The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin (DM?CD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4 °C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37 °C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel.
In this study, a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel was prepared by electron beam irradiation and evaluated for use as a buccal mucoadhesive drug delivery system. A poloxamer was modified to have vinyl end groups for preparation of the hydrogel via an irradiation cross-linking reaction. Carbopol was introduced to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogel. The in vitro release of triamcinolone acetonide from the hydrogel was examined at 37 °C. To investigate the topical therapeutic effect of triamcinolone acetonide on wounded rat skin and buccal mucosa, the appearance and histological changes were evaluated for 15 days after treatment with saline, triamcinolone acetonide solution, triamcinolone acetonide hydrogel, and blank hydrogel, respectively. Triamcinolone acetonide was released constantly from the gel formulation at 37 °C and reach 100% at about 48 h. After 15 days, in the skin of the group treated with the triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel, the wound was almost completely free of crust and a number of skin appendages, including hair follicles, had formed at the margins of the tissue. Moreover, the inflammatory response in the buccal mucosa was milder than that in the other groups, and the wound surface was completely covered with regenerating, hyperkeratotic, thickened epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the triamcinolone-acetonide hydrogel showed sustained drug release behavior, while causing no significant histopathological changes in buccal and skin tissues. Therefore, this hydrogel system may be a powerful means of drug delivery for buccal administration with controlled release and no tissue irritation.
The purpose of this study was to enhance encapsulation efficiency and sustained-release delivery for parenteral administration of a protein drug. To reduce the administration frequency of protein drugs, it is necessary to develop sustained delivery systems. In this study, protein drug-loaded cationic liposomes were formulated with dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), and cholesterol (CH) at a molar ratio of DOPE/DOTAP/CH of 2/1.5/2. Five mol% of distearoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG) was added prior to encapsulation of the drug into liposomes. Insulin was chosen as a model protein drug and encapsulation efficiency was evaluated in various liposomes with and without DSPE-PEG. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the insulin-loaded cationic liposomes. Structural analysis was performed using spectropolarimetry. Additionally, the stability and cytotoxicity of insulin-loaded cationic liposomes were evaluated. Liposomes coated with DSPE-PEG showed higher insulin encapsulation efficiency than did those without DSPE-PEG, but not significantly. Moreover, among the liposomes coated with DSPE-PEG, those hydrated with 10% sucrose showed higher encapsulation efficiency than did liposomes hydrated in either phosphate-buffered saline or 5% dextrose. In vitro release of insulin was prolonged by cationic liposomes. Our findings suggest that cationic liposomes may be a potential sustained-release delivery system for parenteral administration of protein and peptide drugs to prolong efficacy and improve bioavailability.
Amphotericin B (AmB) is used in the treatment of fungal infections; however, its clinical use is limited by its toxic side effects. In this study, AmB-loaded cationic liposome gels were formulated with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), and cholesterol (CH) at a molar ratio of DOPE:DOTAP:CH = 4:5:1 in thermosensitive gel composed of poloxamer 407 (P407) and poloxamer 188 (P188). To enhance the solubility of AmB, 6 mol% of distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine-polyethylene glycol was added prior to encapsulation of the drug into liposomes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the AmB encapsulated cationic liposome gels. In vitro release, stability and cytotoxicity of AmB in cationic liposome gels were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of AmB-loaded liposomes were in the range of 400-500 nm and 40-60 mV, respectively. The thermosensitive gel at the ratio of P407:P188 = 15:15 (w/w) gelled at 37 degrees C, approximating body temperature. Encapsulation efficiency of AmB was approximately 50-60%, which was influenced by the ratio of AmB to lipid. Moreover, AmB-loaded cationic liposome gels were more stable and less toxic than free AmB. From these results, cationic liposome gel formulations may be useful for vaginal delivery of AmB.
