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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Role of T lymphocytes in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Implications for treatment.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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T cells play a role in the initiation and perpetuation of tissue inflammation that can lead to tissue destruction. With the discovery of a number of T helper subsets and their potential plasticity during disease it became clear that the T cell behaviour in autoimmune diseases is much more complex than the first Th1/Th2 concept. From experimental autoimmune arthritis models it became clear that the IL-23/IL-17 immune pathway is critical in the development of autoimmune arthritis and IL-17A has been recognized to be a key T cell cytokine involved in initiation and perpetuation of chronic destructive arthritis. Functional studies using T cells and stromal cells from patients with RA revealed improvement of anti-TNF effects when combined with agents neutralizing IL-17A or agents suppressing Th17 cytokines production. Clinic trials will be needed to test whether these data from experimental settings can be translated to human arthritis.

Different approaches are available or under investigation to target: (1) pathogenic T cell activity by inhibiting RORc or STAT3 or the co-stimulator pathway by CTLA4-Ig; (2) Th17 cytokine production by anti-IL-17A, anti-IL-22, or combination of anti-IL-17A/anti-TNF approaches; (3) Th17 polarization by neutralizing IL-23 using an anti-IL-23 specific antibody, IL-12/IL-23 by an anti-p40 antibody, or the IL-6 signaling pathway; (4) Th17 migration by interfering the CCR6-CCL20 interaction. The challenge is to bring the best to the clinic to further improve current therapy for patients with RA and to reach stable remission or even prevent the development of this disabling disease.

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Giardia muris infection in mice is associated with a protective interleukin 17A response and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Giardia lamblia) is one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in mammals, including humans. In the current study, a Giardia muris-mouse model was used to analyze cytokine transcription patterns and histological changes in intestinal tissue at different time points during infection in C57BL/6 mice. Since earlier work revealed the upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in Giardia-infected calves, a second aim was to investigate the potential activation of PPARs in the intestines of infected mice. The most important observation in all mice was a strong upregulation of il17a starting around 1 week postinfection. The significance of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) in orchestrating a protective immune response was further demonstrated in an infection trial or experiment using IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) knockout (KO) mice: whereas in wild-type (WT) mice, cyst secretion dropped significantly after 3 weeks of infection, the IL-17RA KO mice were unable to clear the infection. Analysis of the intestinal response further indicated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) induction soon after the initial contact with the parasite, as characterized by the transcriptional upregulation of ppara itself and several downstream target genes such as pltp and cpt1. Overall, PPAR? did not seem to have any influence on the immune response against G. muris, since PPAR? KO animals expressed il-17a and could clear the infection similar to WT controls. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time the importance of IL-17 production in the clearance of a G. muris infection together with an early induction of PPAR?. The effect of the latter, however, is still unclear.
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Fc?RIIb on myeloid cells rather than on B cells protects from collagen-induced arthritis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Extensive analysis of a variety of arthritis models in germline KO mice has revealed that all four receptors for the Fc part of IgG (Fc?R) play a role in the disease process. However, their precise cell type-specific contribution is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the specific role of the inhibiting Fc?RIIb on B lymphocytes (using CD19Cre mice) and in the myeloid cell compartment (using C/EBP?Cre mice) in the development of arthritis induced by immunization with either bovine or chicken collagen type II. Despite their comparable anti-mouse collagen autoantibody titers, full Fc?RIIb knockout (KO), but not B cell-specific Fc?RIIb KO, mice showed a significantly increased incidence and severity of disease compared with wild-type control mice when immunized with bovine collagen. When immunized with chicken collagen, disease incidence was significantly increased in pan-myeloid and full Fc?RIIb KO mice, but not in B cell-specific KO mice, whereas disease severity was only significantly increased in full Fc?RIIb KO mice compared with incidence and severity in wild-type control mice. We conclude that, although anti-mouse collagen autoantibodies are a prerequisite for the development of collagen-induced arthritis, their presence is insufficient for disease development. Fc?RIIb on myeloid effector cells, as a modulator of the threshold for downstream Ab effector pathways, plays a dominant role in the susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis, whereas Fc?RIIb on B cells, as a regulator of Ab production, has a minor effect on disease susceptibility.
