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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Flavonoid apigenin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response through multiple mechanisms in macrophages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Apigenin is a non-toxic natural flavonoid that is abundantly present in common fruits and vegetables. It has been reported that apigenin has various beneficial health effects such as anti-inflammation and chemoprevention. Multiple studies have shown that inflammation is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, diabetes, sepsis, various liver diseases, and other metabolic diseases. Although it has been long realized that apigenin has anti-inflammatory activities, the underlying functional mechanisms are still not fully understood.
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Dynamics of Japanese encephalitis virus transmission among pigs in Northwest Bangladesh and the potential impact of pig vaccination.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus infection can cause severe disease in humans, resulting in death or permanent neurologic deficits among survivors. Studies indicate that the incidence of JE is high in northwestern Bangladesh. Pigs are amplifying hosts for JE virus (JEV) and a potentially important source of virus in the environment. The objectives of this study were to describe the transmission dynamics of JEV among pigs in northwestern Bangladesh and estimate the potential impact of vaccination to reduce incidence among pigs.
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Outbreak of hepatitis E in urban bangladesh resulting in maternal and perinatal mortality.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes outbreaks of jaundice associated with maternal mortality. Four deaths among pregnant women with jaundice occurred in an urban community near Dhaka, Bangladesh, in late 2008 and were reported to authorities in January 2009. We investigated the etiology and risk factors for jaundice and death.
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Roosting behaviour and habitat selection of Pteropus giganteus reveals potential links to Nipah virus epidemiology.
J Appl Ecol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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1. Flying foxes Pteropus spp. play a key role in forest regeneration as seed dispersers and are also the reservoir of many viruses, including Nipah virus in Bangladesh. Little is known about their habitat requirements, particularly in South Asia. Identifying Pteropus habitat preferences could assist in understanding the risk of zoonotic disease transmission broadly, and in Bangladesh, could help explain the spatial distribution of human Nipah virus cases. 2. We analysed characteristics of Pteropus giganteus roosts and constructed an ecological niche model to identify suitable habitat in Bangladesh. We also assessed the distribution of suitable habitat in relation to the location of human Nipah virus cases. 3. Compared to non-roost trees, P. giganteus roost trees are taller with larger diameters, and are more frequently canopy trees. Colony size was larger in densely forested regions and smaller in flood-affected areas. Roosts were located in areas with lower annual precipitation and higher human population density than non-roost sites. 4. We predicted that 2-17% of Bangladesh's land area is suitable roosting habitat. Nipah virus outbreak villages were 2.6 times more likely to be located in areas predicted as highly suitable habitat for P. giganteus compared to non-outbreak villages. 5. Synthesis and applications. Habitat suitability modelling may help identify previously undocumented Nipah outbreak locations and improve our understanding of Nipah virus ecology by highlighting regions where there is suitable bat habitat but no reported human Nipah virus. Conservation and public health education is a key component of P. giganteus management in Bangladesh due to the general misunderstanding and fear of bats that are a reservoir of Nipah virus. Affiliation between Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and people is common throughout their range, and in order to conserve these keystone bat species and prevent emergence of zoonotic viruses, it is imperative that we continue to improve our understanding of Pteropus resource requirements and routes of virus transmission from bats to people. Results presented here can be utilized to develop land management strategies and conservation policies that simultaneously protect fruit bats and public health.
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Incidence of and risk factors for hospital-acquired diarrhea in three tertiary care public hospitals in Bangladesh.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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During April 2007-April 2010, surveillance physicians in adult and pediatric medicine wards of three tertiary public hospitals in Bangladesh identified patients who developed hospital-acquired diarrhea. We calculated incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea. To identify risk factors, we compared these patients to randomly selected patients from the same wards who were admitted > 72 hours without having diarrhea. The incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea was 4.8 cases per 1,000 patient-days. Children < 1 year of age were more likely to develop hospital-acquired diarrhea than older children. The risk of developing hospital-acquired diarrhea increased for each additional day of hospitalization beyond 72 hours, whereas exposure to antibiotics within 72 hours of admission decreased the risk. There were three deaths among case-patients; all were infants. Patients, particularly young children, are at risk for hospital-acquired diarrhea and associated deaths in Bangladeshi hospitals. Further research to identify the responsible organisms and transmission routes could inform prevention strategies.
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Piloting the promotion of bamboo skirt barriers to prevent Nipah virus transmission through date palm sap in Bangladesh.
Glob Health Promot
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Drinking raw date palm sap contaminated with infected fruit bat saliva or urine is an important mode of Nipah virus transmission to humans in Bangladesh. Bamboo skirts are an effective way to interrupt bat access to the sap. We conducted a study from November 2008 to March 2009 to explore the effectiveness of higher- and lower-intensity interventions by promoting bamboo skirt preparation and use among sap harvesters (gachhis). We spent 280 person-hours in two villages for the higher-intensity intervention and half that amount of time in two other villages for the lower-intensity intervention. To evaluate the interventions we followed up all gachhis once a month for three months. A high percentage of gachhis (83% in higher-, 65% in lower-intensity interventions) prepared and used a skirt of bamboo or other materials - jute stalk, dhoincha (Sesbania aculeata), or polythene - at least once after intervention. In general, 15% of gachhis consistently used skirts throughout the sap collection season. The intensive nature of this intervention is very expensive for a large-scale programme. Future efforts should focus on developing a low-cost behaviour change intervention and evaluate if it reduces the human exposure to potentially contaminated fresh date palm sap.