To achieve better therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance in the treatment for Candida vaginitis, the antifungal agent amphotericin B (AmB) was formulated in a vaginal gel using Pluronic-based multiblock copolymers (MBCP-2). To increase its aqueous solubility, the drug was incorporated as its inclusion complex with hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HPgammaCD). The formation of the AmB inclusion complex was characterized using different techniques including XRD, FT-IR spectrophotometry, DSC, and SEM. The sol-gel transition diagrams were determined by the inversion method at temperature intervals of 2 degrees C. Moreover, a histopathology study was performed to determine whether vaginal tissue damage was caused by repeated doses. The inclusion complex between AmB and HPgammaCD was completely formed, and the aqueous solubility of AmB was improved by the formation of the inclusion complex. The sol-gel transition diagrams showed that the aqueous solutions of MBCP-2 gelled at body temperature, and the gelation temperature of the polymer solutions was dependent on polymer concentration. In vitro drug release results indicated that MBCP-2 exhibited a sustained release of AmB in pH 7.4 and pH 9.0 buffers, whereas at pH 5.0, it presented a constant release that was completed within 3 days. There was no visible sign of inflammation or necrosis in vaginal tissues after repetitive intravaginal application. In conclusion, the thermosensitive vaginal gel might be useful in the delivery of an antifungal agent for local treatment.
Gene therapy based on small interfering RNA (siRNA) has emerged as an exciting new therapeutic approach. However, insufficient cellular uptake and poor stability have limited its usefulness. Here, we report efficient delivery of siRNA via the use of cationic liposomes that contain a new PEG-lipid. The new lipid, poly-l-arginine-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PLR-PEG), was synthesized. To confirm the synthesis of the amino acid-conjugated PEG-lipid, (1)H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were performed. Cationic liposomes as non-viral vectors were formulated using the cationic lipids 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolaminepropane (DOPE), cholesterol (Chol) and PLR-PEG. Physicochemical properties of cationic liposomes were investigated. A GFP siRNA was used as a model siRNA to test the efficiency of cationic liposome-mediated siRNA delivery. The liposomes could enhance delivery efficiency and decrease cytotoxicity at an optimized lipid composition. The new cationic liposome formulation using a new PEG-lipid (PLR-PEG) showed not only enhanced intracellular delivery of siRNA but also decreased cytotoxicity in H4II-E and HepG2 cell lines. The GFP siRNA delivered by new cationic liposomes using PLR-PEG was effective in reducing the GFP protein expression levels of the gene. These results suggest that the new cationic liposomes could be used for efficient delivery of siRNA therapeutics.
To enhance the solubility of rosiglitazone, rosiglitazone-loaded cationic lipid emulsion was formulated using cationic lipid DOTAP, DOPE, castor oil, tween 20, and tween 80. The formulation parameters in terms of droplet size were optimized focused on the effect of the cationic lipid emulsion composition ratio on drug encapsulating efficiency, in vitro drug release, and cellular uptake of the rosiglitazone-loaded emulsion. Droplet sizes of a blank cationic emulsion and a rosiglitazone-loaded cationic emulsion ranged between 195-230 nm and 210-290 nm, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of the rosiglitazone-loaded emulsion was more than 90%. The rosiglitazone-loaded cationic emulsion improved in vitro drug release over the drug alone and showed a much higher cellular uptake than rosiglitazone alone. Moreover, drug loading in cationic emulsions increased cellular uptake of rosiglitazone in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells more than the normal HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that cationic lipid emulsions could be a potential delivery system for rosiglitazone and could enhance its cellular uptake efficiency into target cells.
To improve physical properties and modulate the mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation via cross-linking by radiation, hydrogels were prepared using thermoreversible polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and mucoadhesive polymer carbopol 934P (C934P). As a model drug, naproxen was loaded in the hydrogel formulation. Sol-gel transition temperatures of hydrogels were measured by the tube-inversion method. The mucoadhesive potential of each formulation was determined by measuring the force required to detach the formulation from oral mucosal tissue. To strengthen the mechanical properties, the formulations were irradiated using an electronic beam. Drug release from the hydrogels and the cytotoxicity of each formulation were investigated. Sol-gel transition temperatures of the formulations were decreased by the addition of carbopol and were close to body temperature. The mucoadhesive force of the PF127 formulation was increased by addition of carbopol. In vitro release was sustained and the release rate was reduced by the addition of carbopol. After irradiation, the mucoadhesive force was increased about five-fold especially in the case of PF127 23% (9.7 kPa) and in vitro release was not sustained further. In conclusion, the use of a PF127 formulation incorporating a mucoadhesive polymer could effectively and safely improve oral residence time and absorption of naproxen. Irradiated formulations showed permanent cross-linking and improved properties.
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