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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chromosome 17 centromere duplication and responsiveness to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) genes have been proposed as predictive biomarkers of sensitivity to anthracycline chemotherapy. Recently, chromosome 17 centromere enumeration probe (CEP17) duplication has also been associated with increased responsiveness to anthracyclines. However, reports are conflicting and none of these tumor markers can yet be considered a clinically reliable predictor of response to anthracyclines. We studied the association of TOP2A gene alterations, HER2 gene amplification, and CEP17 duplication with response to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 140 patients with operable or locally advanced breast cancer. HER2 was tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization and TOP2A and CEP17 by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Thirteen patients (9.3%) achieved pathologic complete response (pCR). HER2 amplification was present in 24 (17.5%) of the tumors. TOP2A amplification occurred in seven tumors (5.1%). CEP17 duplication was detected in 13 patients (9.5%). CEP17 duplication correlated with a higher rate of pCR [odds ratio (OR) 6.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-34.29, P = .026], and analysis of TOP2A amplification showed a trend bordering on statistical significance (OR 6.97, 95% CI 0.96-50.12, P = .054). TOP2A amplification and CEP17 duplication combined were strongly associated with pCR (OR 6.71, 95% CI 1.66-27.01, P = .007). HER2 amplification did not correlate with pCR. Our results suggest that CEP17 duplication predicts pCR to primary anthracycline-based chemotherapy. CEP17 duplication, TOP2A amplifications, and HER2 amplifications were not associated with prognosis.
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Diagnostic yield of transbronchial cryobiopsy in interstitial lung disease: a randomized trial.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) is required for evaluation in selected patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The diagnostic yield of histopathologic assessment is variable and is influenced by factors such as the size of samples and the presence of crush artefacts left by conventional biopsy forceps. We compared the diagnostic yield and safety of TBLB with cryoprobe sampling versus conventional forceps sampling.
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Association of increased osteopontin and splice variant-c mRNA expression with HER2 and triple-negative/basal-like breast carcinomas subtypes and recurrence.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Osteopontin, a secreted phosphoglycoprotein, promotes tumor progression through binding to integrins and CD44 cell receptors. Its overexpression has been correlated with metastasis and adverse outcome in several neoplasms. In breast carcinoma, osteopontin mRNA and its splicing variant-c, a suggested marker for transformed cells, have not been extensively analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 415 breast carcinomas to examine total osteopontin and osteopontin-c protein distribution. RNA was extracted and retrotranscribed to cDNA from 309 tumors classified into immunophenotypes and in six cell lines representing the breast cancer subtypes. Total osteopontin and osteopontin-c mRNA levels were measured by quantitative RT-polymerase chain reaction. The median fold change of total osteopontin mRNA was higher in HER2-positive (fold-change = 14.7) and triple-negative/basal-like (fold-change = 14.7) tumors, whereas osteopontin-c mRNA was elevated in triple-negative/basal-like subtype (fold-change = 2.8). Total osteopontin levels were increased in SK-BR-3 (HER2-positive) and MDA-MB-468 (triple-negative/basal-like) cell lines. Higher total and osteopontin-c mRNA levels were seen in tumors of high grade, with necrosis, positive nodal status and high Nothingam Prognostic Index score. Disease-free survival was significantly shorter for patients whose tumors overexpressed total osteopontin (67% vs 73%). Moreover, increased osteopontin-c stratified subgroups of patients at higher risk of recurrence among immunophenotypes, especially in triple-negative/basal-like subtype (70% vs 83%). By multivariate analyses for disease-free survival, osteopontin-c emerged as a significant predictor of relapse. In summary, our data showed an association of osteopontin with poor prognostic factors, aggressive subtypes HER2 and triple-negative/basal-like, and higher risk of recurrence.