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A human vitamin D receptor mutation causes rickets and impaired Th1/Th17 responses.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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We present a brother and sister with severe rickets, alopecia and highly elevated serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D3). Genomic sequencing showed a homozygous point mutation (A133G) in the vitamin D receptor gene, leading to an amino acid change in the DNA binding domain (K45E), which was described previously. Hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets (HVDRR) was diagnosed. Functional studies in skin biopsy fibroblasts confirmed this. 1,25-(OH)2D3 reduced T helper (Th) cell population-specific cytokine expression of interferon ? (Th1), interleukins IL-17A (Th17) and IL-22 (Th17/Th22) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the patient's parents, whereas IL-4 (Th2) levels were higher, reflecting an immunosuppressive condition. None of these factors were regulated by 1,25-(OH)2D3 in PBMCs from the boy. At present, both patients (boy is 23years of age, girl is 7) have not experienced any major immune-related disorders. Although both children developed alopecia, the girl did so earlier than the boy. The boy showed complete recovery from the rickets at the age of 17 and does not require any vitamin D supplementations to date. In conclusion, we characterized two siblings with HVDRR, due to a mutation in the DNA binding domain of VDR. Despite a defective T cell response to vitamin D, no signs of any inflammatory-related abnormalities were seen, thus questioning an essential role of vitamin D in the immune system. Despite the fact that currently medicine is not required, close monitoring in the future of these patients is warranted for potential recurrence of vitamin D dependence and diagnosis of (chronic) inflammatory-related diseases.
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T-helper 17 cell cytokines and interferon type I: partners in crime in systemic lupus erythematosus?
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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A hallmark of systemic autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the increased expression of interferon (IFN) type I inducible genes, so-called IFN type I signature. Recently, T-helper 17 subset (Th17 cells), which produces IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22, has been implicated in SLE. As CCR6 enriches for Th17 cells, we used this approach to investigate whether CCR6? memory T-helper cells producing IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and/or IL-22 are increased in SLE patients and whether this increase is related to the presence of IFN type I signature.
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Absence of interleukin-17 receptor a signaling prevents autoimmune inflammation of the joint and leads to a Th2-like phenotype in collagen-induced arthritis.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) signals through the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) A/C heterodimer. IL-17RA serves as a common receptor subunit for several IL-17 cytokine family members. Lack of IL-17RA signaling may therefore have additional effects beyond those of lack of IL-17A alone. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of IL-17RA signaling in autoimmune arthritis.
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Synovial fibroblasts directly induce Th17 pathogenicity via the cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin E2 pathway, independent of IL-23.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Th17 cells are critically involved in autoimmune disease induction and severity. Recently, we showed that Th17 cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) directly induced a proinflammatory loop upon interaction with RA synovial fibroblasts (RASF), including increased autocrine IL-17A production. To unravel the mechanism driving this IL-17A production, we obtained primary CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CCR6(+) (Th17) cells and CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CCR6(-) (CCR6(-)) T cells from RA patients or healthy individuals and cocultured these with RASF. IL-1?, IL-6, IL-23p19, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and PGE2 production in Th17-RASF cultures were higher than in CCR6(-) T cell-RASF cultures. Cytokine neutralization showed that IL-1? and IL-6, but not IL-23, contributed to autocrine IL-17A induction. Importantly, treatment with celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, resulted in significantly lower PGE2 and IL-17A, but not IFN-?, production. Combined celecoxib and TNF-? blockade more effectively suppressed the proinflammatory loop than did single treatment, as shown by lower IL-6, IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 production. These findings show a critical role for the COX-2/PGE2 pathway in driving Th17-mediated synovial inflammation in an IL-23- and monocyte-independent manner. Therefore, it would be important to control PGE2 in chronic inflammation in RA and potentially other Th17-mediated autoimmune disorders.
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Haemarthrosis stimulates the synovial fibrinolytic system in haemophilic mice.