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Colonic inflammation and secondary bile acids in alcoholic cirrhosis.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Alcohol abuse with/without cirrhosis is associated with an impaired gut barrier and inflammation. Gut microbiota can transform primary bile acids (BA) to secondary BAs, which can adversely impact the gut barrier. The purpose of this study was to define the effect of active alcohol intake on fecal BA levels and ileal and colonic inflammation in cirrhosis. Five age-matched groups {two noncirrhotic (control and drinkers) and three cirrhotic [nondrinkers/nonalcoholics (NAlc), abstinent alcoholic for >3 mo (AbsAlc), currently drinking (CurrAlc)]} were included. Fecal and serum BA analysis, serum endotoxin, and stool microbiota using pyrosequencing were performed. A subgroup of controls, NAlc, and CurrAlc underwent ileal and sigmoid colonic biopsies on which mRNA expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were performed. One hundred three patients (19 healthy, 6 noncirrhotic drinkers, 10 CurrAlc, 38 AbsAlc, and 30 NAlc, age 56 yr, median MELD: 10.5) were included. Five each of healthy, CurrAlc, and NAlc underwent ileal/colonic biopsies. Endotoxin, serum-conjugated DCA and stool total BAs, and secondary-to-primary BA ratios were highest in current drinkers. On biopsies, a significantly higher mRNA expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and Cox-2 in colon but not ileum was seen in CurrAlc compared with NAlc and controls. Active alcohol use in cirrhosis is associated with a significant increase in the secondary BA formation compared with abstinent alcoholic cirrhotics and nonalcoholic cirrhotics. This increase in secondary BAs is associated with a significant increase in expression of inflammatory cytokines in colonic mucosa but not ileal mucosa, which may contribute to alcohol-induced gut barrier injury.
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Economic burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Bangladesh during 2010.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Understanding the costs of influenza-associated illness in Bangladesh may help health authorities assess the cost-effectiveness of influenza prevention programs. We estimated the annual economic burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Bangladesh.
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Indoor exposure to particulate matter and age at first acute lower respiratory infection in a low-income urban community in Bangladesh.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The timing of a child's first acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is important, because the younger a child is when he or she experiences ALRI, the greater the risk of death. Indoor exposure to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has been associated with increased frequency of ALRI, but little is known about how it may affect the timing of a child's first ALRI. In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between a child's age at first ALRI and indoor exposure to PM2.5 in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We followed 257 children from birth through age 2 years to record their age at first ALRI. Between May 2009 and April 2010, we also measured indoor concentrations of PM2.5 in children's homes. We used generalized gamma distribution models to estimate the relative age at first ALRI associated with the mean number of hours in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 µg/m(3). Each hour in which PM2.5 levels exceeded 100 µg/m(3) was independently associated with a 12% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2, 21; P = 0.021) in age at first ALRI. Interventions to reduce indoor exposure to PM2.5 could increase the ages at which children experience their first ALRI in this urban community.
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Febrile illness and pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with lower neurodevelopmental scores in Bangladeshi infants living in poverty.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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An estimated one-third of children younger than 5 years in low- and middle-income countries fail to meet their full developmental potential. The first year of life is a period of critical brain development and is also when most of the morbidity from infection is suffered. We aimed to determine if clinical and biological markers of inflammation in the first year of life predict cognitive, language, and motor outcomes in children living in an urban slum in Bangladesh.
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Multiple reassortment events among highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses detected in Bangladesh.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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In Bangladesh, little is known about the genomic composition and antigenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses, their geographic distribution, temporal patterns, or gene flow within the avian host population. Forty highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from humans and poultry in Bangladesh between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed by full genome sequencing and antigenic characterization. The analysis included viruses collected from avian hosts and environmental sampling in live bird markets, backyard poultry flocks, outbreak investigations in wild birds or poultry and from three human cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ancestors of these viruses reassorted (1) with other gene lineages of the same clade, (2) between different clades and (3) with low pathogenicity avian influenza A virus subtypes. Bayesian estimates of the time of most recent common ancestry, combined with geographic information, provided evidence of probable routes and timelines of virus spread into and out of Bangladesh.
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Family caregivers in public tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh: risks and opportunities for infection control.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Family caregivers are integral to patient care in Bangladeshi public hospitals. This study explored family caregivers' activities and their perceptions and practices related to disease transmission and prevention in public hospitals.
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Reduction of the HIV protease inhibitor-induced ER stress and inflammatory response by raltegravir in macrophages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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HIV protease inhibitor (PI), the core component of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) for HIV infection, has been implicated in HAART-associated cardiovascular complications. Our previous studies have demonstrated that activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is linked to HIV PI-induced inflammation and foam cell formation in macrophages. Raltegravir is a first-in-its-class HIV integrase inhibitor, the newest class of anti-HIV agents. We have recently reported that raltegravir has less hepatic toxicity and could prevent HIV PI-induced dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by inhibiting ER stress. However, little information is available as to whether raltegravir would also prevent HIV PI-induced inflammatory response and foam cell formation in macrophages.