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DNA methylation profiling of well-differentiated thyroid cancer uncovers markers of recurrence free survival.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Thyroid cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes characterized by cytological, histological and genetic alterations, but the involvement of epigenetics is not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of aberrant DNA methylation in the development of well-differentiated thyroid tumors. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in the largest well-differentiated thyroid tumor series reported to date, comprising 83 primary tumors as well as 8 samples of adjacent normal tissue. The epigenetic profiles were closely related to not only tumor histology but also the underlying driver mutation; we found that follicular tumors had higher levels of methylation, which seemed to accumulate in a progressive manner along the tumorigenic process from adenomas to carcinomas. Furthermore, tumors harboring a BRAF or RAS mutation had a larger number of hypo- or hypermethylation events, respectively. The aberrant methylation of several candidate genes potentially related to thyroid carcinogenesis was validated in an independent series of 52 samples. Furthermore, through the integration of methylation and transcriptional expression data, we identified genes whose expression is associated with the methylation status of their promoters. Finally, by integrating clinical follow-up information with methylation levels we propose etoposide-induced 2.4 and Wilms tumor 1 as novel prognostic markers related to recurrence-free survival. This comprehensive study provides insights into the role of DNA methylation in well-differentiated thyroid cancer development and identifies novel markers associated with recurrence-free survival.
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Time trends of human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer, from 1940 to 2007.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Contribution over time of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in human cancers has been poorly documented. Such data is fundamental to measure current HPV vaccines impact in the years to come. We estimated the HPV type-specific distribution in a large international series of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) over 70 years prior to vaccination. Paraffin embedded ICC cases diagnosed between 1940 and 2007 were retrieved from eleven countries in Central-South America, Asia and Europe. Included countries reported to have low-medium cervical cancer screening uptake. Information on age at and year of diagnosis was collected from medical records. After histological confirmation, HPV DNA detection was performed by SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 (version1). Logistic regression models were used for estimating the adjusted relative contributions (RC) of HPV16 and of HPV18 over time. Among 4,771 HPV DNA positive ICC cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the two most common HPVs in all the decades with no statistically significant variations of their adjusted-RC from 1940-59 to 2000-07 (HPV16-from 61.5 to 62.1%, and HPV18-from 6.9 to 7.2%). As well, the RC of other HPV types did not varied over time. In the stratified analysis by histology, HPV16 adjusted-RC significantly increased across decades in adenocarcinomas. Regarding age, cases associated to either HPV16, 18 or 45 were younger than those with other HPV types in all the evaluated decades. The observed stability on the HPV type distribution predicts a high and stable impact of HPV vaccination in reducing the cervical cancer burden in future vaccinated generations.
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BRCA1 loss activates cathepsin L-mediated degradation of 53BP1 in breast cancer cells.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Loss of 53BP1 rescues BRCA1 deficiency and is associated with BRCA1-deficient and triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) and with resistance to genotoxic drugs. The mechanisms responsible for decreased 53BP1 transcript and protein levels in tumors remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that BRCA1 loss activates cathepsin L (CTSL)-mediated degradation of 53BP1. Activation of this pathway rescued homologous recombination repair and allowed BRCA1-deficient cells to bypass growth arrest. Importantly, depletion or inhibition of CTSL with vitamin D or specific inhibitors stabilized 53BP1 and increased genomic instability in response to radiation and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, compromising proliferation. Analysis of human breast tumors identified nuclear CTSL as a positive biomarker for TNBC, which correlated inversely with 53BP1. Importantly, nuclear levels of CTSL, vitamin D receptor, and 53BP1 emerged as a novel triple biomarker signature for stratification of patients with BRCA1-mutated tumors and TNBC, with potential predictive value for drug response. We identify here a novel pathway with prospective relevance for diagnosis and customization of breast cancer therapy.
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Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in cervical cancer cases in Spain. Implications for prevention.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is critical to guide the introduction and to assess the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccines. This study aims to provide specific information for Spain.
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Human papillomavirus detection by PCR assay in a large series of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with cytohistological correlation and follow-up.
Acta Cytol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) are the precursors of invasive cervical carcinomas and are generally associated with the integration of mucosotropic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host cell genome. Detection of HPV is easy to perform nowadays, even in laboratories with limited technological capacity, and follow-up procedures for patients with HSIL are well established.