Thromb. Haemost.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Recurrent joint bleeding is the most common manifestation of haemophilia resulting in haemophilic arthropathy (HA). The exact pathophysiology is unknown, but it is suggested that arthropathy is stimulated by liberation of fibrinolytic activators from the synovium during haemarthrosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that haemarthrosis activates the local synovial fibrinolytic system in a murine haemophilia model. The right knees of haemophilic and control mice were punctured to induce haemarthrosis. The left knees served as internal control joints. Synovial levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), plasmin, and alpha-2-antiplasmin (A2AP) were compared between the punctured and control knees. In haemophilic mice, an increase in synovial cells expressing urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the right punctured knee versus the left unaffected knee was observed: (47% vs 43%) (p=0.03). Additionally, in haemophilic mice, haemarthrosis induced an increase in uPA (0.016 ng/ml vs 0.01 ng/ml) (p=0.03) and plasmin (0.53 ?g/ml vs 0.46 ?g/ml) (p=0.01) as promoters of fibrinolysis. Synovial levels of PAI-1 (0.32 ng/ml vs 0.17 ng/ml) (p<0.01) was also increased, whereas synovial levels of A2AP were unchanged: (0.021 ?g/ml vs 0.021 ?g/ml) (p=0.15). Enhanced uPA production was confirmed in human stimulated synovial fibroblast cultures and elevated levels of plasmin were confirmed harmful to human cartilage tissue explants. In this study we demonstrate that haemarthrosis in haemophilic mice induces synovial uPA expression and results in an increase in synovial plasmin levels, making the joint more vulnerable to prolonged and subsequent bleedings, and adding directly to cartilage damage.
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IL-23 dependent and independent stages of experimental arthritis: no clinical effect of therapeutic IL-23p19 inhibition in collagen-induced arthritis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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IL-23p19 deficient mice have revealed a critical role of IL-23 in the development of experimental autoimmune diseases, such as collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Neutralizing IL-23 after onset of CIA in rats has been shown to reduce paw volume, but the effect on synovial inflammation and the immunological autoimmune response is not clear. In this study, we examined the role of IL-23 at different stages of CIA and during T cell memory mediated flare-up arthritis with focus on changes in B cell activity and Th1/Th17 modulation. Anti-IL-23p19 antibody (anti-IL23p19) treatment, starting 15 days after the type II collagen (CII)-immunization but before clinical signs of disease onset, significantly suppressed the severity of CIA. This was accompanied with significantly lower CII-specific IgG1 levels and lower IgG2a levels in the anti-IL-23p19 treated mice compared to the control group. Importantly, neutralizing IL-23 after the first signs of CIA did not ameliorate the disease. This was in contrast to arthritic mice that underwent an arthritis flare-up since a significantly lower disease score was observed in the IL-23p19 treated mice compared to the control group, accompanied by lower synovial IL-17A and IL-22 expression in the knee joints of these mice. These data show IL-23-dependent and IL-23-independent stages during autoimmune CIA. Furthermore, the memory T cell mediated flare-up arthritis is IL-23-mediated. These data suggest that specific neutralization of IL-23p19 after onset of autoimmune arthritis may not be beneficial as a therapeutic therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, T cell mediated arthritis relapses in patients with RA might be controlled by anti-IL-23p19 treatment.
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IL-17/Th17 mediated synovial inflammation is IL-22 independent.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Interleukin (IL)-17A and Th17 cells are critically involved in T cell-mediated synovial inflammation. Besides IL-17A, Th17 cells produce IL-22. Recently, Th22 cells were discovered, which produce IL-22 in the absence of IL-17. However, it remains unclear whether IL-22 and Th22 cells contribute to T cell-mediated synovial inflammation. Therefore, we examined the potential of IL-22 and Th22 cells to induce synovial inflammation and whether IL-22 is required for T cell-mediated experimental arthritis.