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Infrastructure and contamination of the physical environment in three Bangladeshi hospitals: putting infection control into context.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This paper describes the physical structure and environmental contamination in selected hospital wards in three government hospitals in Bangladesh.
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The Role of Landscape Composition and Configuration on Pteropus giganteus Roosting Ecology and Nipah Virus Spillover Risk in Bangladesh.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Nipah virus has caused recurring outbreaks in central and northwest Bangladesh (the "Nipah Belt"). Little is known about roosting behavior of the fruit bat reservoir, Pteropus giganteus, or factors driving spillover. We compared human population density and ecological characteristics of case villages and control villages (no reported outbreaks) to understand their role in P. giganteus roosting ecology and Nipah virus spillover risk. Nipah Belt villages have a higher human population density (P < 0.0001), and forests that are more fragmented than elsewhere in Bangladesh (0.50 versus 0.32 patches/km(2), P < 0.0001). The number of roosts in a village correlates with forest fragmentation (r = 0.22, P = 0.03). Villages with a roost containing Polyalthia longifolia or Bombax ceiba trees were more likely case villages (odds ratio [OR] = 10.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-90.6). This study suggests that, in addition to human population density, composition and structure of the landscape shared by P. giganteus and humans may influence the geographic distribution of Nipah virus spillovers.
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The application of one health approaches to henipavirus research.
Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Henipaviruses cause fatal infection in humans and domestic animals. Transmission from fruit bats, the wildlife reservoirs of henipaviruses, is putatively driven (at least in part) by anthropogenic changes that alter host ecology. Human and domestic animal fatalities occur regularly in Asia and Australia, but recent findings suggest henipaviruses are present in bats across the Old World tropics. We review the application of the One Health approach to henipavirus research in three locations: Australia, Malaysia and Bangladesh. We propose that by recognising and addressing the complex interaction among human, domestic animal and wildlife systems, research within the One Health paradigm will be more successful in mitigating future human and domestic animal deaths from henipavirus infection than alternative single-discipline approaches.
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Poultry Slaughtering Practices in Rural Communities of Bangladesh and Risk of Avian Influenza Transmission: A Qualitative Study.
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Slaughtering sick poultry is a risk factor for human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza and is a common practice in Bangladesh. This paper describes human exposures to poultry during slaughtering process and the customs and rituals influencing these practices in two Bangladeshi rural communities. In 2009, we conducted 30 observations to observe slaughtering practices and 110 in-depth and short interviews and 36 group discussions to explore reasons behind those practices. The villagers reported slaughtering 103 poultry, including 20 sick poultry during 2 months. During different stages of slaughtering, humans, the environment, healthy poultry, and other animals were exposed to poultry blood and body parts. Women performed most of the slaughtering tasks, including evisceration. Defeathering required the most time and involved several persons. During festivals, ceremonies, and rituals, many people gathered and participated in the slaughtering of poultry. Exposure to poultry slaughtering created numerous opportunities for potential avian influenza transmission. Strategies that can be further tested to determine if they reduce the risk of transmission include skinning the carcasses of sick poultry, using hot water for defeathering and cleaning, using a bucket to contain slaughtering blood and carcass, burying the offal and encouraging handwashing.
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Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions.
Vet. Ital.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n=34), observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n=18) and drawing seasonal diagrams (n=6) with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.
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The role of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein in human immunodeficiency virus protease-inhibitor-induced hepatic lipotoxicity in mice.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (HIV PIs) are the core components of highly active antiretroviral therapy, which has been successfully used in the treatment of HIV-1 infection in the past two decades. However, benefits of HIV PIs are compromised by clinically important adverse effects, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular complications. We have previously shown that activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a critical role in HIV PI-induced dys-regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. HIV PI-induced hepatic lipotoxicity is closely linked to the up-regulation of CCAAT enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in hepatocytes. To further investigate whether CHOP is responsible for HIV PI-induced hepatic lipotoxicity, C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) or CHOP knockout (CHOP(-/-) ) mice or the corresponding primary mouse hepatocytes were used in this study. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that HIV PIs (ritonavir and lopinavir) significantly increased hepatic lipid accumulation in WT mice. In contrast, CHOP(-/-) mice showed a significant reduction in hepatic triglyceride accumulation and liver injury, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin and Oil Red O staining. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting data showed that in the absence of CHOP, HIV PI-induced expression of stress-related proteins and lipogenic genes were dramatically reduced. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 levels in serum and liver were significantly lower in HIV PI-treated CHOP(-/-) mice, compared to HIV PI-treated WT mice. Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that CHOP is an important molecular link of ER stress, inflammation, and hepatic lipotoxicity, and that increased expression of CHOP represents a critical factor underlying events leading to hepatic injury. (HEPATOLOGY 2013).
