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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of ultra-low dose and standard heparin locks on early tunneled dialysis catheter outcomes in low risk dialysis patients.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Heparin lock instilled immediately after tunneled dialysis catheter (TDC) insertion to maintain catheter patency can leak causing a concentration-dependent systemic anticoagulation as well as promote staphyloccocal biofilm formation, a risk factor for catheter related infection (CRI). The 1000U/mL concentration is thus advocated as an optimal dose for preventing catheter bleeding and malfunction. The effect of lower heparin concentrations on further lowering these complications is not known. We compared early TDC outcomes between a non-standard ultra-low (500U/mL) and standard heparin locks (1,000 and 5,000 U/mL).
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Tuning of Kalman filter parameters via genetic algorithm for state-of-charge estimation in battery management system.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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In this work, a state-space battery model is derived mathematically to estimate the state-of-charge (SoC) of a battery system. Subsequently, Kalman filter (KF) is applied to predict the dynamical behavior of the battery model. Results show an accurate prediction as the accumulated error, in terms of root-mean-square (RMS), is a very small value. From this work, it is found that different sets of Q and R values (KF's parameters) can be applied for better performance and hence lower RMS error. This is the motivation for the application of a metaheuristic algorithm. Hence, the result is further improved by applying a genetic algorithm (GA) to tune Q and R parameters of the KF. In an online application, a GA can be applied to obtain the optimal parameters of the KF before its application to a real plant (system). This simply means that the instantaneous response of the KF is not affected by the time consuming GA as this approach is applied only once to obtain the optimal parameters. The relevant workable MATLAB source codes are given in the appendix to ease future work and analysis in this area.
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The Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC) in Singapore: a new preliminary factor structure for caregivers of ambulatory patients with cancer.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC) is used worldwide to determine levels of quality of life of caregivers of patients with cancer; however, the few studies examining the underlying factor structure of the CQOLC have revealed differences between Western and Eastern cultures. This study sought to confirm the differences in the factor structures between the original CQOLC and a Taiwanese (Mandarin) version.
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Enhancement of azo dye Acid Orange 7 removal in newly developed horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Horizontal subsurface-flow (HSF) constructed wetland incorporating baffles was developed to facilitate upflow and downflow conditions so that the treatment of pollutants could be achieved under multiple aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions sequentially in the same wetland bed. The performances of the baffled and conventional HSF constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, in the removal of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) were compared at the hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 5, 3 and 2 days when treating domestic wastewater spiked with AO7 concentration of 300 mg/L. The planted baffled unit was found to achieve 100%, 83% and 69% AO7 removal against 73%, 46% and 30% for the conventional unit at HRT of 5, 3 and 2 days, respectively. Longer flow path provided by baffled wetland units allowed more contact of the wastewater with the rhizomes, microbes and micro-aerobic zones resulting in relatively higher oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and enhanced performance as kinetic studies revealed faster AO7 biodegradation rate under aerobic condition. In addition, complete mineralization of AO7 was achieved in planted baffled wetland unit due to the availability of a combination of aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions.
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A Comparison of Right Ventricular Non-apical Defibrillator Lead Position with Traditional Right Ventricular Apical Position: A Single Centre Experience.
Heart Lung Circ
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads have traditionally been placed at the right ventricular apex (RVA). An important minority of patients with an ICD may develop a future requirement for bradycardia support. Pacing from the RVA may be detrimental, promoting heart failure and mortality. Increasingly non-apical right ventricular (RVNA) lead positions have been suggested as an alternative pacing site.
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WITHDRAWN: Primary CNS lymphoma and high-grade glioma: differentiation using perfusion and proton spectroscopic MR imaging.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
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Medical applications of microwave imaging.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Ultrawide band (UWB) microwave imaging is a promising method for the detection of early stage breast cancer, based on the large contrast in electrical parameters between malignant tumour tissue and the surrounding normal breast-tissue. In this paper, the detection and imaging of a malignant tumour are performed through a tomographic based microwave system and signal processing. Simulations of the proposed system are performed and postimage processing is presented. Signal processing involves the extraction of tumour information from background information and then image reconstruction through the confocal method delay-and-sum algorithms. Ultimately, the revision of time-delay and the superposition of more tumour signals are applied to improve accuracy.