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The inhibiting Fc receptor for IgG, Fc?RIIB, is a modifier of autoimmune susceptibility.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Fc?RIIB-deficient mice generated in 129 background (Fc?RIIB(129)(-/-)) if back-crossed into C57BL/6 background exhibit a hyperactive phenotype and develop lethal lupus. Both in mice and humans, the Fc?r2b gene is located within a genomic interval on chromosome 1 associated with lupus susceptibility. In mice, the 129-derived haplotype of this interval, named Sle16, causes loss of self-tolerance in the context of the B6 genome, hampering the analysis of the specific contribution of Fc?RIIB deficiency to the development of lupus in Fc?RIIB(129)(-/-) mice. Moreover, in humans genetic linkage studies revealed contradictory results regarding the association of "loss of function" mutations in the Fc?r2b gene and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosis. In this study, we demonstrate that Fc?RIIB(-/-) mice generated by gene targeting in B6-derived ES cells (Fc?RIIB(B6)(-/-)), lacking the 129-derived flanking Sle16 region, exhibit a hyperactive phenotype but fail to develop lupus indicating that in Fc?RIIB(129)(-/-) mice, not Fc?RIIB deficiency but epistatic interactions between the C57BL/6 genome and the 129-derived Fc?r2b flanking region cause loss of tolerance. The contribution to the development of autoimmune disease by the resulting autoreactive B cells is amplified by the absence of Fc?RIIB, culminating in lethal lupus. In the presence of the Yaa lupus-susceptibility locus, Fc?RIIB(B6)(-/-) mice do develop lethal lupus, confirming that Fc?RIIB deficiency only amplifies spontaneous autoimmunity determined by other loci.
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Tumor necrosis factor-interleukin-17 interplay induces S100A8, interleukin-1?, and matrix metalloproteinases, and drives irreversible cartilage destruction in murine arthritis: rationale for combination treatment during arthritis.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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To examine whether synovial interleukin-17 (IL-17) expression promotes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced joint pathologic processes in vivo, and to analyze the surplus ameliorative value of neutralizing IL-17 in addition to TNF during collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).
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Imaging of activated macrophages in experimental osteoarthritis using folate-targeted animal single-photon-emission computed tomography/computed tomography.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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Evaluation of macrophage activation may provide essential information about the etiology and progression rate of osteoarthritis (OA). Activated macrophages abundantly express folate receptor ? (FR?), which can be targeted using radioactive-labeled folic acid. This study was undertaken to investigate whether macrophage activation can be monitored in small animal models of OA using a folate radiotracer and to determine whether macrophage activation differs in different models of OA with different OA progression.
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Role of interleukin 17 in arthritis chronicity through survival of synoviocytes via regulation of synoviolin expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2010
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The use of TNF inhibitors has been a major progress in the treatment of chronic inflammation. However, not all patients respond. In addition, response will be often lost when treatment is stopped. These clinical aspects indicate that other cytokines might be involved and we focus here on the role of IL-17. In addition, the chronic nature of joint inflammation may contribute to reduced response and enhanced chronicity. Therefore we studied the capacity of IL-17 to regulate synoviolin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in synovial hyperplasia in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) FLS and in chronic reactivated streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis.
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Interleukin-23 promotes Th17 differentiation by inhibiting T-bet and FoxP3 and is required for elevation of interleukin-22, but not interleukin-21, in autoimmune experimental arthritis.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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To examine the role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) in subgroup polarization of IL-17A-positive and/or interferon-gamma (IFNgamma)-positive T cells in autoimmune disease-prone DBA/1 mice with and without collagen-induced arthritis.
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Th17 cytokines and arthritis.
Semin Immunopathol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Th17 cells are implicated in human autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although it has not been established whether this persistent destructive arthritis is driven by Th1 and/or Th17 cells. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) contributes to the pathogenesis of arthritis as has been shown in several experimental arthritis models. Importantly, recent data from first clinical trials with anti-IL-17A antibody treatment in psoriatic arthritis patients and RA patients looks promising. This review summarizes the findings about the role of Th17 cells in arthritis and discusses the impact of the different Th17 cytokines in the pathogenesis of this disease. However, further studies are needed to unravel the interplay between IL-17A and other Th17 cytokines such as IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-21 in the pathoimmunological process of this crippling disease, in particular, whether regulating Th17 cell activity or specific combinations of Th17 cytokines will have additional value compared to neutralizing IL-17A activity alone. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-positive Th17 cells are discussed as potential dangerous cells in driving persistent arthritis in human early RA.