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Nipah virus infection outbreak with nosocomial and corpse-to-human transmission, Bangladesh.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Active Nipah virus encephalitis surveillance identified an encephalitis cluster and sporadic cases in Faridpur, Bangladesh, in January 2010. We identified 16 case-patients; 14 of these patients died. For 1 case-patient, the only known exposure was hugging a deceased patient with a probable case, while another case-patients exposure involved preparing the same corpse for burial by removing oral secretions and anogenital excreta with a cloth and bare hands. Among 7 persons with confirmed sporadic cases, 6 died, including a physician who had physically examined encephalitis patients without gloves or a mask. Nipah virus-infected patients were more likely than community-based controls to report drinking raw date palm sap and to have had physical contact with an encephalitis patient (29% vs. 4%, matched odds ratio undefined). Efforts to prevent transmission should focus on reducing caregivers exposure to infected patients bodily secretions during care and traditional burial practices.
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Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study.
Infect Ecol Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program.
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Seroprevalence of antibodies against highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus among poultry workers in Bangladesh, 2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2009 to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) [HPAI H5N1] virus antibodies among poultry workers at farms and live bird markets with confirmed/suspected poultry outbreaks during 2009 in Bangladesh. We tested sera by microneutralization assay using A/Bangladesh/207095/2008 (H5N1; clade 2.2.2) virus with confirmation by horse red blood cell hemagglutination inhibition and H5-specific Western blot assays. We enrolled 212 workers from 87 farms and 210 workers from three live bird markets. One hundred and two farm workers (48%) culled poultry. One hundred and ninety-three farm workers (91%) and 178 market workers (85%) reported direct contact with poultry that died during a laboratory confirmed HPAI H5N1 poultry farm outbreak or market poultry die-offs from suspected HPAI H5N1. Despite exposure to sick poultry, no farm or market poultry workers were seropositive for HPAI H5N1 virus antibodies (95% confidence interval 0-1%).
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Date palm sap linked to Nipah virus outbreak in Bangladesh, 2008.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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We investigated a cluster of patients with encephalitis in the Manikgonj and Rajbari Districts of Bangladesh in February 2008 to determine the etiology and risk factors for disease.
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Social ecological analysis of an outbreak of pufferfish egg poisoning in a coastal area of Bangladesh.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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Recurrent outbreaks of marine pufferfish poisoning in Bangladesh highlight the need to understand the context in which the outbreaks occurred. In a recent outbreak investigation, a multidisciplinary team conducted a mixed-method study to identify the demography and clinical manifestation of the victims and to explore different uses of pufferfish, and local buying, selling, and processing practices. The outbreak primarily affected a low income household where an elderly woman collected and cooked pufferfish egg curry. Nine persons consumed the curry, and symptoms developed in 6 (67%) of these persons. Symptoms included vomiting, diarrhea, paresis, and tingling sensation; 2 (22%) persons died. The unstable income of the affected family, food crisis, and the public disposal of unsafe pufferfish byproducts all contributed to the outbreak. A multi-level intervention should be developed and disseminated with the participation of target communities to discourage unsafe discarding of pufferfish scraps and to improve the community knowledge about the risk of consuming pufferfish.
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A novel low-cost approach to estimate the incidence of Japanese encephalitis in the catchment area of three hospitals in Bangladesh.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Acute meningoencephalitis syndrome surveillance was initiated in three medical college hospitals in Bangladesh in October 2007 to identify Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases. We estimated the population-based incidence of JE in the three hospitals catchment areas by adjusting the hospital-based crude incidence of JE by the proportion of catchment area meningoencephalitis cases who were admitted to surveillance hospitals. Instead of a traditional house-to-house survey, which is expensive for a disease with low frequency, we attempted a novel approach to identify meningoencephalitis cases in the hospital catchment area through social networks among the community residents. The estimated JE incidence was 2.7/100,000 population in Rajshahi (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-4.9), 1.4 in Khulna (95% CI = 0.9-4.1), and 0.6 in Chittagong (95% CI = 0.4-0.9). Bangladesh should consider a pilot project to introduce JE vaccine in high-incidence areas.
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Understanding community perceptions, social norms and current practice related to respiratory infection in Bangladesh during 2009: a qualitative formative study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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Respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh. Promoting respiratory hygiene may reduce infection transmission. This formative research explored community perceptions about respiratory infections.
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Family and community concerns about post-mortem needle biopsies in a Muslim society.
BMC Med Ethics
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Post-mortem needle biopsies have been used in resource-poor settings to determine cause of death and there is interest in using them in Bangladesh. However, we did not know how families and communities would perceive this procedure or how they would decide whether or not to consent to a post-mortem needle biopsy. The goal of this study was to better understand family and community concerns and decision-making about post-mortem needle biopsies in this low-income, predominantly Muslim country in order to design an informed consent process.