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Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is associated with proliferation and invasiveness in Her-2/neu and triple-negative breast carcinomas.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, a member of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol receptor family, has been implicated in the progression of certain tumors; but it remains unclear whether it plays a role in infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas. We studied a series of 81 ductal breast tumors to determine the correlation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 overexpression with clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics associated with prognosis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 overexpression was identified in 14% (11/81) of tumors and was correlated with a high nuclear grade (P = .043), high mitotic index (P = .006), and Ki-67 greater than 20% (P = .047). Furthermore, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 expression was associated with aggressive carcinomas (triple-negative tumors [21%, 7/33] and Her-2/neu tumors [17%, 4/24]) but not with hormone-dependent carcinomas (0%, 0/24) (P = .040). There was no correlation between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 expression and survival, but a trend was found between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 overexpression and tumor recurrence. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 overexpression was related to proliferation and invasiveness in Her-2/neu and triple-negative breast carcinoma. Moreover, patients with low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-positive tumors had higher cholesterol levels (62.5%, 5/8) than those with low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-negative tumors (40%, 19/47). Nevertheless, the correlation between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and hypercholesterolemia was not statistically significant; but cholesterol levels were higher in patients with triple-negative breast carcinoma (60%, 15/25) and Her-2/neu carcinomas (40%, 6/15) than in luminal-A carcinomas (20%, 3/15) (P = .046). These findings suggest a relationship between hypercholesterolemia and aggressiveness of ductal breast carcinomas.
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Increased insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor mRNA expression predicts poor survival in immunophenotypes of early breast carcinoma.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2010
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The biology of breast carcinoma shows a great variation, reflected by the recent classification of phenotypes based on DNA microarrays or immunohistochemistry. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) in breast carcinoma subtypes and the impact on the outcome. We studied 197 consecutive breast carcinoma patients in stage I-II treated conservatively. Phenotypes were assessed on the basis of the expressions of ER/PR, HER2, Ki67, p53, Bcl2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Moreover, IGF1R expression (?-subunit and ?-phosphorylated/active form) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, IGF1R mRNA levels by quantitative RT-PCR and IGF1R mutations by direct DNA sequencing. Overall, 40% (78/197) of tumors were luminal A, 24% (48/197) luminal B, 19% (37/197) HER2-positive and 17% (34/197) basal/triple-negative. Luminal A tumors were predominantly of low grade, without necrosis, presenting in older patients as a ?2-cm unilateral mass (all P ? 0.046). ?-IGF1R overexpression was observed more frequently in luminal A (49%) cases, followed by luminal B (20%), HER2-positive area under the curve (22%) and basal/triple-negative cases (9%) (P = 0.01) with similar results for mRNA levels (53, 24, 13 and 10%, respectively) (P = 0.038), but without differences for mutations (P = NS). High IGF1R mRNA correlated with poor patient survival among subtypes (P = 0.004) (Kaplan-Meier; log-rank test). For overall survival, only histological grade and IGF1R mRNA emerged as significant predictors (P ? 0.034; Cox regression). Increased IGF1R mRNA implies poorer patient prognosis among the different subtypes, and that may be associated with the lack of responsiveness to tamoxifen in cases with a positive hormone receptor status. Our results highlight the biological and clinical relevance of IGF1R in early breast carcinoma subtypes, and provide knowledge to assist in treatment decision.
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Human papillomavirus genotype attribution in invasive cervical cancer: a retrospective cross-sectional worldwide study.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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Knowledge about the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer is crucial to guide the introduction of prophylactic vaccines. We aimed to provide novel and comprehensive data about the worldwide genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer.
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Relationship of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations with cancer burden in the family and tumor incidence.
Fam. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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The aim of the present study is to analyze the relationship of the incidence of mutations in the two major genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 conferring risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) with the cancer burden in families and with the presence and age of onset of BC/OC. We included 704 index patients (IP) and 668 family members of the IP who tested positive for BRCA1/BRCA2 who were studied in the Program of Genetic Counselling in Cancer of the Valencia Community (Spain). We found 129 IPs with deleterious mutations (18.3%), 59 in BRCA1 and 70 in BRCA2, detecting 396 mutations in this kindred. The incidence of mutations and their distribution between BRCA1 and BRCA2 showed a significantly uneven incidence among the family groups (P < 0.001). We found 179 tumors in the 396 mutation carriers (45%) and detected only 11 cancers among the 272 non-mutation carriers (P < 0.001). No differences in the tumor prevalence or the age of onset of cancer between the genes among the mutation carriers were found. The mutation carriers showed a 50% probability of having BC/OC at a median age of 49 years (95% CI 46-52 years) and 78% at the age of 70 years (95% CI: 71-85%). In conclusion the family burden of BC and OC is strongly associated with the incidence of BRCAs mutations and could foretell which of the two BRCAs genes is more likely to have mutations. Mutation carriers have a 50% risk of having BC/OC by the age of 50 years.
