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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The use of functional imaging in the diagnosis of carotid patch infection.
Vascular
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Carotid patch infection following carotid patch angioplasty is a rare but serious complication. Accurate diagnosis is vital yet currently ill-defined. We present the use of computed tomography positron emission tomography and leucocyte radioisotope scintigraphy and highlight their potential role in the diagnosis of equivocal carotid patch infection.
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Subacromial, supracoracoid dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint with ipsilateral clavicle fracture: a case report with review of the literature and classification.
JRSM Open
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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A type VI acromioclavicular joint injury with a supracoracoid location of the distal end of the clavicle (VIa) may be associated with low energy injuries and, in association with a clavicle fracture, can successfully be treated with reduction of the dislocation, fixation of the clavicle, and may not require reconstruction of the acromioclavicular ligaments. An infracoracoid location (VIb) is highly suggestive of a higher energy injury.
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Comparison of cross sectional area and fat infiltration of the epaxial muscles in dogs with and without spinal cord compression.
Res. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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This study investigated the cross sectional area (CSA) and fat infiltration of the epaxial muscles in Dachshunds with compressive spinal cord lesions due to intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) and in dogs with non-compressive spinal cord lesions with fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE). The CSA and fat infiltration of the multifidi and longissimus dorsi muscles were determined from T1 weighted magnetic resonance images. Difference in CSA and fat infiltration between the lesion- and non-lesion side in the Dachshunds was assessed using mixed model analysis. Difference in CSA and fat infiltration between Dachshunds and FCE dogs was analysed with independent sample t-tests. There was no difference in CSA or fat infiltration between sides in the Dachshunds. FCE dogs had greater CSA (multifidus P?=?0.036, longissimus P?
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Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in four dogs with central nervous system neosporosis.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Neosporosis is a polysystemic disease that can affect dogs of any age and can cause inflammation of the central nervous system. Antemortem diagnosis can be challenging, as clinical and conventional laboratory test findings are often nonspecific. A previous report described cerebellar lesions in brain MRI studies of seven dogs and proposed that these may be characteristic for central nervous system Neosporosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe MRI characteristics in another group of dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and compare them with the previous report. The hospital's database was searched for dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and four observers recorded findings from each dog's MRI studies. A total of four dogs met inclusion criteria. Neurologic examination was indicative of a forebrain and cerebellar lesion in dog 2 and multifocal central nervous system disease in dogs 1, 3, and 4. Magnetic resonance imaging showed mild bilateral and symmetrical cerebellar atrophy in three of four dogs (dogs 2, 3, 4), intramedullary spinal cord changes in two dogs (dogs 3, 4) and a mesencephalic and metencephalic lesion in one dog (dog 2). Multifocal brain lesions were recognized in two dogs (dogs 1, 4) and were present in the thalamus, lentiform nucleus, centrum semiovale, internal capsule, brainstem and cortical gray matter of the frontal, parietal or temporal lobe. Findings indicated that central nervous system neosporosis may be characterized by multifocal MRI lesions as well as cerebellar involvement in dogs.
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PTEN loss and KRAS activation cooperate in murine biliary tract malignancies.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Carcinomas of the biliary tract are aggressive malignancies in humans. Loss of the tumour suppressor PTEN has previously been associated with cholangiocarcinoma development in a murine model. Activation of KRAS is reported in up to one-third of human cholangiocarcinomas and 50% of gall bladder carcinomas. In this study we aimed to test the potential interaction between PTEN and KRAS mutation in biliary tract malignancy. We used an inducible Cre-LoxP-based approach to coordinately delete PTEN and activate KRAS within the adult mouse biliary epithelium. We found that activation of KRAS alone has little effect upon biliary epithelium. Loss of PTEN alone results in the development of low-grade neoplastic lesions, following long latency and at low incidence. Combination of both mutations causes rapid development of biliary epithelial proliferative lesions, which progress through dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. We conclude that activation of the PI3K pathway following loss of PTEN is sufficient to drive slow development of low-grade biliary lesions in mice. In contrast, mutational activation of KRAS does not result in a similar phenotype, despite a prediction that this should activate both the RAF-MEK-ERK and PI3-kinase pathways. However, mutation of both genes results in rapid tumourigenesis, arguing that PTEN normally functions as a brake on the PI3-kinase pathway, limiting the influence of KRAS activation. Mutation of both genes creates a permissive environment, allowing the full effects of both mutations to be manifested. These data reveal an in vivo synergy between these mutations and provides a new mouse model of biliary tract malignancy.
