate transporter identified in plant-type eukaryotic organisms, but it is absent in animal genomes. Here we report a molybdate transporter different from the MOT1 family, encoded by the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gene MoT2, that is also present in animals including humans. The knockdown of CrMoT2 transcription leads to the deficiency of molybdate uptake activity in Chlamydomonas. In addition, heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of MoT2 genes from Chlamydomonas and humans support the functionality of both proteins as molybdate transporters. Characterization of CrMOT2 and HsMOT2 activities showed an apparent Km of about 550 nM that, though higher than the Km reported for MOT1, still corresponds to high affinity systems. CrMoT2 transcription is activated when extracellular molybdate concentration is low but in contrast to MoT1 is not activated by nitrate. Analysis of protein databases revealed the presence of four motifs present in all the proteins with high similarity to MOT2, that label a previously undescribed family of proteins probably related to molybdate transport. Our results open the way toward the understanding of molybdate transport as part of molybdenum homeostasis and Moco biosynthesis in animals.
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Prolactin concentrations in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve patients with nonaffective psychosis.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Previous studies have found increased prolactin concentrations in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia. However, the roles of other hormones, and of potentially confounding variables such as gender and smoking, have not been considered.
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A 4-year dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging study in neuroleptic-naive first episode schizophrenia patients.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Alterations in the dopaminergic system have long been implicated in schizophrenia. A key component in dopaminergic neurotransmission is the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT). To date, there have been no longitudinal studies evaluating the course of DAT in schizophrenia. A 4-year follow-up study was therefore conducted in which single photon emission computed tomography was used to measure DAT binding in 14 patients and 7 controls. We compared the difference over time in [(123)I] FP-CIT striatal/occipital uptake ratios (SOUR) between patients and controls and the relationship between this difference and both symptomatology and functional outcome at follow-up. We also calculated the relationship between baseline SOUR, symptoms and functional outcome at follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences between patients SOUR changes over time and those of controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between patients SOUR changes over time and negative symptomatology at follow-up. A significant negative correlation was also found between baseline SOUR in patients and negative symptomatology, and there was a significant association between lower SOUR at baseline and poor outcome. Although the study found no overall differences in DAT binding during follow-up between schizophrenia patients and controls, it demonstrated that differences in DAT binding relate to patients characteristics at follow-up.
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Metabolic effects of olanzapine in patients with newly diagnosed psychosis.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Antipsychotic medications are associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Previous studies have also found an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the relatives of schizophrenia probands. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolic adverse effects of olanzapine in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed psychosis and minimal or no exposure to antipsychotics. Patients with newly diagnosed psychosis (n = 30) were enrolled in a 16-week open trial of olanzapine. Body mass index, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, fasting insulin, IL-6, and a fasting lipid profile were measured at baseline and at 4-week intervals. There was a significant, linear increase over time in fasting glucose (P = 0.043), weight (P < 0.001), body mass index (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.005), triglycerides (P = 0.003), and low-density lipoprotein (P = 0.013), but not hemoglobin A1c (P = 0.691), fasting insulin (P = 0.690), IL-6 (P = 0.877), or high-density lipoprotein (P = 0.446). An abnormal baseline IL-6 was a significant predictor of a greater increase in both total cholesterol (P < 0.01) and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.01). Otherwise, neither parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus nor baseline IL-6 predicted changes in metabolic measures. Changes in metabolic measures with olanzapine treatment can be detected early in the treatment of patients who are previously antipsychotic naive. The absence of a change in fasting insulin suggests a failure of pancreatic islet cells to compensate for the increase in fasting glucose.
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TITF-1 gene mutation in a case of sporadic non-progressive chorea. Response to levodopa treatment.
Brain Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by non-progressive chorea of early onset, without other underlying progressive neurologic dysfunction. Hypothyroidism and pulmonary problems may also be associated. Recently, mutations in the thyroid transcription factor 1 gene (TITF-1), linked to chromosome 14q, have been related to this disorder. We describe the clinical phenotype and response to levodopa treatment in a 6 year-old girl affected with sporadic non-progressive chorea, and a de novo TITF-1 gene mutation, in order to increase understanding of this rare and misdiagnosed disorder.