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Multiple outbreaks of puffer fish intoxication in Bangladesh, 2008.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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During April and June 2008, we investigated three outbreaks of marine puffer fish intoxication in three districts of Bangladesh (Narshingdi, Natore, and Dhaka). We also explored trade of marine puffer fish in Coxs Bazaar, a coastal area of the country. We identified 95 people who had consumed puffer fish; 63 (66%) developed toxicity characterized by tingling sensation in the body, perioral numbness, dizziness, and weakness, 14 of them died. All three outbreaks were caused by consumption of large (0.2-1.5 kg) marine puffer fish, sold in communities where people were unfamiliar with the marine variety of the fish and its toxicity. Coastal fishermen reported that some local businessmen distributed the fresh fish to non-coastal parts of the country, where people were unfamiliar with the larger variety, to make a quick profit. Lack of knowledge about marine puffer toxicity contributed to the outbreaks. Health communication campaigns will enhance peoples knowledge and may prevent future outbreaks.
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A low-cost approach to measure the burden of vaccine preventable diseases in urban areas.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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We piloted a low-cost approach to measure the disease burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hib and Salmonella Typhi by leveraging the existing infrastructure of high performing microbiology laboratories at two large paediatric hospitals in Dhaka Bangladesh, and assessing the hospital utilization of the catchment population of these hospitals for different syndromes. S. Typhi was the most common bacterium identified in culture and accounted for an estimated 211 hospitalizations per 100,000 children <5 years of age per year. Meningitis due to S. pneumoniae was the most common cause of mortality accounting for 8.0 deaths per 100,000 children <5 years of age per year. This low-cost approach can provide data to support vaccine introduction and the health impact of newly introduced vaccines.
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Cluster of Nipah virus infection, Kushtia District, Bangladesh, 2007.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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In March 2007, we investigated a cluster of Nipah encephalitis to identify risk factors for Nipah infection in Bangladesh.
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Use of infrared camera to understand bats access to date palm sap: implications for preventing Nipah virus transmission.
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Pteropus bats are commonly infected with Nipah virus, but show no signs of illness. Human Nipah outbreaks in Bangladesh coincide with the date palm sap harvesting season. In epidemiologic studies, drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah infection. We conducted a study to evaluate bats access to date palm sap. We mounted infrared cameras that silently captured images upon detection of motion on date palm trees from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am. Additionally, we placed two locally used preventative techniques, bamboo skirts and lime (CaCO?) smeared on date palm trees to assess their effectiveness in preventing bats access to sap. Out of 20 camera-nights of observations, 14 identified 132 visits of bats around the tree, 91 to the shaved surface of the tree where the sap flow originates, 4 at the stream of sap moving toward the collection pot, and no bats at the tap or on the collection pots; the remaining 6 camera-nights recorded no visits. Of the preventative techniques, the bamboo skirt placed for four camera-nights prevented bats access to sap. This study confirmed that bats commonly visited date palm trees and physically contacted the sap collected for human consumption. This is further evidence that date palm sap is an important link between Nipah virus in bats and Nipah virus in humans. Efforts that prevent bat access to the shaved surface and the sap stream of the tree could reduce Nipah spillovers to the human population.
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Prevention of HIV protease inhibitor-induced dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by raltegravir via endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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Hyperlipidemia associated with the HIV protease inhibitor (PI), the major component of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) for HIV infection, has stimulated interest in developing new agents that minimize these side effects in the clinic. HIV integrase inhibitor is a new class of anti-HIV agents. Raltegravir is a first-in-its-class oral integrase inhibitor and has potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 strains that are resistant to other antiretroviral regimens. Our previous studies have demonstrated that HIV PI-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress links to dysregulation of lipid metabolism. However, little information is available as to whether raltegravir would have similar effects as the HIV PIs. In this study, we examined the effect of raltegravir on lipid metabolism both in primary rat hepatocytes and in in vivo mouse models, and we further determined whether the combination of raltegravir with existing HIV PIs would potentially exacerbate or prevent the previously observed development of dyslipidemia. The results indicated that raltegravir did not induce ER stress or disrupt lipid metabolism either in vitro or in vivo. However, HIV PI-induced ER stress and lipid accumulation were significantly inhibited by raltegravir both in in vitro primary rat hepatocytes and in in vivo mouse liver. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis further demonstrated that raltegravir did not affect the uptake and metabolism of HIV PIs in hepatocytes. Thus, raltegravir has less hepatic toxicity and could prevent HIV PI-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism by inhibiting ER stress. These results suggest that incorporation of this HIV integrase inhibitor may reduce the side effects associated with current HAART.
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Rates of hospital-acquired respiratory illness in Bangladeshi tertiary care hospitals: results from a low-cost pilot surveillance strategy.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Patients hospitalized in resource-poor health care settings are at increased risk for hospital-acquired respiratory infections due to inadequate infrastructure.
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Fatal outbreak from consuming Xanthium strumarium seedlings during time of food scarcity in northeastern Bangladesh.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007.
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Hospital-based surveillance for Japanese encephalitis at four sites in Bangladesh, 2003-2005.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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We investigated the epidemiology and etiology of encephalitis at four tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh during 2003-2005. Patients who met a clinical case definition for acute encephalitis and had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis were eligible for enrollment; a standardized sampling pattern was used to enroll eligible patients. Recent Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection was defined by presence of IgM antibodies against JEV in CSF or serum. Twenty (4%) of 492 cases had laboratory evidence of recent JEV infection; two died. All JE cases occurred during May-December, and cases were identified among all age groups. All cases resided in rural areas. Fifteen patients were re-assessed 4-6 weeks after hospitalization; 5 (33%) patients had physical disabilities and 7 (47%) reported cognitive difficulties. Infection with JEV is clearly an etiology of encephalitis in Bangladesh. Population-based studies to quantify burden of disease could assess options for targeted immunization programs.