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Epithelial-Specific Loss of PTEN Results in Colorectal Juvenile Polyp Formation and Invasive Cancer.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Cowden syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal dominant cancer-prone disorder caused by germ-line mutation of the phosphatase and tensin homolog mutated on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor-suppressor gene. Affected patients commonly develop juvenile polyps, and show an elevated risk of developing colorectal cancers. The etiology of these peculiar polyps remains unclear, although previous work has suggested somatic PTEN alterations in the stroma of juvenile polyps. After a long latency period, we find epithelial-specific PTEN deletion to cause formation of juvenile polyps in the colorectum without stromal PTEN loss. More important, we find that these lesions closely recapitulate all of the characteristic histopathological features of juvenile polyps seen in patients with CS, including stromal alterations and dysplastic transformation to colorectal carcinoma. The stromal alterations we identify after epithelial-specific PTEN loss suggest that PTEN may be involved in altered epithelial-mesenchymal cross talk, which, in turn, predisposes to colorectal neoplasia and polyposis. Our transgenic model is the first to recapitulate colorectal juvenile polyposis in patients with CS. We conclude that stromal PTEN loss is not a prerequisite for the formation of juvenile polyps, and that colorectal juvenile polyps in CS are bona fide neoplastic precursor lesions.
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Retinal ganglion cell layer volumetric assessment by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: application of a high-precision manual estimation technique.
J Neuroophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Neuronal loss in the retina has been demonstrated pathologically in eyes of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In vivo, MS eyes have reduced total macular volumes by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using a high-resolution spectral-domain OCT, this pilot study used a manual method to measure ganglion cell layer (GCL) volumes and to determine the relation of these volumes to visual function in MS eyes.
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Treatment of hydrocephalus with ventriculoperitoneal shunting in twelve dogs.
Vet Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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To report use of ventriculoperitoneal shunt in dogs for management of hydrocephalus for which no cause could be identified.
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Origin and maintenance of the intestinal cancer stem cell.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the western world and its incidence is steadily increasing. Understanding the basic biology of both the normal intestine and of intestinal tumorigenesis is vital for developing appropriate and effective cancer therapies. However, relatively little is known about the normal intestinal stem cell or the hypothetical intestinal cancer stem cell, and there is much debate surrounding these areas. This review briefly describes our current understanding of the properties of both the intestinal stem cell and the intestinal cancer stem cell. We also discuss recent theories regarding the origin of the intestinal cancer stem cell, and the signals required for its maintenance and proliferation. Finally, we place the relevance of cancer stem cell research into context by discussing potential clinical applications of targeting the intestinal cancer stem cell.
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Emergency re-admissions to hospital due to adverse drug reactions within 1 year of the index admission.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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The proportion of re-admissions to hospital caused by ADRs is poorly documented in the UK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ADRs on re-admission to hospital after a period as an inpatient.
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Interpreting adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports as hospital patient safety incidents.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a reporting category in the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) incident reporting system, though the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) pharmacovigilance system is the more established method for collecting ADR data.
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Quantitative ultrasonography for assessment of bone mineral density in the canine radius and tibia.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Quantitative ultrasound allows noninvasive assessment of cortical bone density. Potential applications include monitoring of fracture healing, rehabilitation, and skeletal diseases. The objectives of this study were to determine the three most accessible portals to obtain speed of sound measurements of the radius and tibia with an Omnisense multisite quantitative ultrasound device and to determine probe-dependent intra- and interoperator variability for speed of sound measurements of the radius and tibia in six healthy hounds. The radius was most accessible at the cranial proximal metaphysis, the cranial middiaphysis, and medial distal metaphysis. Speed of sound measurements were possible at these sites on the radius with acceptable intra- and interoperator variation (1.6-4.6%). Measurements differed significantly when performed with different probes at the cranial proximal radial metaphysis. The tibia was most accessible at the cranial proximal metaphysis, the medial middiaphysis, and medial distal metaphysis. The medial middiaphyseal and mediodistal tibial sites allowed measurements with lowest intra- and interoperator variation (< 3.5%). A smaller probe allowed tibial measurements with lowest interoperator variation. Measurements did not differ significantly at each tibial site when different probes were used. Measurements did not differ significantly between observers when measuring with the same probe at each specific site on radius and tibia. A medium-size probe allowed for most time-efficient measurements and the least number of failed measurements on the radius and tibia. Speed of sound can be consistently measured by different observers on the radius and tibia in healthy hounds.