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Depression and anxiety in cancer patients in a Tertiary General Hospital in Singapore.
Asian J Psychiatr
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Past research has indicated that distress, anxiety and depression may occur in cancer patients during the course of their illness and treatment.
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Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis UGT74 glucosyltransferases reveals a special role of UGT74C1 in glucosinolate biosynthesis.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The study of glucosinolates and their regulation has provided a powerful framework for the exploration of fundamental questions about the function, evolution, and ecological significance of plant natural products, but uncertainties about their metabolism remain. Previous work has identified one thiohydroximate S-glucosyltransferase, UGT74B1, with an important role in the core pathway, but also made clear that this enzyme functions redundantly and cannot be the sole UDP-glucose dependent glucosyltransferase (UGT) in glucosinolate synthesis. Here, we present the results of a nearly comprehensive in vitro activity screen of recombinant Arabidopsis Family 1 UGTs, which implicate other members of the UGT74 clade as candidate glucosinolate biosynthetic enzymes. Systematic genetic analysis of this clade indicates that UGT74C1 plays a special role in the synthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates, a conclusion strongly supported by phylogenetic and gene expression analyses. Finally, the ability of UGT74C1 to complement phenotypes and chemotypes of the ugt74b1-2 knockout mutant and to express thiohydroximate UGT activity in planta provides conclusive evidence for UGT74C1 being an accessory enzyme in glucosinolate biosynthesis with a potential function during plant adaptation to environmental challenge.
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Knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors (KAPb) of nurses and the effectiveness of a training program in psychosocial cancer care.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Psychosocial distress in oncology patients may significantly interfere with their health outcomes and quality of life. Nurses work closely with their patients and are in the best position to screen for distress and provide timely intervention. It is thus important for nurses working in oncology settings to be equipped and prepared to address distressing psychosocial issues. The present study aims to investigate the impact of a training program in psychosocial care on nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practice behaviors.
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The Distress Thermometer as an ultra-short screening tool: a first validation study for mixed-cancer outpatients in Singapore.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Research has shown that single-item tools, like the Distress Thermometer (DT), are comparable to longer ones, like the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In this study, we tested the validity of the DT in a population of Singapore cancer outpatients, and determined the cut-off scores on the DT for clinically relevant distress and an impaired quality of life (QOL). We also documented the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and QOL impairments in this population.
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Psychosocial care for cancer patients - too little, too late?
Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Assessment of psychosocial and psychiatric needs is an increasingly important component of cancer care. Clinical experience with patients indicate that distress, anxiety and depression are prevalent from early stages of the illness. Strategies to enhance psychosocial care are presented and these include early identification through screening, training for healthcare staff working with cancer patients and support not only for patients but their caregivers as well.
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Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis with seed definition constrained by regional homogeneity.
Brain Connect
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Researchers have recently focused their attention on the intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) in the brain using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Seed-based correlation analysis (SCAC), which correlates a predefined seed region with other voxels in the brain, is a common index for FC. However, definition of seed sizes and locations was ambiguous in previous studies and this may lead to spurious results for people with a unique functional anatomy. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method (SCAReHo) that provides a data-driven seed selection (including sizes and locations) method by incorporating regional homogeneity (ReHo) in the SCAC method. The disparities between SCAC and SCAReHo methods among 12 healthy participants were evaluated in the FC of default mode network (DMN), task-positive network (TPN), and amygdala network. The SCAReHo method bypasses the seed-selection ambiguity and enhances the sensitivity in detecting FC of the DMN, TPN, and amygdala network. This study suggests that the SCAReHo method improves the sensitivity of FC analysis and reduces the uncertainty of seed selection. Thus, this method may be particularly useful for psychiatric and neurological investigations.