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Date palm sap collection: exploring opportunities to prevent Nipah transmission.
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a seasonal disease in Bangladesh that coincides with the date palm sap collection season. Raw date palm sap is a delicacy to drink in Bengali culture. If fruit bats that are infected with NiV gain access to the sap for drinking, they might occasionally contaminate the sap through saliva and urine. In February 2007, we conducted a qualitative study in six villages, interviewing 27 date palm sap collectors (gachhis) within the geographical area where NiV outbreaks have occurred since 2001. Gachhis reported that bats pose a challenge to successful collection of quality sap, because bats drink and defecate into the sap which markedly reduces its value. They know some methods to prevent access by bats and other pests but do not use them consistently, because of lack of time and resources. Further studies to explore the effectiveness of these methods and to motivate gachhis to invest their time and money to use them could reduce the risk of human Nipah infection in Bangladesh.
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Transmission of human infection with Nipah virus.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2009
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Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus whose reservoir host is fruit bats of the genus Pteropus. Occasionally the virus is introduced into human populations and causes severe illness characterized by encephalitis or respiratory disease. The first outbreak of NiV was recognized in Malaysia, but 8 outbreaks have been reported from Bangladesh since 2001. The primary pathways of transmission from bats to people in Bangladesh are through contamination of raw date palm sap by bats with subsequent consumption by humans and through infection of domestic animals (cattle, pigs, and goats), presumably from consumption of food contaminated with bat saliva or urine with subsequent transmission to people. Approximately one-half of recognized Nipah case patients in Bangladesh developed their disease following person-to-person transmission of the virus. Efforts to prevent transmission should focus on decreasing bat access to date palm sap and reducing family members and friends exposure to infected patients saliva.
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Recurrent zoonotic transmission of Nipah virus into humans, Bangladesh, 2001-2007.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Human Nipah outbreaks recur in a specific region and time of year in Bangladesh. Fruit bats are the reservoir host for Nipah virus. We identified 23 introductions of Nipah virus into human populations in central and northwestern Bangladesh from 2001 through 2007. Ten introductions affected multiple persons (median 10). Illness onset occurred from December through May but not every year. We identified 122 cases of human Nipah infection. The mean age of case-patients was 27 years; 87 (71%) died. In 62 (51%) Nipah virus-infected patients, illness developed 5-15 days after close contact with another Nipah case-patient. Nine (7%) Nipah case-patients transmitted virus to others. Nipah case-patients who had difficulty breathing were more likely than those without respiratory difficulty to transmit Nipah (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.03). Although a small minority of infected patients transmit Nipah virus, more than half of identified cases result from person-to-person transmission. Interventions to prevent virus transmission from bats to humans and from person to person are needed.
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Etiologies of bacterial meningitis in Bangladesh: results from a hospital-based study.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
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We conducted a study at four hospitals from June 2003 to July 2005 to investigate the etiologies of bacterial meningitis in Bangladesh. A total of 2,609 patients met the clinical case definition, and 766 had cerebrospinal fluid tested by at least one of the following methods: latex agglutination, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, or real-time polymerase chain reaction for Neisseria meningitidis A and C, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); culture results were noted from patient records. In total, 189 patients (24%) of those tested, representing all age groups, were diagnosed with bacterial meningitis; 136 (18%) had meningococcal, 23 (3%) had pneumococcal, and 25 (3%) had Hib infection. Twenty percent of patients with Hib meningitis (5/25) were > 15 years old. Case-fatality ratios were 10% for N. meningitidis, 22% for S. pneumoniae, and 24% for Hib. Bacterial meningitis from vaccine-preventable pathogens causes significant morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in adults and children.
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Causes of early childhood deaths in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Data on causes of early childhood death from low-income urban areas are limited. The nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 estimates 65 children died per 1,000 live births. We investigated rates and causes of under-five deaths in an urban community near two large pediatric hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh and evaluated the impact of different recall periods. We conducted a survey in 2006 for 6971 households and a follow up survey in 2007 among eligible remaining households or replacement households. The initial survey collected information for all children under five years old who died in the previous year; the follow up survey on child deaths in the preceding five years. We compared mortality rates based on 1-year recall to the 4 years preceding the most recent 1 year. The initial survey identified 58 deaths among children <5 years in the preceding year. The follow up survey identified a mean 53 deaths per year in the preceding five years (SD+/-7.3). Under-five mortality rate was 34 and neonatal mortality was 15 per thousand live births during 2006-2007. The leading cause of under-five death was respiratory infections (22%). The mortality rates among children under 4 years old for the two time periods (most recent 1-year recall and the 4 years preceding the most recent 1 year) were similar (36 versus 32). The child mortality in urban Dhaka was substantially lower than the national rate. Mortality rates were not affected by recall periods between 1 and 5 years.