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Adverse drug reactions in hospital in-patients: a prospective analysis of 3695 patient-episodes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major cause of hospital admissions, but recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of ADRs which occur following hospital admission, are lacking. Patients admitted to twelve wards over a six-month period in 2005 were assessed for ADRs throughout their admission. Suspected ADRs were recorded and analysed for causality, severity and avoidability and whether they increased the length of stay. Multivariable analysis was undertaken to identify the risk factors for ADRs. The 5% significance level was used when assessing factors for inclusion in multivariable models. Out of the 3695 patient episodes assessed for ADRs, 545 (14.7%, 95% CI 13.6-15.9%) experienced one or more ADRs. Half of ADRs were definitely or possibly avoidable. The patients experiencing ADRs were more likely to be older, female, taking a larger number of medicines, and had a longer length of stay than those without ADRs. However, the only significant predictor of ADRs, from the multivariable analysis of a representative sample of patients, was the number of medicines taken by the patient with each additional medication multiplying the hazard of an ADR episode by 1.14 (95% CI 1.09, 1.20). ADRs directly increased length of stay in 147 (26.8%) patients. The drugs most frequently associated with ADRs were diuretics, opioid analgesics, and anticoagulants. In conclusion, approximately one in seven hospital in-patients experience an ADR, which is a significant cause of morbidity, increasing the length of stay of patients by an average of 0.25 days/patient admission episode. The overall burden of ADRs on hospitals is high, and effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to reduce this burden.
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Cerebral coenurosis in a cat caused by Taenia serialis: neurological, magnetic resonance imaging and pathological features.
J. Feline Med. Surg.
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CLINICAL SUMMARY: A 4-year-old Birman cat was presented with marked obtundation and non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Two well-demarcated, intra-axial T2-hyperintense, T1-hypointense structures, which did not contrast enhance, were evident on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histopathology of the structures revealed metacestodes that were morphologically indicative of larval stages of Taenia species. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of a fragment within the 12S rRNA gene confirmed the subspecies as Taenia serialis. PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of MRI findings of cerebral coenurosis caused by T serialis in a cat. Early MRI should be considered an important part of the diagnostic work-up for this rare clinical disease, as it will help guide subsequent treatment and may improve the prognosis.
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Physiological and psychological illness symptoms at high altitude and their relationship with acute mountain sickness: a prospective cohort study.
J Travel Med
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The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to investigate relationships between acute mountain sickness (AMS) and physical and mental health during a high altitude expedition.
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Surgical treatment of an intracranial epidermoid cyst in a dog.
Vet Surg
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To report challenges and complications associated with surgical intracranial epidermoid cyst removal from the fourth ventricle of a dog.
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Residency training: the King-Devick test and sleep deprivation: study in pre- and post-call neurology residents.
Neurology
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The current study investigates the effect of sleep deprivation on the speed and accuracy of eye movements as measured by the King-Devick (K-D) test, a <1-minute test that involves rapid number naming.
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Designing adverse event forms for real-world reporting: participatory research in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
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The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV) relies on adverse event (AE) reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings to improve quality and quantity of drug safety reports as new medicines are scaled-up.
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PTEN loss and KRAS activation leads to the formation of serrated adenomas and metastatic carcinoma in the mouse intestine.
J. Pathol.
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Mutation or loss of the genes PTEN and KRAS have been implicated in human colorectal cancer (CRC), and have been shown to co-occur despite both playing a role in the PI3Kinase pathway. We investigated the role of these genes in intestinal tumour progression in vivo, using genetically engineered mouse models, with the aim of generating more representative models of human CRC. Intestinal specific deletion of Pten and activation of an oncogenic allele of Kras was induced in wild type (WT) mice and mice with a predisposition to adenoma development (Apc(fl/+) ). Animals were euthanised when they became symptomatic of a high tumour burden. Histopathological examination of the tissues was carried out, and immunohistochemistry used to characterise signalling pathway activation. Mutation of Pten and Kras resulted in a significant lifespan reduction of mice predisposed to adenomas. Invasive adenocarcinoma was observed in these animals, with evidence of activation of the PI3Kinase pathway, but no metastasis. However, mutation of Pten and Kras in WT animals not predisposed to adenomas led to perturbed homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium and the development of hyperplastic polyps, dysplastic sessile serrated adenomas and metastasising adenocarcinomas with serrated features. These studies demonstrate synergism between Pten and Kras mutations in intestinal tumour progression, in an autochthonous and immunocompetent murine model with potential application to preclinical drug testing. In particular, they show that Pten and Kras mutations alone predispose mice to the spectrum of serrated lesions that reflect the serrated pathway of CRC progression in humans.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.