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CD16xCD33 bispecific killer cell engager (BiKE) activates NK cells against primary MDS and MDSC CD33+ targets.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are stem cell disorders that can progress to acute myeloid leukemia. Although hematopoietic cell transplantation can be curative, additional therapies are needed for a disease that disproportionally afflicts the elderly. We tested the ability of a CD16xCD33 BiKE to induce natural killer (NK) cell function in 67 MDS patients. Compared with age-matched normal controls, CD7(+) lymphocytes, NK cells, and CD16 expression were markedly decreased in MDS patients. Despite this, reverse antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays showed potent degranulation and cytokine production when resting MDS-NK cells were triggered with an agonistic CD16 monoclonal antibody. Blood and marrow MDS-NK cells treated with bispecific killer cell engager (BiKE) significantly enhanced degranulation and tumor necrosis factor-? and interferon-? production against HL-60 and endogenous CD33(+) MDS targets. MDS patients had a significantly increased proportion of immunosuppressive CD33(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that negatively correlated with MDS lymphocyte populations and CD16 loss on NK cells. Treatment with the CD16xCD33 BiKE successfully reversed MDSC immunosuppression of NK cells and induced MDSC target cell lysis. Lastly, the BiKE induced optimal MDS-NK cell function irrespective of disease stage. Our data suggest that the CD16xCD33 BiKE functions against both CD33(+) MDS and MDSC targets and may be therapeutically beneficial for MDS patients.
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Allotransplantation for patients age ?40 years with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: encouraging progression-free survival.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) disproportionately affects older patients, who do not often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data on 1248 patients age ?40 years receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT for aggressive (n = 668) or indolent (n = 580) NHL. Aggressive lymphoma was more frequent in the oldest cohort 49% for age 40 to 54 versus 57% for age 55 to 64 versus 67% for age ?65; P = .0008). Fewer patients aged ?65 had previous autografting (26% versus 24% versus 9%; P = .002). Rates of relapse, acute and chronic GVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year post-HCT were similar in the 3 age cohorts (22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19% to 26%] for age 40 to 54, 27% [95% CI, 23% to 31%] for age 55 to 64, and 34% [95% CI, 24% to 44%] for age ?65. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years was slightly lower in the older cohorts (OS: 54% [95% CI, 50% to 58%] for age 40 to 54; 40% [95% CI, 36% to 44%] for age 55 to 64, and 39% [95% CI, 28% to 50%] for age ?65; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant effect of age on the incidence of acute or chronic GVHD or relapse. Age ?55 years, Karnofsky Performance Status <80, and HLA mismatch adversely affected NRM, PFS, and OS. Disease status at HCT, but not histological subtype, was associated with worse NRM, relapse, PFS, and OS. Even for patients age ?55 years, OS still approached 40% at 3 years, suggesting that HCT affects long-term remission and remains underused in qualified older patients with NHL.
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Myeloablative cord blood transplantation in adults with acute leukemia: comparison of two different transplant platforms.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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We compared the clinical outcomes of adults with acute leukemia that received single-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation (sUCBT) after conditioning with a busulfan/antithymocyte globulin (BU-ATG)-based regimen at University Hospital La Fe (n = 102) or double-unit UCBT (dUCBT) after conditioning with a total body irradiation (TBI)-based regimen at the University of Minnesota (n = 91). Nonrelapse mortality, relapse and disease-free survival were similar in the 2 groups. Multivariate analyses, showed more rapid neutrophil (hazard ratio [HR], .6; 95% confidence interval [CI], .45 to .80; P = .0006) and platelet recovery (HR, .59; 95% CI, .43 to.83; P = .002) after the BU-ATG-based conditioning and sUCBT. Although there was a lower risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade II to IV (HR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.75 to 4.35; P < .001) after BU-ATG and sUCBT, the incidences of grade III to IV acute and chronic GVHD were similar between the 2 groups. Regarding disease-specific outcomes, disease-free survival in both acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients were not significantly different; however, a significantly lower relapse rate was found in patients with ALL treated with TBI and dUCBT (HR, .3; 95% CI, .12 to .84; P = .02). In the context of these specific treatment platforms, our study demonstrates that sUCB and dUCBT offer similar outcomes.