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Regiospecific methylation of a dietary flavonoid scaffold selectively enhances IL-1? production following Toll-like receptor 2 stimulation in THP-1 monocytes.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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It is now recognized that innate immunity to intestinal microflora plays a significant role in mediating immune health, and modulation of microbial sensing may underpin the impact of plant natural products in the diet or when used as nutraceuticals. In this context, we have examined five classes of plant-derived flavonoids (flavonols, flavones, flavanones, catechins, and cyanidin) for their ability to regulate cytokine release induced by the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist Pam3CSK4. We found that the flavonols selectively co-stimulated IL-1? secretion but had no impact on the secretion of IL-6. Importantly, this costimulation of TLR2-induced cytokine secretion was dependent on regiospecific methylation of the flavonol scaffold with a rank order of quercetin-3,4-dimethylether > quercetin-3-methylether > casticin. The mechanism underpinning this costimulation did not involve enhanced inflammasome activation. In contrast, the methylated flavonols enhanced IL-1? gene expression through transcriptional regulation, involving mechanisms that operate downstream of the initial NF-?B and STAT1 activation events. These studies demonstrate an exquisite level of control of scaffold bioactivity by regiospecific methylation, with important implications for understanding how natural products affect innate immunity and for their development as novel immunomodulators for clinical use.
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Immobilized acclimated biomass-powdered activated carbon for the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon loaded with phenol and o-cresol.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The objectives of the study are to use immobilized acclimated biomass and immobilized biomass-powdered activated carbon (PAC) as a novel approach in the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, and to compare the efficiency and rate of the bioregeneration of the phenolic compound-loaded GAC using immobilized and suspended biomasses under varying GAC dosages. Bioregeneration of GAC loaded with phenol and o-cresol, respectively, was conducted in batch system using the sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach. The results showed that the bioregeneration efficiency of GAC loaded with phenol or o-cresol was basically the same irrespective of whether the immobilized or suspended biomass was used. Nonetheless, the duration for bioregeneration was longer under immobilized biomass. The beneficial effect of immobilized PAC-biomass for bioregeneration is the enhancement of the removal rate of the phenolic compounds via adsorption and the shortening of the bioregeneration duration.
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Alternative solid carbon source from dried attached-growth biomass for nitrogen removal enhancement in intermittently aerated moving bed sequencing batch reactor.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The feasibility of using dried attached-growth biomass from the polyurethane (PU) foam cubes as a solid carbon source to enhance the denitrification process in the intermittently aerated moving bed sequencing batch reactor (IA-MBSBR) during the treatment of low COD/N containing wastewater was investigated. By packing the IA-MBSBR with 8 % (v/v) of 8-mL PU foam cubes saturated with dried attached-growth biomass, total nitrogen removal efficiency of 80 % could be achieved for 10 consecutive cycles of operation when the intermittent aeration strategy of consecutive 1 h of aeration followed by 2 h of non-aeration period during the REACT period of the IA-MBSBR was adopted. Negligible release of ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) and slow-release of COD from the dried biomass would ensure that the use of this solid carbon source would not further burden the treatment system. The slow-releasing COD was found to have no effect in promoting the assimilation process and would also allow the carbon source to be used for many cycles of operation. The carbon-spent PU foam cubes could be reused by merely drying at 60 °C at the end of the operational mode. Thus, the dried attached-growth biomass formed on the PU foam cubes could be exploited as an alternative solid carbon source for the enhancement of denitrification process in the IA-MBSBR.
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Evaluation of aeration strategy in moving bed sequencing batch reactor performing simultaneous 4-chlorophenol and nitrogen removal.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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The aeration strategy ranging from intermittent to continuous aeration in the REACT period of moving bed sequencing batch reactor (MBSBR) was evaluated for simultaneous removal of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and nitrogen. The results show that the removal rates of 4-CP and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) increased with the increase of continuous aeration period. In the presence of 4-CP, NH(4)(+)-N removal was mainly by the assimilation process. The removal of NH(4)(+)-N to oxidized nitrogen via oxidation was only observed after 4-CP was completely degraded with sufficient aeration period provided indicating the inhibitory effect of 4-CP on nitrification. As the intermittent aeration strategy would lead to slower 4-CP degradation resulting in the delay of nitrification process, continuous aeration would be the preferred strategy in the simultaneous removal of 4-CP and nitrogen in the MBSBR system.
