Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5, 10, and 15% levels to make bread. The air-classification process produced flour with high concentration of lipids and phytic acid in the protein-rich fraction. However, extrusion significantly reduced hexane extractable lipid and phytic acid. However, the reduction observed may simply indicate a reduction in recovery due to bind with other components. Total protein and lysine contents in composite flours increased significantly as THPF levels increased in composite flour. Bread made with 5% THPF had 48% more lysine than the 100 % wheat flour (control). The THPF helped to maintain dough strength by reducing mixing tolerance index (MTI), maintaining dough stability and increasing departure time on Farinograph. Bread loaf volume was significantly reduced above 5% THPF addition. THPF increased water absorption causing an increase in bread weights by up to 6%. Overall, loaf quality deteriorated at 10 and 15% THPF levels while bread with 5% THPF was not significantly different from the control. These results support the addition of 5% THPF as a means to enhance lysine content of white pan bread.
Treg-cell function is compromised in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As the master regulator of Treg cells, FOXP3 controls development and suppressive function. Stable Treg-cell FOXP3 expression is epigenetically regulated; constitutive expression requires a demethylated Treg-specific demethylated region. Here, we hypothesised that methylation of the FOXP3 locus is altered in Treg cells of established RA patients. Methylation analysis of key regulatory regions in the FOXP3 locus was performed on Treg cells from RA patients and healthy controls. The FOXP3 Treg-specific demethylated region and proximal promoter displayed comparable methylation profiles in RA and healthy-donor Treg cells. We identified a novel differentially methylated region (DMR) upstream of the FOXP3 promoter, with enhancer activity sensitive to methylation-induced silencing. In RA Treg cells we observed significantly reduced DMR methylation and lower DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1/3A) expression compared with healthy Treg cells. Furthermore, DMR methylation negatively correlated with FOXP3 mRNA expression, and Treg cells isolated from rheumatoid factor negative RA patients were found to express significantly higher levels of FOXP3 than Treg cells from RhF-positive patients, with an associated decrease in DMR methylation. In conclusion, the novel DMR is involved in the regulation of Treg-cell FOXP3 expression, but this regulation is lost post-transcriptionally in RA Treg cells.
Fosmidomycin is a time-dependent nanomolar inhibitor of methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) synthase, which is the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the MEP pathway to isoprenoids. Importantly, fosmidomycin is one of only a few MEP pathway-specific inhibitors that exhibits antimicrobial activity. Most inhibitors identified to date only exhibit activity against isolated pathway enzymes. The MEP pathway is the sole route to isoprenoids in many bacteria, yet has no human homologs. The development of inhibitors of this pathway holds promise as novel antimicrobial agents. Similarly, analyses of the bacterial response toward MEP pathway inhibitors provides valuable information toward the understanding of how emergent resistance may ultimately develop to this class of antibiotics. We have examined the transcriptional response of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2 to sub-inhibitory concentrations of fosmidomycin via cDNA microarray and RT-PCR. Within the regulated genes identified by microarray were a number of genes encoding enzymes associated with the mediation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regulation of a panel of genes implicated in the response of cells to oxidative stress (including genes for catalases, superoxide dismutases, and alkylhydrogen peroxide reductases) was investigated and mild upregulation in some members was observed as a function of fosmidomycin exposure over time. The extent of regulation of these genes was similar to that observed for comparable exposures to kanamycin, but differed significantly from tetracycline. Furthermore, S. typhimurium exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of fosmidomycin displayed an increased sensitivity to exogenous H2O2 relative to either untreated controls or kanamycin-treated cells. Our results suggest that endogenous oxidative stress is one consequence of exposures to fosmidomycin, likely through the temporal depletion of intracellular isoprenoids themselves, rather than other mechanisms that have been proposed to facilitate ROS accumulation in bacteria (e.g. cell death processes or the ability of the antibiotic to redox cycle).