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Effect of Postremission Therapy before Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The impact of pretransplant (hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT]) cytarabine consolidation therapy on post-HCT outcomes has yet to be evaluated after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning. We analyzed 604 adults with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission (CR1) reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who received a reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT from an HLA-identical sibling, HLA-matched unrelated donor, or umbilical cord blood donor from 2000 to 2010. We compared transplant outcomes based on exposure to cytarabine postremission consolidation. Three-year survival rates were 36% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29% to 43%) in the no consolidation arm and 42% (95% CI, 37% to 47%) in the cytarabine consolidation arm (P = .16). Disease-free survival was 34% (95% CI, 27% to 41%) and 41% (95% CI, 35% to 46%; P = .15), respectively. Three-year cumulative incidences of relapse were 37% (95% CI, 30% to 44%) and 38% (95% CI, 33% to 43%), respectively (P = .80). Multivariate regression confirmed no effect of consolidation on relapse, disease-free survival, and survival. Before reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT, these data suggest pre-HCT consolidation cytarabine does not significantly alter outcomes and support prompt transition to transplant as soon as morphologic CR1 is attained. If HCT is delayed while identifying a donor, our data suggest that consolidation does not increase transplant treatment-related mortality and is reasonable if required.
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Targeting natural killer cells to acute myeloid leukemia in vitro with a CD16 x 33 bispecific killer cell engager and ADAM17 inhibition.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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The graft versus leukemia effect by natural killer (NK) cells prevents relapse following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We determined whether a novel bispecific killer cell engager (BiKE) signaling through CD16 and targeting CD33 could activate NK cells at high potency against acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) targets.
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Similar overall survival using sibling, unrelated donor, and cord blood grafts after reduced-intensity conditioning for older patients with acute myelogenous leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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For older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) provides the best chance of long-term survival. A formal comparison between matched sibling (SIB), unrelated donor (URD), or umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation has not yet been reported in this setting. We compared reduced-intensity conditioning HCT in 197 consecutive patients 50 years and older with AML in complete remission from SIB (n = 82), URD (n = 35), or UCB (n = 80) transplantation. The 3-year cumulative incidences of transplantation-related mortality were 18%, 14%, and 24% with SIB, URD, and UCB transplantation, respectively (P = .22). The 3-year leukemia-free survival rates were 48%, 57%, and 33% with SIB, URD, and UCB transplantation, respectively (P = .009). In multivariate analysis, poor-risk cytogenetics was associated with relapse (hazard ratio, 1.7 [95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 3.0]; P = .04) and worse leukemia-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.6 [95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.5]; P = .03), whereas donor choice had no significant impact on overall survival (P = .73). Adjusted 3-year overall survival rates were 55% with SIB, 45% with URD, and 43% with UCB transplantation (P = .26). Until prospective studies are completed, this study supports the recommendation to consider SIB donor, URD, or UCB for HCT for older patients with AML in complete remission.
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Successful remission rates and survival after lymphodepleting chemotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusion for relapsed hematologic malignancies postallogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Few therapeutic strategies exist for hematologic malignancies relapsing post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. We present outcomes on 35 patients with nonchronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) hematologic malignancies, the majority having acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndromes/myeloproliferative disorders (MDS/MPD) (n = 22) receiving lymphodepleting chemotherapy followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) at 2 T cell dose levels (0.5 and 1.0 × 10(8) CD3/kg). Forty-nine percent of patients achieved complete remission (CR), with a median duration of remission of 6 months (range: 2-71+). CR rates were similar between the 2 groups. The incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) of any grade was 49%. We saw a higher incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD, with a rate of 66% using the higher-dose DLI (grade III, 33% and grade 4, 20%) versus only 25% (10% grade III-IV) with the lower-dose DLI (P = .06). Overall survival at 1 and 2 years was 30% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-45%) and 19% (95% CI, 8%-34%); however, for those achieving CR, 1- and 2-year survival was improved at 44% (95% CI, 20%-66%) and 28% (95% CI, 8%-52%) (P = .03), respectively. These results demonstrate that DLI after lymphodepleting chemotherapy for relapsed hematologic malignancies results in frequent CRs. The lower DLI dose regimen improved the tolerability of this therapeutic approach, with modest rates of severe aGVHD.
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Myelodysplastic syndromes: the role of the immune system in pathogenesis.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2011
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The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a complex spectrum of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders manifested by cytopenias, risk of infection, and variable risk of progression to acute myelogenous leukemia. Several theories of MDS pathogenesis exist, with contributions of genetic, epigenetic, apoptotic, differentiation, and cytokine milieu abnormalities. Immune dysregulation has also been implicated in MDS pathogenesis. In some forms of MDS it is evident that immune dysregulation may be a primary pathophysiologic abnormality, while in others the abnormal immune function may represent only a small part of the pathologic puzzle. We review the current literature regarding natural killer (NK) cell, T cell, and myeloid derived suppressor cell abnormalities in the spectrum of MDS.
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To cry or not to cry: physicians and emotions at the bedside.
Minn Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Whether it is appropriate for physicians to display their emotions in front of a patient is a question that has no easy answer. Some physicians may consider it an expression of empathy, while others caution against doing so. This article describes the findings of a survey of blood and marrow transplant physicians who were asked whether it is OK to cry in front of patients.