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Dynamic epigenetic regulation of gene expression during the life cycle of malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as one of the major factors of the dynamics of gene expression in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. To elucidate the role of chromatin remodeling in transcriptional regulation associated with the progression of the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic development cycle (IDC), we mapped the temporal pattern of chromosomal association with histone H3 and H4 modifications using ChIP-on-chip. Here, we have generated a broad integrative epigenomic map of twelve histone modifications during the P. falciparum IDC including H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, H4K16ac, H3K9ac, H3K14ac, H3K56ac, H4K20me1, H4K20me3, H3K4me3, H3K79me3 and H4R3me2. While some modifications were found to be associated with the vast majority of the genome and their occupancy was constant, others showed more specific and highly dynamic distribution. Importantly, eight modifications displaying tight correlations with transcript levels showed differential affinity to distinct genomic regions with H4K8ac occupying predominantly promoter regions while others occurred at the 5 ends of coding sequences. The promoter occupancy of H4K8ac remained unchanged when ectopically inserted at a different locus, indicating the presence of specific DNA elements that recruit histone modifying enzymes regardless of their broad chromatin environment. In addition, we showed the presence of multivalent domains on the genome carrying more than one histone mark, highlighting the importance of combinatorial effects on transcription. Overall, our work portrays a substantial association between chromosomal locations of various epigenetic markers, transcriptional activity and global stage-specific transitions in the epigenome.
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Newly developed baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetland for the enhancement of nitrogen removal.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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The objectives of this study are to compare the performance of newly developed baffled and conventional horizontal subsurface-flow (HSF) constructed wetlands in the removal of nitrogen at the hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 2, 3 and 5 days and to evaluate the potential of rice husk as wetland media for wastewater treatment. The results show that the planted baffled unit achieved 74%, 84% and 99% ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) removal versus 55%, 70% and 96% for the conventional unit at HRT of 2, 3 and 5 days, respectively. The better performance of the baffled unit was explained by the longer pathway due to the up-flow and down-flow conditions sequentially thus allowing more contact of the wastewater with the rhizomes and micro-aerobic zones. Near complete total oxidized nitrogen was observed due to the use of rice husk as wetland media which provided the COD as the electron donor in the denitrification process.
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Bioregeneration of granular activated carbon in simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of chlorophenols.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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The objectives of this study are to obtain the time courses of the amount of chlorophenol adsorbed onto granular activated carbon (GAC) in the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes involving 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), respectively, and to quantify the bioregeneration efficiency of GAC loaded with 4-CP and 2,4-DCP by direct measurement of the amount of chlorophenol adsorbed onto GAC. Under abiotic and biotic conditions, the time courses of the amount of chlorophenol adsorbed onto GAC at various GAC dosages for the initial 4-CP and 2,4-DCP concentrations below and above the biomass acclimated concentrations of 300 and 150 mg/L, respectively, were determined. The results show that the highest bioregeneration efficiency was achieved provided that the initial adsorbate concentration was lower than the acclimated concentration. When the initial adsorbate concentration was higher than the acclimated concentration, the highest bioregeneration efficiency was achieved if excess adsorbent was used.
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Nitrogen removal in moving bed sequencing batch reactor using polyurethane foam cubes of various sizes as carrier materials.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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The performance of moving bed sequencing batch reactors (MBSBRs) added with 8 % (v/v) of polyurethane (PU) foam cubes as carrier media in nitrogen removal was investigated in treating low COD/N wastewater. The results indicate that MBSBR with 8-mL cubes achieved the highest total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 37% during the aeration period, followed by 31%, 24% and 19 % for MBSBRs with 27-, 64- and 125-mL cubes, respectively. The increased TN removal in MBSBRs was mainly due to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process which was verified by batch studies. The relatively lower TN removal in MBSBR with larger PU foam cubes was attributed to the observation that larger PU foam cubes were not fully attached by biomass. Higher concentrations of 8-mL PU foam cubes in batch reactors yielded higher TN removal.
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A new and facile method to prepare uniform hollow MnO/functionalized mSiO? core/shell nanocomposites.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Trifunctional uniform nanoparticles comprising a manganese nanocrystal core and a functionalized mesoporous silica shell (MnO@mSiO(2)(Ir)@PEG, where Ir is an emissive iridium complex and PEG is polyethylene glycol) have been strategically designed and synthesized. The T(1) signal can be optimized by forming hollow core (H-MnO@mSiO(2)(Ir)@PEG) via a novel and facile etching process, for which the mechanism has been discussed in detail. Systematic investigation on correlation for longitudinal relaxation (T(1)) versus core shapes and shell silica porosity of the nanocomposites (MnO, H-MnO, MnO@SiO(2), MnO@mSiO(2), H-MnO@mSiO(2)) has been carried out. The results show that the worm-like nanochannels in the mesoporous silica shell not only increase water permeability to the interior hollow manganese oxide core for T(1) signal but also enhance photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy by enabling the free diffusion of oxygen. Notably, the H-MnO@mSiO(2)(Ir)@PEG nanocomposite with promising r(1) relaxivity demonstrates its versatility, in which the magnetic core provides the capability for magnetic resonance imaging, while the simultaneous red phosphorescence and singlet oxygen generation from the Ir complex are capable of providing optical imaging and inducing apoptosis, respectively.