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Conjunctival resection with and without amniotic membrane graft for the treatment of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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To compare the efficacy of conjunctival resection versus conjunctival resection with amniotic membrane graft (AMG) in patients with superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis not responsive to medical therapies.
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Repression of E-cadherin by SNAIL, ZEB1, and TWIST in invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast: a cooperative effort?
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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It has been suggested that down-regulation of E-cadherin in invasive breast ductal carcinomas is mediated by the aberrant expression of several of its transcriptional repressors, but their inhibitory role and clinical importance are not yet well established. We investigated gene and protein expression patterns of the E-cadherin repressors SNAIL, ZEB1, and TWIST in relation to clinicopathologic parameters, in a series of 88 patients with invasive breast ductal carcinomas. Up-regulation of SNAIL messenger RNA (P = .008) and down-regulation of TWIST (P = .022) were associated with triple-negative tumors, whereas ZEB1 gene expression was more frequent in hormone-positive tumors (P = .004). Loss of E-cadherin was found in 19% of the tumors, but it did not correlate with aberrant expression of any of the repressors investigated herein. Nonetheless, we found that ZEB-1 protein overexpression inversely correlated with high tumor grade (P = .018), nuclear grade (P = .002), and presence of lymph nodes (P = .001), and these data were consistent with the gene expression data for ZEB1. Clinically, down-regulation of ZEB1 messenger RNA was associated with poor overall survival (P = .011) and disease-free survival (P = .053), whereas patients with TWIST negative tumors had a worse overall survival (P = .008) and disease-free survival (P = .006). Our data indicate that deregulation of TWIST is somehow important in the aggressiveness of triple-negative carcinomas and poor patient outcome, whereas down-regulation of ZEB1 seems to play a role in tumor spread, metastases, and poor survival.
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Low activation of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1-Receptor (IGF1R) is associated with local recurrence in early breast carcinoma.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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Background The predictive value of IGF1R on local recurrence in invasive breast carcinoma (BC) is not well known. Methods In a series of 197 lymph-node negative BC patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy, we performed immunohistochemistry for alpha-IGF1R, beta-IGF1R (phosphorylated/active form) and Estrogen/Progesterone receptors. We further evaluated the IGF1R mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR and IGF1R mutations by direct DNA sequencing (exons 19 and 21) in 85 primary BC (42 control cases, 31 with local recurrence and 12 with distant metastasis) and in 31 local recurrences. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for recurrence. Results Local recurrences were associated with high-grade tumors, PR-negative and low active-IGF1R, which emerged as independent breast relapse predictors by multivariate analysis. Conclusion Patients with early BC treated with lumpectomy and radiation who have low-grade tumors and favorable markers (increased content of active IGF1R and PR-positive) have a low risk of local recurrence. Therefore, do not benefit from a boost dose on the surgical scar.
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Triple negative breast carcinomas: similarities and differences with basal like carcinomas.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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The cDNA microarrays allows the classification of breast cancers into 6 groups: luminal A, luminal B, luminal C, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, and basal-like. This latter is characterized by the expression of basal cytokeratins (CKs), and frequent negativity for hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. There is a marked parallelism between triple negative breast carcinomas and basal-like carcinoma, but these are not equivalent terms. Estimated concordance is around 80%. CK5 seems to be the best marker for the identification of these tumors. Other good markers to identify these tumors are CK14, CK17, and epidermal growth factor receptor. A subset of triple negative breast carcinomas has myoepithelial differentiation, with positivities for smooth muscle actin, p63, S-100, and CD10 among others. Recent studies suggest that basal like carcinomas are originated from mammary stem cells.
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[Transbronchial lung biopsy using cryoprobes].
Arch. Bronconeumol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) is a bronchoscopy procedure used to obtain peripheral lung tissue. Small size samples and artefacts lead to variable, and usually poor, diagnostic yield. The use of cryoprobes may enable larger size and better quality biopsy samples to be obtained. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of TBLB with cryoprobes and analyse the histological quality of samples obtained.