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Prognostic influence of the third Gleason grade in prostatectomy specimens.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Gleason grading of prostatic specimens remains as one of the most powerful factors predicting prognosis in patients with prostate cancer. This grading system was created by Donald Gleason about 49 years ago and it takes into account the 2 most prevalent grades in the tumor sample, but it does not consider the presence of a third high grade pattern when it represents less than 5% of the whole radical prostatectomy specimen.
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[Preventive cardiology and cardiac rehabilitation].
Rev Esp Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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The Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation Section of the Spanish Society of Cardiology provides the principal national reference point for scientific knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors in the Spanish population, about the incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Spain, and about disease prevention and the use of cardiac rehabilitation to improve the quality of life and prolong the survival of individuals already affected by the disease. By necessity, research into cardiovascular prevention involves sponsoring the implementation of studies into cardiovascular risk factors and disease occurrence. The MESYAS study is a good example. It is the fruit of the combined efforts of members of the metabolic syndrome working group belonging to our Section of the Spanish Society of Cardiology and its aim was to answer a number of unresolved questions that had arisen about the incidence, prevalence and consequences of cardiovascular disease in the Spanish population. Today, after this cohort has been followed up for more than 5 years, the first analysis of the cardiovascular events that occurred in the cohort and their relationship with individual risk factors observed many years previously has become available. Here, the metabolic syndrome working group reports some interesting findings. With the aim of communicating up-to-date information that has undergone expert review, the coordinator of the cardiac rehabilitation working group has the responsibility of summarizing, evaluating and updating the scientific data available on the important subject of the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
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Differential brain glucose metabolic patterns in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia with and without auditory verbal hallucinations.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Previous reports on neural activity patterns associated with AVHs are inconsistent, arguably owing to the lack of an adequate control group (i.e., patients with similar characteristics but without AVHs) and neglect of the potential confounding effects of medication.
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Transcriptional regulation of CDP1 and CYG56 is required for proper NH4+ sensing in Chlamydomonas.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
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The assimilation of inorganic nitrogen is an essential process for all plant-like organisms. In the presence of ammonium and nitrate as nitrogen sources, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii preferentially assimilates ammonium and represses the nitrate assimilation pathway through an unknown mechanism that in part involves the guanylate cyclase CYG56. It is demonstrated that cells not only respond quantitatively to the NH(4)(+) signal but are also able to sense a balance between both nitrogen sources. This quantitative response was altered in a collection of mutants that were partially insensitive to NH(4)(+). In one of these mutants, reduced function of a gene named CDP1 encoding a cysteine domain-containing protein was genetically linked to NH(4)(+) insensitivity. Alteration of CYG56 or CDP1 transcription was detected in several mutants, and combined down-regulation of both genes seemed to enhance the incapacity to sense NH(4)(+) properly. These results suggest that transcriptional regulation of CYG56 and CDP1 are central and independent steps of the NH(4)(+) signalling pathway.
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Lung carcinoma with rhabdoid component. A series of seven cases associated with uncommon types of non-small cell lung carcinomas and alveolar entrapment.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Rhabdoid tumor, included in the WHO classification among large cell carcinomas of the lung, is an uncommon type of lung carcinoma with poor prognosis. We report a series of 7 cases of lung carcinomas with rhabdoid component in 10% and 80% of the tumor. The associated tumor was adenocarcinoma in 3 cases--one of them with focal micropapillary pattern--large cell carcinoma in 2 cases, squamous cell carcinoma in 1 case and pleomorphic carcinoma in 1 case. Two adenocarcinomas showed a focal spindle cell component. Micropapillary and pleomorphic types had not been reported before as a component associated with rhabdoid carcinomas. All cases were positive for vimentin, and AE1/AE3 cytokeratin and 5 cases for cytokeratin 7. All cases were negative for muscle and endothelial markers and for chromogranin A. Synaptophysin was focally positive only in one case. Alveolar trapping inside the tumor was present in 3 cases--a phenomenon not well studied in lung carcinomas and also not reported in tumors with rhabdoid component. Five patients died because of the tumor within 2 to 31 months after diagnosis, one of myocardial infarction and only one is alive and disease free 123 months after the diagnosis. In summary, we describe 7 new cases of this uncommon lung tumor with aggressive clinical course, associated with infrequent histological types in nonrhabdoid component and with alveolar trapping, a nondescribed finding.