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Amplification volume reduction on DNA database samples using FTA™ Classic Cards.
Forensic Sci Int Genet
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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The DNA forensic community always strives towards improvements in aspects such as sensitivity, robustness, and efficacy balanced with cost efficiency. Therefore our laboratory decided to study the feasibility of PCR amplification volume reduction using DNA entrapped in FTA™ Classic Card and to bring cost savings to the laboratory. There were a few concerns the laboratory needed to address. First, the kinetics of the amplification reaction could be significantly altered. Second, an increase in sensitivity might affect interpretation due to increased stochastic effects even though they were pristine samples. Third, statics might cause FTA punches to jump out of its allocated well into another thus causing sample-to-sample contamination. Fourth, the size of the punches might be too small for visual inspection. Last, there would be a limit to the extent of volume reduction due to evaporation and the possible need of re-injection of samples for capillary electrophoresis. The laboratory had successfully optimized a reduced amplification volume of 10 ?L for FTA samples.
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Is Weisskoff model valid for the correction of contrast agent extravasation with combined T1 and T2* effects in dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI?
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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The Weisskoff model has been widely applied for correcting the T1 effect of the contrast agent leakage in the measured dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MRI signals. This study aimed to modify the Weisskoff model for the inclusion of both T1 and T2 effects of the contrast agent extravasation.
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Breast cancer in a multi-ethnic Asian setting: results from the Singapore-Malaysia hospital-based breast cancer registry.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
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Two hospital-based breast cancer databases (University Malaya Medical Center, Malaysia [n = 1513] and National University Hospital, Singapore [n = 2545]) were merged into a regional registry of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2007. A review of the data found 51% of patients diagnosed before the age of 50 years. and 72% percent of the women were Chinese followed by Malays (16%), Indians (8%), and other races (4%). Median tumor size at presentation was 26 mm and about 25% of patients presented with TNM stage III or IV disease. Most tumors were of ductal histology (87%). Fifty-seven percent of tumors were estrogen receptor positive and 40% were poorly differentiated. Of those patients who had surgery, 70% had mastectomy while 30% had breast conserving surgery. Overall, chemotherapy was administered to 56% of patients and hormonal treatment to 60%. Five-year overall survival was 82.5% in patients with TNM stage 0 to stage II cancer, and 30.2% in those with later stages.
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Prognostic value of axillary lymph node status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results from a multicentre study.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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The prognostic value of lymph node involvement after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is not straightforward. We evaluated whether lymph node involvement is associated with overall survival in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and whether Lymph Node Ratio (LNR--ratio of the positive to excised axillary lymph nodes) is a superior prognosticator when compared to ypN status (according to the pTNM classification).
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Comparison of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of S-1 between Caucasian and East Asian patients.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2010
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S-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine anti-neoplastic agent that is converted by CYP2A6 to 5-fluorouracil (5FU). We prospectively studied the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of S-1 in two groups of East Asian and Caucasian patients with solid malignancy refractory to standard chemotherapy, or for which 5FU was indicated, to elucidate differences in relation to CYP2A6 genotype and phenotype. S-1 was given orally at 30 mg/m(2) b.i.d. for 14 days every 21 days. Dose normalized AUC(0-48 h) for tegafur (P = 0.05) and gimeracil (P = 0.036) were higher in East Asians; conversely, AUC(0-48 h) of fluoro-?-alanine was higher in Caucasians (P = 0.044). Exposure to 5FU was similar in both groups (P = 0.967). Mean cotinine:nicotine ratio was 54% higher in the Caucasian group (P = 0.03), and correlated with oral clearance of tegafur (r = 0.59; P = 0.002). Grade 3/4 gastrointestinal toxicities were more common in Caucasians than Asians (21%vs 0%). Treatment with S-1 yields no significant difference in 5FU exposure between Caucasians and East Asians.