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Pre-transplant consolidation chemotherapy may not improve outcomes after reduced intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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The role consolidation chemotherapy prior to reduced-intensity (RIC) HCT is unclear. We reviewed 60 consecutive patients with AML in CR1 undergoing RIC HCT at the University of Minnesota and evaluated outcomes based on exposure to pre-transplant consolidation chemotherapy. The two year incidence of relapse and the probability of overall survival were similar between those who did and did not receive consolidation chemotherapy. The 2 year incidence of transplant-related mortality was slightly higher in those who did not receive consolidation and correlated with a higher HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI) in that cohort. Our data suggest that exposure to consolidation chemotherapy prior to RIC HCT may not improve post-transplant outcomes for patients with AML in CR1.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning followed by related allografts in hematologic malignancies: long-term outcomes most successful in indolent and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) extends the curative potential of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to patients with hematologic malignancies unable to withstand myeloablative conditioning. We prospectively analyzed the outcomes of 123 patients (median age, 57 years; range, 23-70 years) with hematologic malignancies treated with a uniform RIC regimen of cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and total-body irradiation (200 cGy) with or without antithymocyte globulin followed by related donor allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota between 2002 and 2008. The cohort included 45 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 27 with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 8 with indolent NHL, 10 with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 10 with myeloma, and 23 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, other leukemias, or myeloproliferative disorders. The probability of 4-year overall survival was 73% for patients with indolent NHL, 58% for those with aggressive NHL, 67% for those with HL, 30% for those with AML/MDS, and only 10% for those with myeloma. Corresponding outcomes for relapse in these patients were 0%, 32%, 50%, 33%, and 38%, and those for progression-free survival were 73%, 45%, 27%, 27%, and 10%. The incidence of treatment-related mortality was 14% at day +100 and 22% at 1 year. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease was 38% at day +100, and that of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 50% at 2 years. Multivariate analysis revealed superior overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with both indolent and aggressive NHL compared with those with AML/MDS, HL, or myeloma. Worse 1-year treatment-related mortality was observed in patients with a Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index score ? 3 and in cytomegalovirus-seropositive recipients. These results suggest that (1) RIC conditioning was well tolerated by an older, heavily pretreated population; (2) patients with indolent and aggressive NHL respond well to RIC conditioning, highlighting the importance of the graft-versus-lymphoma effect; and (3) additional peri-transplantation manipulations are needed to improve outcomes for patients with AML/MDS or myeloma receiving RIC conditioning before HCT.
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Epigenetic approaches in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes: clinical utility of azacitidine.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a varied group of diseases leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Therapy of MDS has been difficult, with supportive cares used to ameliorate symptoms, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation the only curative option. Agents, such as the cytidine analog azacitidine, exert an effect on DNA methyltransferase leading to a reduction in DNA methylation, a process thought to be key to the pathogenesis of MDS. Recently, azacitidine has been shown to prolong survival and improve quality of life in patients with MDS, while maintaining a favorable adverse effect profile. This review highlights the scientific rationale for the use of azacitidine in addition to its application in current clinical practice for patients with MDS.
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Monosomal karyotype provides better prognostic prediction after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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We studied cytogenetic risk grouping schemes to stratify patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (n = 212) into prognostically distinct subgroups for relapse incidence (RI), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients were divided according to cytogenetic abnormalities based on the Medical Research Council, Southwest Oncology Group, Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB), Dana-Farber, and recently described monosomal karyotype (MK) classification schemes and analyzed separately for first complete remission (CR1; n = 134) and beyond (CR2+; n = 78). Multivariate analysis was performed after adjusting for age, conditioning intensity, donor type, and cytomegalovirus serology status. Although none of the covariates was associated with OS in CR1, the presence of MK (MK(+)) was associated with worse RI and PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.3, P = .01 and HR, 2.0, P = .05, respectively). No other classification scheme was predictive of outcomes in CR1. In CR2+, for RI, only MK(+) was predictive of poor outcome (HR, 3.7; P = .03). For PFS, all 5 classification schemes were predictive, and for OS, both the MK(+) and CALGB adverse karyotypes were predictive. In addition to cytogenetics, nonmyeloablative conditioning was associated with decreased PFS and OS in patients in CR2+ in all models. Our results indicate that among all classification schemes, MK classification can identify a subgroup with very poor prognosis in patients with AML after allogeneic HSCT.