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Phytosterols inhibit the tumor growth and lipoprotein oxidizability induced by a high-fat diet in mice with inherited breast cancer.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
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Dietary phytosterol supplements are readily available to consumers since they effectively reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Several studies on cell cultures and xenograft mouse models suggest that dietary phytosterols may also exert protective effects against common cancers. We examined the effects of a dietary phytosterol supplement on tumor onset and progression using the well-characterized mouse mammary tumor virus polyoma virus middle T antigen transgenic mouse model of inherited breast cancer. Both the development of mammary hyperplastic lesions (at age 4 weeks) and total tumor burden (at age 13 weeks) were reduced after dietary phytosterol supplementation in female mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. A blind, detailed histopathologic examination of the mammary glands (at age 8 weeks) also revealed the presence of less-advanced lesions in phytosterol-fed mice. This protective effect was not observed when the mice were fed a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Phytosterol supplementation was effective in preventing lipoprotein oxidation in mice fed the high-fat diet, a property that may explain - at least in part - their anticancer effects since lipoprotein oxidation/inflammation has been shown to be critical for tumor growth. In summary, our study provides preclinical proof of the concept that dietary phytosterols could prevent the tumor growth associated with fat-rich diet consumption.
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Genetic up-regulation and overexpression of PLEKHA7 differentiates invasive lobular carcinomas from invasive ductal carcinomas.
Hum. Pathol.
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Molecular differentiation between invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs) and invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) of the breast has not been well defined. We investigated gene expression differences between ILCs and IDCs and their correlation with variations in invasiveness and tumor growth. Total RNA was isolated from 30 frozen tumor samples: 10 from ILCs and 20 from IDCs. Gene expression was investigated using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Data and validation were performed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Gene expression differences between ILCs and IDCs were found in 140 genes. Overall, ILCs showed up-regulation of genes related with cell migration, lipid and fatty acid metabolism, and some transcription factors and showed down-regulation of cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton, cell proliferation, and energetic metabolism of the tumor cells. Our reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results showed that PLEKHA and TMSB10 expression discriminated ILCs from luminal A IDCs, whereas PLEKHA7, TMSB10, PRDX4, and SERPINB5 discriminated ILCs from luminal B IDCs. At the protein level, Plekha7 was overexpressed in ILCs but not in normal tissue or low-grade IDCs. Moreover, Plekha7 overexpression had an inverse relation with E-cadherin expression. The gene expression profile in ILCs and IDCs differs in several signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that overexpression of PLEKHA7 is common in ILCs and could be a molecular marker to differentiate ILCs from IDCs.
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ASPN and GJB2 Are Implicated in the Mechanisms of Invasion of Ductal Breast Carcinomas.
J Cancer
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The mechanism of progression from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) remains largely unknown. We compared gene expression in tumors with simultaneous DCIS and IDC to decipher how diverse proteins participate in the local invasive process.Twenty frozen tumor specimens with concurrent, but separated, DCIS and IDC were microdissected and evaluated. Total RNA was extracted and microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Microarray data were validated by quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Controls included seven pure in situ carcinomas, eight fragments from normal breast tissue, and a series of mouse breast carcinomas (MMTV-PyMT).Fifty-six genes were differentially expressed between DCIS and IDC samples. The genes upregulated in IDC samples, and probably associated with invasion, were related to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (ASPN, THBS2, FN1, SPARC, and COL11A1), cellular adhesion (GJB2), cell motility and progression (PLAUR, PLAU, BGN, ADAMTS16, and ENPP2), extracellular matrix degradation (MMP11, MMP13, and MMP14), and growth/proliferation (ST6GAL2). qRT-PCR confirmed the expression patterns of ASPN, GJB2, ENPP2, ST6GAL2, and TMBS10. Expression of the ASPN and GJB2 gene products was detected by immunohistochemistry in invasive carcinoma foci. The association of GJB2 protein expression with invasion was confirmed by qRT-PCR in mouse tumors (P < 0.05).Conclusions: The upregulation of ASPN and GJB2 may play important roles in local invasion of breast ductal carcinomas.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.