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Prospective audit of febrile neutropenia management at a tertiary university hospital in Singapore.
Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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Febrile neutropenia (FN) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Oncology/Haematology units. We launched a new protocol for FN management that incorporates risk stratification at our institute from October 2008. An audit was performed concurrently to evaluate the protocol and to define the epidemiology of FN locally.
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Management of endometrial cancer in Asia: consensus statement from the Asian Oncology Summit 2009.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Endometrial cancer is one of the gynaecological cancers that carries good overall prognosis because it is often detected at early stages of disease. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics replaced clinical staging with surgical staging in 1988 and updated the system in 2009. Controversies remain regarding the recommended screening protocol for women with a high risk of endometrial cancer, the role and benefit of retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection, the necessity of ovarian resection, the benefit and type of adjuvant radiation therapy, and the safety of hormone-replacement therapy after treatment. This article reviews the available evidence for optimum management of endometrial cancer and how management strategies can be applied in Asian countries with different levels of health-care resource availability and economic development. An overview of the literature for endometrial-cancer screening, diagnosis, and management is discussed. Consensus statements are formulated on the basis of basic, limited, enhanced, and maximum health-care resource availability, using the framework provided by the Breast Health Global Initiative.
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Vessel size imaging using dual contrast agent injections.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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To investigate the feasibility of a vessel size imaging (VSI) technique with separate contrast agent injections for evaluation of the vessel caliber in normal tissues and in brain tumors.
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Post-treatment tumor gene expression signatures are more predictive of treatment outcomes than baseline signatures in breast cancer.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2009
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Tumor gene expression signatures have been used to classify, prognosticate, and predict chemotherapy sensitivity in breast cancer, although almost all efforts have been focused on the unchallenged baseline tumor. Most cancer patients receive systemic therapy, and exposure to drug may modify the tumors short-term and long-term outcomes. Drug-induced tumor gene signatures may thus be more predictive of treatment outcomes than the unperturbed tumor gene signatures.
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Phase I and biomarker study of ABT-869, a multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with refractory solid malignancies.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2009
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To determine the safety and tolerability of ABT-869 at escalating doses and its effects on biomarkers relevant for antiangiogenic activity in patients with solid malignancies.
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Performance of sequencing batch biofilm and sequencing batch reactors in simultaneous p-nitrophenol and nitrogen removal.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
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The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in the simultaneous removal of p-nitrophenol (PNP) and ammoniacal nitrogen. SBBRs involved the use of polyurethane sponge cubes and polyethylene rings, respectively, as carrier materials. The results demonstrate that complete removal of PNP was achievable for the SBR and SBBRs up to the PNP concentration of 350 mg/l (loading rate of 0.368 kg/m3 d). At this loading rate, the average ammoniacal nitrogen removal efficiency for the SBR and SBBR (with polyethylene rings) was reduced to 86% and 96%, respectively. However, the SBBR (with polyurethane sponge cubes) still managed to achieve an almost 100% ammoniacal nitrogen removal. Based on the results, the performance of the SBBRs was better than that of SBR in PNP and ammoniacal nitrogen removal. The results of the gas chromatography mass spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses indicate that complete mineralization of PNP was achieved in all of the reactors.
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An atrophic crossed fused kidney with an ectopic vaginal ureter causing urine incontinence.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2009
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An ectopic vaginal ureter is an infrequent cause of urinary incontinence. Most cases are associated with a duplex kidney in which the lower moiety ureter drains into the bladder. Occasionally, some cases of ectopic kidney with single vaginal ectopic ureter can occur. In this study, we present a case of chronic continuous urine incontinence caused by the extremely rare combination of a fused-crossed kidney and a single vaginal ectopic ureter. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was carried out smoothly and uneventfully. In our experience, laparoscopic navigation and surgery can be valuable tools to delineate and manage unusual congenital anomalies.
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Phase II study of gemcitabine and carboplatin in metastatic breast cancers with prior exposure to anthracyclines and taxanes.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are usually exposed to both anthracyclines and taxanes during neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment of primary breast cancer or during initial therapy of MBC. We investigate the combination of gemcitabine and carboplatin in MBC with prior exposure to both anthracyclines and taxanes.