Tumour necrosis factor (p55 or p60) receptor (TNFR)1 is the major receptor that activates pro-inflammatory signalling and induces gene expression in response to TNF. Consensus is lacking for the function of (p75 or p80) TNFR2 but experiments in mice have suggested neuro-, cardio- and osteo- protective and anti-inflammatory roles. It has been shown in various cell types to be specifically required for the induction of TNFR-associated factor-2 (TRAF2) degradation, activation of the alternative nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway, and to contribute to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and the classical NF-kappaB pathway. We have investigated the signalling functions of TNFR2 in primary human and murine macrophages. We find that in these cells TNF induces TRAF2 degradation, and this is blocked in TNFR2(-/-) macrophages. TRAF2 has been previously reported to be required for TNF-induced activation of p38 MAPK. However, TRAF2 degradation does not inhibit TNF-induced tolerance of p38 MAPK activation. Neither TNF, nor lipopolysaccharide treatment, induced activation of the alternative NF-kappaB pathway in macrophages. Activation by TNF of the p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways was blocked in TNFR1(-/-) macrophages. In contrast, although TNFR2(-/-) macrophages displayed robust p38 MAPK activation and IkappaB? degradation at high concentrations of TNF, at lower doses the concentration dependence of signalling was weakened by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that, in addition to inducing TRAF2 protein degradation, TNFR2 also plays a crucial auxiliary role to TNFR1 in sensitising macrophages for the ligand-induced activation of the p38 MAPK and classical NF-kappaB pro-inflammatory signalling pathways.
Genome replication by the baculovirus DNA polymerase often generates errors in mononucleotide repeat (MNR) sequences due to replication slippage. This results in the inactivation of genes that affects different stages of the cell infection cycle. Here we mapped these MNRs in the 59 baculovirus genomes. We found that the MNR frequencies of baculovirus genomes are different and not correlated with the genome sizes. Although the average A/T content of baculoviruses is 58.67%, the A/T MNR frequency is significantly higher than that of the G/C MNRs. Furthermore, the A7/T7 MNRs are the most frequent of those we studied. Finally, MNR frequencies in different classes of baculovirus genes, such as immediate early genes, show differences between baculovirus genomes, suggesting that the distribution and frequency of different MNRs are unique to each baculovirus species or strain. Therefore, the results of this study can help select appropriate baculoviruses for the development of biological insecticides.
To determine whether selective blockade of tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFRI) affects spontaneous proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in ex vivo-cultured human rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane mononuclear cells (MNCs) and to compare this response to that of TNF ligand blockade using etanercept.
The importance of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) in immune regulation is unquestioned, yet a precise understanding of which cells express it, and how it mediates immune inhibitory function, is lacking. Regulatory T cells are known to constitutively express CTLA-4 intracellularly, whereas conventional T cells require activation to trigger CTLA-4 expression. However comparative analysis of CTLA-4 trafficking in regulatory and conventional subsets has not been performed.
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is an essential negative regulator of T cell immune responses whose mechanism of action is the subject of debate. CTLA-4 shares two ligands (CD80 and CD86) with a stimulatory receptor, CD28. Here, we show that CTLA-4 can capture its ligands from opposing cells by a process of trans-endocytosis. After removal, these costimulatory ligands are degraded inside CTLA-4-expressing cells, resulting in impaired costimulation via CD28. Acquisition of CD86 from antigen-presenting cells is stimulated by T cell receptor engagement and observed in vitro and in vivo. These data reveal a mechanism of immune regulation in which CTLA-4 acts as an effector molecule to inhibit CD28 costimulation by the cell-extrinsic depletion of ligands, accounting for many of the known features of the CD28-CTLA-4 system.