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Response to methadone maintenance treatment is associated with the MYOCD and GRM6 genes.
Mol Diagn Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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There is increasing interest in the pharmacogenetic basis for explaining differences between patients in treatment outcome among methadone-treated subjects. Most studies have focused on genetic polymorphisms related to methadone pharmacokinetics and, to a lesser extent, those genes implicated in the pharmacodynamics of methadone.
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Is abnormal glucose tolerance in antipsychotic-naive patients with nonaffective psychosis confounded by poor health habits?
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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Some but not all previous studies have found abnormal glucose tolerance or fasting glucose concentrations in antipsychotic-naïve patients with nonaffective psychosis. Our finding of abnormal glucose tolerance in patients with nonaffective psychosis could not be attributed to confounding by age, ethnicity, gender, smoking, socioeconomic status (SES), hypercortisolemia, or body mass index (BMI). However, other factors merit consideration as potential confounders of this association.
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Antiparkinsonian trophic action of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and transforming growth factor ?1 is enhanced after co-infusion in rats.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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The objective was to analyze functional effects of the combination of GDNF and TGF-?1 in the retrograde model of Parkinsonism in rats, based on the intrastriatal infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine, which leads to protracted and progressive cell death in the substantia nigra. Hemiparkinsonian rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps 2 months after striatal lesion, pumps delivering GDNF alone (10 ng/day), TGF-?1 alone (2 ng/day), or a GDNF and TGF-?1 combination. The findings confirmed that GDNF alone has potent dopaminotrophic effects but they also revealed, for the first time, that GDNF and TGF-?1 co-infusion led to stronger trophic effects relative to the infusion of GDNF alone. TGF-?1 allowed further reducing dopamine receptor hypersensitivity, and potentiated GDNF-mediated effects. This cooperation could be accounted for by the recruitment of GFR?1 on striatal membranes, and by enhanced expression and activation of TH through augmented pSer31TH and pSer40TH. Co-infusion induced striatal sprouting, as revealed by augmentation of p21-Arc, stathmin, and synaptophysin, and led to a reliable recovery of phenotypic expression of TH in surviving nigral neurons. Functional recovery and improvement of TH signal in the nigrostriatal system were long-lasting and sustained, remaining after cessation of trophic infusion.
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Sensitization to cocaine is inhibited after intra-accumbal GR103691 or rimonabant, but it is enhanced after co-infusion indicating functional interaction between accumbens D(3) and CB1 receptors.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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Dopamine D(3) receptors and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors are both expressed in the nucleus accumbens, and they have been involved in motor sensitization to cocaine. The objectives were: (1) to study the effects of blockade of these receptors on sensitization to repeated cocaine, by using GR103691, D(3) receptor blocker, and rimonabant, CB(1) receptor ligand, and (2) to discern if both receptors interact by co-infusing them.
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A soluble guanylate cyclase mediates negative signaling by ammonium on expression of nitrate reductase in Chlamydomonas.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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Nitrate assimilation in plants and related organisms is a highly regulated and conserved pathway in which the enzyme nitrate reductase (NR) occupies a central position. Although some progress has been made in understanding the regulation of the protein, transcriptional regulation of the NR gene (NIA1) is poorly understood. This work describes a mechanism for the ammonium-mediated repression of NIA1. We report the characterization of a mutant defective in the repression of NIA1 and NR in response to ammonium and show that a gene (CYG56) coding for a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent guanylate cyclase (GC) was interrupted in this mutant. NO donors, cGMP analogs, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and a calcium ionophore (A23187) repress the expression of NIA1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii wild-type cells and also repress the expression of other ammonium-sensitive genes. In addition, the GC inhibitors LY83,583 (6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione) and ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) release cells from ammonium repression. Intracellular NO and cGMP levels were increased in the presence of ammonium in wild-type cells. In the cyg56 mutant, NIA1 transcription was less sensitive to NO donors and A23187, but responded like the wild type to IBMX. Results presented here suggest that CYG56 participates in ammonium-mediated NIA1 repression through a pathway that involves NO, cGMP, and calcium and that similar mechanisms might be occurring in plants.