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Chemotherapy-induced tumor gene expression changes in human breast cancers.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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Studying chemotherapy-induced gene expression changes in vivo, which could provide insights into mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance.
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catena-Poly[[bis-(5-chloro-2-nitro-benzoato)copper(II)]-bis-(?-5-chloro-2-nitro-benzoato)].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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In the title compound, [Cu(2)(C(7)H(3)ClNO(4))(4)](n), the coordination geometry around each Cu(II) ion is distorted square-pyramidal. The CuO(5) coordination is formed by five O atoms from the carboxyl-ate groups of five 5-chloro-2-nitro-benzoate ligands. This coordination leads to the formation of centrosymmetric binuclear units which are edge-shared, forming a linear chain along the a axis, with the Cu(II) ions alternately separated by 2.5891?(4) and 3.1763?(4)?Å. The chains are inter-connected into a three-dimensional network by C-H?O inter-actions.
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Simultaneous 4-chlorophenol and nitrogen removal in moving bed sequencing batch reactors packed with polyurethane foam cubes of various sizes.
Bioresour. Technol.
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Moving bed sequencing batch reactors (MBSBRs) packed with 8% (v/v) of 8-, 27- and 64-mL polyurethane (PU) foam cubes, respectively, were investigated for simultaneous 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and nitrogen removal at increasing 4-CP concentration. When the 4-CP concentration exceeded 300 mg L(-1), the MBSBR with 27-mL foam cubes was observed to outperform the other MBSBRs in removing 4-CP and nitrogen. The reasons were: (1) there were more biomass in inner layer of the 27-mL cubes, compared to that of the 8-mL cubes, which was more shielded from the inhibitory effect of 4-CP and (2) the 27-mL cubes were more mobile than the 64-mL cubes. Although increasing 4-CP concentration to 600 mg L(-1) resulted in incomplete removal of 4-CP in the MBSBRs, results of the batch reactor with 27-mL foam cubes showed that complete 4-CP removal within the REACT period could be achieved by increasing the packing volume to 20%.
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Operational factors affecting the bioregeneration of mono-amine modified silica loaded with Acid Orange 7.
Water Res.
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In this study, the operational factors affecting the bioregeneration of AO7-loaded MAMS particles in batch system, namely redox condition, initial acclimated biomass concentration, shaking speed and type of acclimated biomass were investigated. The results revealed that with the use of mixed culture acclimated to AO7 under anoxic/aerobic conditions, enhancement of the bioregeneration efficiency of AO7-loaded MAMS and the total removal efficiency of COD could be achieved when the bio-decolorization and bio-mineralization stages were fully aerated with dissolved oxygen above 7 mg/L. Shorter duration of bioregeneration was achieved by using relatively higher initial biomass concentration and lower shaking speed, respectively, whereas variations of biomass concentration and shaking speed did not have a pronounced effect on the bioregeneration efficiency. The duration and efficiency of bioregeneration process were greatly affected by the chemical structures of mono-azo dyes to which the biomasses were acclimated.
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Does the axillary lymph node ratio have any added prognostic value over pN staging for South East Asian breast cancer patients?
PLoS ONE
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Lymph node ratio (LNR, i.e. the ratio of the number of positive nodes to the total number of nodes excised) is reported to be superior to the absolute number of nodes involved (pN stage) in classifying patients at high versus low risk of death following breast cancer. The added prognostic value of LNR over pN in addition to other prognostic factors has never been assessed.
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Prospective audit of post-chemotherapy febrile neutropenia in patients with solid cancer and lymphoma in two Singaporean cancer centres.
Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
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Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in oncology and haematology units worldwide. The overall mortality in hospital surveys in Singapore surveys on post-chemotherapy FN has ranged between 3.0% and 8.8%. However, recent evidence indicates that outpatient management of patients with low-risk FN is safe and cost-effective.
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Vascular space occupancy MRI during breathholding at 3 Tesla.
J Magn Reson Imaging
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To evaluate the vasodilatory response of normal human brain and meningiomas under repeated breathholding challenges using vascular space occupancy (VASO) MRI at 3 Tesla (T).
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Bioregeneration of mono-amine modified silica and granular activated carbon loaded with Acid Orange 7 in batch system.