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Differentiation therapy in poor risk myeloid malignancies: Results of a dose finding study of the combination bryostatin-1 and GM-CSF.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Pharmacologic differentiating agents have had relatively limited clinical success outside of the use of ATRA in acute promyelocytic leukemia and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors in myelodysplastic syndromes. The differentiating effects of such agents can be enhanced in combination with lineage-specific growth factors. We developed a dose finding trial to assess toxicity, differentiating activity, and clinical impact of the combination of bryostatin-1 and GM-CSF.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adults with myelodysplastic syndromes: importance of pretransplant disease burden.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the only known curative therapy for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We present the transplant outcomes for 84 adult MDS patients, median age 50 (18-69 years), undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at the University of Minnesota between 1995 and 2007. By WHO criteria 35 (42%) had refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB-1 or 2), 23 (27%) had refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) or RCMD and ringed sideroblasts (RCMD-RS), and the remaining 26 (31%) had refractory anemia (RA), myelodysplastic syndrome-unclassifiable (MDS-U), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disease (MDS/MPD), or myelodysplastic syndrome-not otherwise specified (MDS-NOS). Graft source was related in 47 (56%), unrelated donor (URD) marrow in 11 (13%), and unrelated cord blood (UCB) in 26 (31%). The conditioning regimen included total body irradiation (TBI) in 94% of transplantations; 52 (62%) myeloablative (MA) and 32 (38%) nonmyeloablative (NMA) regimens. Cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment by day +42, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) by day +100, and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) by 1 year were 88% (80%-96%, 95% confidence interval [CI]), 43% (36%-50%, 95% CI), and 15% (10%-20%, 95% CI), respectively. One-year treatment-related mortality (TRM), relapse, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were 39% (28%-50%, 95% CI), 23% (12%-32%, 95% CI), 38% (28%-48%, 95% CI), and 48% (38%-58%, 95% CI) respectively. Cumulative incidence of relapse at 1 year in patients with pre-HCT complete remission (CR) or <5% blasts was improved at 18% (8%-28%, 95% CI) compared to 35% (16%-54%, 95% CI) in patients with 5%-20% blasts (P = .07). Additionally, with MA conditioning, the incidence of relapse at 1 year trended lower at 16% (6%-26%, 95% CI) versus 35% (18%-52%, 95% CI) in NMA (P = .06), and a statistically significant decrease in relapse was noted in patients entering HCT with CR or <5% blasts with an incidence of 9% (0%-18%, 95% CI) (MA) versus 31% (11%-51%, 95% CI) (NMA) (P = 0.04). For those patients with > or =5% blasts, MA conditioning did not significantly decrease relapse rates. One-year TRM was similar between MA and NMA conditioning. For patients entering transplant in CR or with <5% blasts, prior treatment to reach this level did not impact rates of relapse or transplant-related mortality when all patients were analyzed; however, when broken down by conditioning intensity, there was a trend toward improved DFS in those NMA patients who were pretreated. Finally, 1-year DFS was similar using related donor peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC)/marrow, URD marrow, or UCB grafts. These data suggest that (1) blast percentage <5% at HSCT is the major predictor of improved DFS and relapse and prior treatment to reach this disease status may have value in leading to improved DFS; (2) MA conditioning is associated with lower relapse risk, particularly in patients with CR or <5% blasts, but is not able to overcome increased disease burden; (3) NMA conditioning yields equivalent TRM, DFS, and OS, and is reasonable in patients unsuited for MA conditioning; (4) the donor sources tested (PBSC, bone marrow [BM], or UCB) yielded similar outcomes.
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Reduced intensity conditioning is superior to nonmyeloablative conditioning for older chronic myelogenous leukemia patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant during the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era.
Blood
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Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and reduced intensity conditioning (RIC)/nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning hematopoietic cell transplants (HCTs) have changed the therapeutic strategy for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. We analyzed post-HCT outcomes of 306 CML patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research aged 40 years and older undergoing RIC/NMA HCT from 2001 to 2007: 117 (38%) aged 40 to 49 years, 119 (39%) 50 to 59 years, and 70 (23%) 60 years or older. The majority (74%) had treatment with imatinib before HCT. At HCT, most patients aged 40 to 49 years were in chronic phase (CP) 1 (74%), compared with 31% aged 60 years or older. Siblings were donors for 56% aged 40 to 49 years; older cohorts had more unrelated donors. The majority received peripheral blood grafts and RIC across all age groups. 3 year overall survival (54%, 52%, and 41%), day + 100 grade II-IV acute GVHD (26%, 32%, and 32%), chronic GVHD (58%, 51%, and 43%), and 1-year treatment-related mortality (18%, 20%, and 13%) were similar across ages. The 3-year relapse incidence (36%, 43%, and 66%) and disease-free survival (35%, 32%, and 16%) were inferior in the oldest cohort. Importantly, for CP1 patients, relapse and disease-free survival were similar across age cohorts. Allogeneic RIC HCT for older patients with CML can control relapse with acceptable toxicity and survival in TKI-exposed CML, especially if still in CP1.
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