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Role of wettability and nanoroughness on interactions between osteoblast and modified silicon surfaces.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Development of new biomaterials is a constant in regenerative medicine. A biomaterials surface properties, such as wettability, roughness, surface energy, surface charge, chemical functionalities and composition, are determinants of cell adhesion and subsequent tissue behavior. Thus, the main aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between changes in wettability without topographical variation and the response of osteoblast-like cells. For this purpose oxidized silicon surfaces were methylated to different degrees. Additionally, the influence of nanoroughness, and the subsequent effect of hysteresis on cell behavior, was also analyzed. In this case oxidized silicon pieces were etched with caustic solutions to produce different degrees of nanoroughness. Axisymmetric drop-shape analysis and atomic force microscopy confirmed that the proposed surface treatments increased the nanometer roughness and/or the water contact angles. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the altered surfaces to study proliferation, and for ultrastructural analysis and immunocytochemical characterization. Increasing the nanometer surface roughness or water contact angle enhanced osteoblast behavior in terms of cell morphology, proliferation and immunophenotype, the effect provoked by methylation being more significant than that caused by nanoroughness.
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An economic comparison of surgical and medical therapy in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism--the German perspective.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2010
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Treatment options for secondary hyperparathyroidism were significantly amended with the introduction of cinacalcet and paricalcitol. Limitations of resources in public health systems demand detailed analyses of accruing costs. The aim of this study was to compare the costs of these new treatment modalities to surgery.
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Cholesterol and triglycerides in antipsychotic-naive patients with nonaffective psychosis.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2010
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Patients with psychosis have an increased prevalence of hyperlipidemia. We compared fasting concentrations of lipids in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naïve patients with nonaffective psychosis (N=87) and control subjects (N=92). After accounting for gender, age, smoking, socioeconomic status, and body mass index, there was no significant difference between the two groups in total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, or triglycerides.
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Monitoring copper toxicity in natural phytoplankton assemblages: application of Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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Four experiments were conducted with natural coastal phytoplankton assemblages exposed to [Cu] within the range 5-80 microg L(-1). The effect of Cu on several biological variables such as chlorophyll a concentration, particle size distribution, O2-production and fluorescence variables recorded by a Fast Repetition Rate fluorometer was monitored during 72 h. Variable fluorescence (Fv) was the most sensitive and rapid among all the variables tested. This work contributes to reinforce the use of fluorescence endpoints in ecotoxicological studies by proving their ecological relevance through relationships found between fluorescence and population-level responses as growth rate and gross O2 production. The lowest calculated EC10 was 2.65 microg L(-1), concentration commonly exceeded in polluted waters.
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Regulation by light of ammonium transport systems in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is able to take up methylammonium/ammonium from the medium at different stages of its sexual life cycle. Vegetative cells and pre-gametes mostly used a low-affinity system (LATS) component, but gametes obtained after light treatment of N-deprived pre-gametes expressed both LATS and high-affinity system (HATS) components for the uptake of methylammonium/ammonium. The activity of the LATS component was stimulated by light in only 5 min in a process independent of protein synthesis. By using the lrg6 mutant that produces sexually competent gametes in the dark, light effects on ammonium transport and gamete differentiation have been separately analysed. We have found light regulation of four Amt1 genes: Amt1; 1, Amt1; 2, Amt1; 4 and Amt1; 5. Whereas light-dependent expression of Amt1; 1, Amt1; 2 and Amt1; 4 was independent of gametogenesis, and that of Amt1; 5 was activated in the lrg6 mutant, suggesting a connection between this transporter and the subsequent events taking place during gametogenesis.