Bioresour. Technol.
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The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the role of mixed culture of biomass in the regeneration of mono-amine modified silica (MAMS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with Acid Orange 7 (AO7), (2) to quantify and compare the bioregeneration efficiencies of AO7-loaded MAMS and GAC using the sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach and (3) to evaluate the reusability of bioregenerated MAMS. The results show that considerably higher bioregeneration efficiency of AO7-loaded MAMS as compared to that of AO7-loaded GAC was achieved due to higher reversibility of adsorption of MAMS for AO7 and favorable pH factor resulting in more AO7 desorption. The progressive loss of adsorption capacity of MAMS for AO7 with multiple cycles of use suggests possible chemical and microbial fouling of the adsorption sites.
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Infections of the deep neck spaces.
Singapore Med J
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Deep neck infections (DNI) have a propensity to spread rapidly along the interconnected deep neck spaces and compromise the airway, cervical vessels and spinal canal. The value of imaging lies in delineating the anatomical extent of the disease process, identifying the source of infection and detecting complications. Its role in the identification and drainage of abscesses is well known. This paper pictorially illustrates infections of important deep neck spaces. The merits and drawbacks of imaging modalities used for assessment of DNI, the relevant anatomy and the possible sources of infection of each deep neck space are discussed. Certain imaging features that alter the management of DNI have been highlighted.
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Kinetic modeling of bioregeneration of chlorophenol-loaded granular activated carbon in simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes.
Bioresour. Technol.
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A kinetic model incorporating adsorption, desorption and biodegradation processes was developed to describe the bioregeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), respectively, in simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes. The model was numerically solved and the results showed that the kinetic model was well-fitted (R(2)>0.83) to the experimental data at different GAC dosages and at various initial 4-CP and 2,4-DCP concentrations. The rate of bioregeneration in simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes was influenced by the ratio of initial chlorophenol concentration to GAC dosage. Enhancement in the rate of bioregeneration was achieved by using the lowest ratio under either one of the following experimental conditions: (1) increasing initial chlorophenol concentration at constant GAC dosage and (2) increasing GAC dosage at constant initial chlorophenol concentration. It was found that the rate enhancement was more pronounced under the second experimental condition.
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Ethnic differences in survival after breast cancer in South East Asia.
PLoS ONE
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The burden of breast cancer in Asia is escalating. We evaluated the impact of ethnicity on survival after breast cancer in the multi-ethnic region of South East Asia.
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Plant production systems for bioactive small molecules.
Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.
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Bioactive small molecules are important dietary components of food, as well as being widely used in diverse industrial sectors, from flavours, fragrances and sweeteners through to natural pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Plants already manufacture many of these bioactives, but often in yields that are not commercially competitive. There are a variety of new pathway engineering, cell culture and molecular breeding strategies in use and in development to improve yield and the robust supply of bioactives in planta. In the future, biorefining applications are likely to play a significant role in providing chemical intermediates for bioactive production from biomass feedstocks.
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Structural polymorphism in the promoter of pfmrp2 confers Plasmodium falciparum tolerance to quinoline drugs.
Mol. Microbiol.
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Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum remains a challenge for the malaria eradication programs around the world. With the emergence of artemisinin resistance, the efficacy of the partner drugs in the artemisinin combination therapies (ACT) that include quinoline-based drugs is becoming critical. So far only few resistance markers have been identified from which only two transmembrane transporters namely PfMDR1 (an ATP-binding cassette transporter) and PfCRT (a drug-metabolite transporter) have been experimentally verified. Another P. falciparum transporter, the ATP-binding cassette containing multidrug resistance-associated protein (PfMRP2) represents an additional possible factor of drug resistance in P. falciparum. In this study, we identified a parasite clone that is derived from the 3D7 P. falciparum strain and shows increased resistance to chloroquine, mefloquine and quinine through the trophozoite and schizont stages. We demonstrate that the resistance phenotype is caused by a 4.1 kb deletion in the 5 upstream region of the pfmrp2 gene that leads to an alteration in the pfmrp2 transcription and thus increased level of PfMRP2 protein. These results also suggest the importance of putative promoter elements in regulation of gene expression during the P. falciparum intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle and the potential of genetic polymorphisms within these regions to underlie drug resistance.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.