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Influenza in outpatient ILI case-patients in national hospital-based surveillance, Bangladesh, 2007-2008.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2009
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Recent population-based estimates in a Dhaka low-income community suggest that influenza was prevalent among children. To explore the epidemiology and seasonality of influenza throughout the country and among all age groups, we established nationally representative hospital-based surveillance necessary to guide influenza prevention and control efforts.
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Inhibition of LPS-induced production of inflammatory factors in the macrophages by mono-carbonyl analogues of curcumin.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is an orange-yellow compound from turmeric (Curcuma longa), a spice found in curry powder. Traditionally known for its anti-inflammatory effects, curcumin has established itself in the last two decades to be a potent immunomodulatory agent that can regulate the activation of a variety of immunocytes and the expression of inflammatory factors. Considering that the beta-diketone moiety of curcumin may result in its instability and poor metabolic property, we previously designed a series of mono-carbonyl analogues of curcumin with enhanced stability by deleting this moiety. These compounds demonstrate improved pharmacokinetic profiles both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we reported a total of 44 mono-carbonyl analogues, which have been evaluated for the inhibitory activities against LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 release in the macrophages. Based on the screening results of these analogues, five active compounds A01, A03, A13, B18 and C22 were investigated to inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-6 release in a dose-dependent manner, three of which further demonstrated inhibitory effects on LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, MCP-1, COX-2, PGES, iNOS and p65 NF-kappaB mRNA production. The results indicated that these mono-carbonyl analogues may possess anti-inflammatory activities similar to curcumin despite the absence of the beta-diketone. These mono-carbonyl analogues may be a favourable alternative for the development of curcumin-based anti-inflammatory drugs both pharmacokinetically and pharmacologically. We further examined the biological properties of A13, the only hydrosoluble analogue when combined with hydrochloric acid. The results showed a dose-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced cytokine production. These data further indicated that compound A13 may be explored as a promising anti-inflammatory molecule.
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HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir-induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression is coupled to the unfolded protein response and ERK signaling pathways in macrophages.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-associated cardiovascular risk, especially atherosclerosis, has become a major concern in the clinic. Macrophages are key players in the inflammatory response and atherosclerosis formation. We have previously shown that HIV PIs induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), and increase the synthesis of the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha and IL-6, by regulating the intracellular translocation of RNA binding protein HuR in macrophages. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms remain unclear. We show here that the HIV PI lopinavir significantly activated the extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Lopinavir-induced cytosolic translocation of HuR and TNF-alpha and IL-6 synthesis was attenuated by specific chemical inhibitor of MEK (PD98058) or over-expression of dominant negative mutant of MEK1. In addition, we demonstrated that lopinavir-induced ERK activation and TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression were completely inhibited in macrophages from CHOP null mice. Taken together, these results indicate activation of the UPR plays an essential role in HIV PI-induced inflammatory cytokine synthesis and release by activating ERK, which increases the cytosolic translocation of HuR and subsequent binding to the 3UTR of TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs in macrophages.
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HIV protease inhibitors induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and disrupt barrier integrity in intestinal epithelial cells.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor (PI)-induced adverse effects have become a serious clinical problem. In addition to their metabolic and cardiovascular complications, these drugs also frequently cause severe gastrointestinal disorders, including mucosal erosions, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and diarrhea. However, the exact mechanisms underlying gastrointestinal adverse effects of HIV PIs remain unknown. This study investigated whether HIV PIs disrupt intestinal epithelial barrier integrity by activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.
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Seasonal concentrations and determinants of indoor particulate matter in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Environ. Res.
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Indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of acute lower respiratory tract infections, which are the leading cause of death in young children in Bangladesh. Few studies, however, have measured childrens exposures to indoor PM over time. The World Health Organization recommends that daily indoor concentrations of PM less than 2.5?m in diameter (PM(2.5)) not exceed 25?g/m(3). This study aimed to describe the seasonal variation and determinants of concentrations of indoor PM(2.5) in a low-income community in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. PM(2.5) was measured in homes monthly during May 2009 to April 2010. We calculated the time-weighted average, 90th percentile PM(2.5) concentrations and the daily hours PM(2.5) exceeded 100?g/m(3). Linear regression models were used to estimate the associations between fuel use, ventilation, indoor smoking, and season to each metric describing indoor PM(2.5) concentrations. Time-weighted average PM(2.5) concentrations were 190?g/m(3) (95% CI 170-210). Sixteen percent of 258 households primarily used biomass fuels for cooking and PM(2.5) concentrations in these homes had average concentrations 75?g/m(3) (95% CI 56-124) greater than other homes. PM(2.5) concentrations were also associated with burning both biomass and kerosene, indoor smoking, and ventilation, and were more than twice as high during winter than during other seasons. Young children in this community are exposed to indoor PM(2.5) concentrations 7 times greater than those recommended by World Health Organization guidelines. Interventions to reduce biomass burning could result in a daily reduction of 75?g/m(3) (40%) in time-weighted average PM(2.5) concentrations.