The entry of autoreactive T cells into the pancreas is a critical checkpoint in the development of autoimmune diabetes. In this study, we identify a role for B1 cells in this process using the DO11 x RIP-mOVA mouse model. In transgenic mice with islet-specific T cells, but no B cells, T cells are primed in the pancreatic lymph node but fail to enter the pancreas. Reconstitution of the B1 cell population by adoptive transfer permits extensive T cell pancreas infiltration. Reconstituted B1 cells traffic to the pancreas and modify expression of adhesion molecules on pancreatic vasculature, notably VCAM-1. Despite substantial pancreas infiltration, islet destruction is minimal unless regulatory T cells are depleted. These data identify a role for B1 cells in permitting circulating islet-specific T cells to access their Ag-bearing tissue and emphasize the existence of multiple checkpoints to regulate autoimmune disease.
The CTLA-4 pathway is recognized as a major immune inhibitory axis and is a key therapeutic target for augmenting antitumor immunity or curbing autoimmunity. CTLA-4-deficient mice provide the archetypal example of dysregulated immune homeostasis, developing lethal lymphoproliferation with multiorgan inflammation. In this study, we show that surprisingly these mice have an enlarged population of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). The increase in Treg is associated with normal thymic output but enhanced proliferation of Foxp3(+) cells in the periphery. We confirmed the effect of CTLA-4 deficiency on the Treg population using OVA-specific Treg which develop normally in the absence of CTLA-4, but show increased proliferation in response to peripheral self-Ag. Functional analysis revealed that Ag-specific Treg lacking CTLA-4 were unable to regulate disease in an adoptive transfer model of diabetes. Collectively, these data suggest that the proliferation of Treg in the periphery is tuned by CTLA-4 signals and that Treg expression of CTLA-4 is required for regulation of pancreas autoimmunity.
To address the impending need for exploring rapidly increased transcriptomics data generated for non-model organisms, we developed CBrowse, an AJAX-based web browser for visualizing and analyzing transcriptome assemblies and contigs. Designed in a standard three-tier architecture with a data pre-processing pipeline, CBrowse is essentially a Rich Internet Application that offers many seamlessly integrated web interfaces and allows users to navigate, sort, filter, search and visualize data smoothly. The pre-processing pipeline takes the contig sequence file in FASTA format and its relevant SAM/BAM file as the input; detects putative polymorphisms, simple sequence repeats and sequencing errors in contigs and generates image, JSON and database-compatible CSV text files that are directly utilized by different web interfaces. CBowse is a generic visualization and analysis tool that facilitates close examination of assembly quality, genetic polymorphisms, sequence repeats and/or sequencing errors in transcriptome sequencing projects.
The CTLA-4 pathway is a key regulator of T cell activation and a critical failsafe against autoimmunity. Although early models postulated that CTLA-4 transduced a negative signal, in vivo evidence suggests that CTLA-4 functions in a cell-extrinsic manner. That multiple cell-intrinsic mechanisms have been attributed to CTLA-4, yet its function in vivo appears to be cell-extrinsic, has been an ongoing paradox in the field. Although CTLA-4 expressed on conventional T cells (Tconv) can mediate inhibitory function, it is unclear why this fails to manifest as an intrinsic effect. In this study, we show that Tconv-expressed CTLA-4 can function in a cell-extrinsic manner in vivo. CTLA-4(+/+) T cells, from DO11/rag(-/-) mice that lack regulatory T cells, were able to regulate the response of CTLA-4(-/-) T cells in cotransfer experiments. This observation provides a potential resolution to the above paradox and suggests CTLA-4 function on both Tconv and regulatory T cells can be achieved through cell-extrinsic mechanisms.
The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important crop cultivated worldwide for oil production and food sources. Its complex genetic architecture (e.g., the large and tetraploid genome possibly due to unique cross of wild diploid relatives and subsequent chromosome duplication: 2n = 4x = 40, AABB, 2800 Mb) presents a major challenge for its genome sequencing and makes it a less-studied crop. Without a doubt, transcriptome sequencing is the most effective way to harness the genome structure and gene expression dynamics of this non-model species that has a limited genomic resource.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.