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Optimal microvessel density from composite graft of autogenous maxillary cortical bone and anorganic bovine bone in sinus augmentation: influence of clinical variables.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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The objectives of this study were to assess the microvessel density (MVD) of intra-sinus grafts after 6 months of wound healing and to study the relationship between revascularization processes and patient clinical variables and habits.
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Pharmacokinetic and milk penetration of a difloxacin long-acting poloxamer gel formulation with carboxy-methylcellulose in lactating goats.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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The single-dose disposition kinetics of difloxacin were determined in clinically normal lactating goats (n=6) after subcutaneous administration of a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation with carboxy-methylcellulose (P407-CMC). Difloxacin concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The concentration-time data were analysed by non-compartmental kinetic methods. Plasma and milk elimination half-lives after P407-CMC dosing were 35.19 h and 33.93 h, respectively. With this formulation, difloxacin achieved maximum plasma concentrations of 2.67±0.34 mg/L at 2.92±1.20 h and maximum milk concentrations of 2.31±0.35 mg/L at 4.00±0.00 h. The area under the curve (AUC) ratio AUC(milk)/AUC(plasma) was 0.89 after P407-CMC administration. It was concluded that a 15 mg/kg dose of difloxacin within P407-CMC would be effective against mastitis pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)?0.12 mg/L.
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Childhood chorea with cerebral hypotrophy: a treatable GLUT1 energy failure syndrome.
Arch. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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To expand the spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndromes with a novel clinical and radiological phenotype not associated with microcephaly.
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Syndrome of fixed dystonia in adolescents--short term outcome in 4 cases.
Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2009
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We describe the clinical features, investigations and outcome of 4 adolescents aged 13, 16, 17 and 19 years, with fixed dystonia. The diagnosis was made within 6 months of the onset of symptoms. One patient had an identifiable traumatic precipitant. All the affected extremities had pain, sudomotor and vascular changes which were consistent with complex regional pain syndrome. The extremities affected by dystonia were the foot and the hand. The dystonia spread to affect other extremities in one patient. One patient had hemifacial spasm. Examination of the central and peripheral nervous system and allied investigations failed to reveal an organic cause. Common genetic causes for dystonia were excluded. The response to physical treatments for the affected extremities, such as Botulinum Toxin and surgery was poor. In all our cases there were significant psychological and psychiatric factors. Three patients fully met the criteria for psychogenic dystonia and responded well to psychological intervention. Fixed dystonia in adolescents is an uncommon disorder of unknown aetiology, usually presenting in girls, which can be very disabling and difficult to treat. The affected parts of the body are usually painful and show vascular changes. The condition is allied to CRPS. Treatment with multidisciplinary approach including psychological measures and physiotherapy is more likely to be successful and may prevent unnecessary physical measures.
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Experience with intravenous levetiracetam in status epilepticus: a retrospective case series.
CNS Drugs
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
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Status epilepticus is a medical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
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Histomorphometric comparison of maxillary pristine bone and composite bone graft biopsies obtained after sinus augmentation.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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Sinus grafting is a technique oriented to facilitate implant placement in posterior atrophic maxillae. Several modifications of the original technique and a wide variety of materials have been proposed; most of them associated with implant survival rates. However, the quality of the bone obtained after the application of certain grafting materials has not been fully elucidated yet. The aims of this multicenter study were to analyse histomorphometrical samples obtained 6 months after sinus grafting using a composite graft consisting of anorganic bovine bone (ABB)+ autologous bone (AB), and to compare these samples with maxillary pristine bone biopsies.
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Sildenafil as a protecting drug for warm ischemic kidney transplants: experimental results.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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In an experimental model we studied the protective effects of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil on kidney grafts autotransplanted after 45 minutes of warm ischemia by vascular clamping, nephrectomy and 60 minutes of isolated hypothermic pump perfusion.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.