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Estimating the burden of maternal and neonatal deaths associated with jaundice in Bangladesh: possible role of hepatitis E infection.
Am J Public Health
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We estimated the population-based incidence of maternal and neonatal mortality associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Bangladesh.
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A randomized controlled trial of interventions to impede date palm sap contamination by bats to prevent nipah virus transmission in Bangladesh.
PLoS ONE
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Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palms sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap.
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Epidemiology of henipavirus disease in humans.
Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
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All seven recognized human cases of Hendra virus (HeV) infection have occurred in Queensland, Australia. Recognized human infections have all resulted from a HeV infected horse that was unusually efficient in transmitting the virus and a person with a high exposure to infectious secretions. In the large outbreak in Malaysia where Nipah virus (NiV) was first identified, most human infections resulted from close contact with NiV infected pigs. Outbreak investigations in Bangladesh have identified drinking raw date palm sap as the most common pathway of NiV transmission from Pteropus bats to people, but person-to-person transmission of NiV has been repeatedly identified in Bangladesh and India. Although henipaviruses are not easily transmitted to people, these newly recognized, high mortality agents warrant continued scientific attention.
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Pig illnesses and epidemics: a qualitative study on perceptions and practices of pig raisers in Bangladesh.
Vet. Ital.
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Zoonoses in swine are increasingly becoming a global public health concern. Understanding how livestock farmers perceive animal illnesses will help to develop locally acceptable and effective public health intervention strategies to control and manage zoonoses. The authors describe Bangladeshi pig raisers perception of pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs. We collected qualitative data from August 2007 to September 2008. Included in our study are backyard pig raisers from three districts, namely: Faridpur, Chapainobabgonj and Tangail and nomadic herders from six districts, namely: Mymensingh, Tangail, Sherpur, Sirajgonj, Bogra and Pabna. We conducted in-depth interviews (n=34) and made observations of human interactions with pigs (n=18). Pig raisers reported several illnesses that caused their pigs to suffer and die. They had close contact with sick pigs whilst caring for them. They slaughtered sick pigs and consumed and sold the pork if they thought that the pig might die. They believed that pig illness could be transmitted among pigs but not between pigs and humans. The perception of pig raisers on pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs places them in close contact with potentially infectious pig secretions and excretions. Such exposure could favour zoonotic transmission of infectious diseases. A better surveillance system for pig diseases would provide an opportunity to identify the transmission of diseases, determine whether they pose a risk to humans, or whether they contribute to the emergence of diseases.
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Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats access to date palm sap in Bangladesh.
Health Promot Int
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People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ?105 min. The application of each method took ?1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.
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Incidence of respiratory virus-associated pneumonia in urban poor young children of Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2009-2011.
PLoS ONE
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in Bangladesh. We conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of virus-associated pneumonia in children aged <2 years in a low-income urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
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Bangladeshi backyard poultry raisers perceptions and practices related to zoonotic transmission of avian influenza.
J Infect Dev Ctries
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Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus (known as "bird flu") is an important public health concern due to its potential to infect humans and cause a human pandemic. Bangladesh is a high-risk country for an influenza pandemic because of its dense human population, widespread backyard poultry raising, and endemic H5N1 infection in poultry. Understanding poultry raisers perceived risks and identifying their risk exposures can help to develop interventions to reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission. This paper explores the perception of Bangladeshi backyard poultry raisers regarding poultry sickness and zoonotic disease transmission and relevant practices.
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Characterization of Nipah virus from outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008-2010.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
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Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans. The initial outbreak of NiV infection occurred in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999; relatively small, sporadic outbreaks among humans have occurred in Bangladesh since 2001. We characterized the complete genomic sequences of identical NiV isolates from 2 patients in 2008 and partial genomic sequences of throat swab samples from 3 patients in 2010, all from Bangladesh. All sequences from patients in Bangladesh comprised a distinct genetic group. However, the detection of 3 genetically distinct sequences from patients in the districts of Faridpur and Gopalganj indicated multiple co-circulating lineages in a localized region over a short time (January-March 2010). Sequence comparisons between the open reading frames of all available NiV genes led us to propose a standardized protocol for genotyping NiV; this protcol provides a simple and accurate way to classify current and future NiV sequences.
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Hospital-based prevalence of malaria and dengue in febrile patients in Bangladesh.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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We conducted a nationwide study at six tertiary hospitals from December 2008 through November 2009 to investigate etiologies of febrile illnesses in Bangladesh. Febrile patients meeting a clinical case definition were enrolled from inpatient and outpatient medicine and pediatric units. We assessed 720 febrile patients over 12 months; 69 (9.6%) were positive for IgM antibodies against dengue virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and four malaria patients (0.56%) were confirmed with immuno-chromatography and microscopic slide tests. We identified dengue cases throughout the year from rural (49%) and urban areas (51%). We followed-up 55 accessible dengue-infected patients two months after their initial enrollment: 45 (82%) patients had fully recovered, 9 (16%) reported ongoing jaundice, fever and/or joint pain, and one died. Dengue infection is widespread across Bangladesh, but malaria is sufficiently uncommon that it should not be assumed as the cause of fever without laboratory confirmation.
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