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TLR2 promotes Th2/Th17 responses via TLR4 and TLR7/8 by abrogating the type I IFN amplification loop.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
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TLR2 plays an important role in the removal of Gram-positive bacteria; contrastingly, it also appears to have important protective effects against unrestrained inflammation and subsequent organ injury during infection and autoimmunity. We hypothesized that TLR2 tunes the phenotype of dendritic cells (DCs) activated through other TLRs, thereby fulfilling a crucial role in the modulation of the immune response. TLR2 potently inhibited TLR4- and TLR7/8-induced cytokine production by human DCs. The inhibitory effect of TLR2 on the release of TNF-alpha but not of IL-12p70 was mediated by PI3K. TLR2 inhibits the production of IL-12p70 by dampening the type 1 IFN amplification loop. When DCs were triggered with the potent synergistic combination of LPS (TLR4) and R848 (TLR7/8) in conjunction with a TLR2 ligand, a clear shift to more Th2- and Th17-prone responses in the naive and memory T cell subpopulations was observed. This shift in T cell responses was inherent to the inability of TLR2-stimulated DCs to produce IL-12p70 and was dependent on the production of IL-1 and IL-6.
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Interleukin-23 is critical for full-blown expression of a non-autoimmune destructive arthritis and regulates interleukin-17A and RORgammat in gammadelta T cells.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Interleukin (IL)-23 is essential for the development of various experimental autoimmune models. However, the role of IL-23 in non-autoimmune experimental arthritis remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of IL-23 in the non-autoimmune antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) model. In addition, the regulatory potential of IL-23 in IL-17A and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORgammat) expression in CD4+ and TCRgammadelta+ T cells was evaluated systemically as well as at the site of inflammation.
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The IL-12/IL-23 axis and its role in Th17 cell development, pathology and plasticity in arthritis.
Curr Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was originally thought to be a T-helper (Th)1-, not a Th2-, associated disorder; however, it currently is unclear whether RA is a Th1- and/or Th17-mediated disease, and what the contributions of these T-cell subsets are in the pathogenesis of RA. Results from studies using different arthritis models have demonstrated that IL-17-producing T-cells are the dominant cell type in the development of arthritis. In addition, a critical role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in the progression to chronic destructive arthritis has been demonstrated. Interestingly, Th1 and Th17 cells both may have unique pathogenic potential, and the recent insights into T-cell plasticity may change the understanding of the role of T-cell subsets in chronic autoimmune diseases.
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Imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice is mediated via the IL-23/IL-17 axis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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Topical application of imiquimod (IMQ), a TLR7/8 ligand and potent immune activator, can induce and exacerbate psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disorder. Recently, a crucial role was proposed for the IL-23/IL-17 axis in psoriasis. We hypothesized that IMQ-induced dermatitis in mice can serve as a model for the analysis of pathogenic mechanisms in psoriasis-like dermatitis and assessed its IL-23/IL-17 axis dependency. Daily application of IMQ on mouse back skin induced inflamed scaly skin lesions resembling plaque type psoriasis. These lesions showed increased epidermal proliferation, abnormal differentiation, epidermal accumulation of neutrophils in microabcesses, neoangiogenesis, and infiltrates consisting of CD4(+) T cells, CD11c(+) dendritic cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. IMQ induced epidermal expression of IL-23, IL-17A, and IL-17F, as well as an increase in splenic Th17 cells. IMQ-induced dermatitis was partially dependent on the presence of T cells, whereas disease development was almost completely blocked in mice deficient for IL-23 or the IL-17 receptor, demonstrating a pivotal role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis. In conclusion, the sole application of the innate TLR7/8 ligand IMQ rapidly induces a dermatitis closely resembling human psoriasis, critically dependent on the IL-23/IL-17 axis. This rapid and convenient model allows further elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms and evaluation of new therapies in psoriasis.
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The pronounced Th17 profile in systemic sclerosis (SSc) together with intracellular expression of TGFbeta and IFNgamma distinguishes SSc phenotypes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease where controversy on Th1/Th2 balance dominates. We investigated whether the recently discovered Th17 pattern was present in SSc.
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GATA-3 protects against severe joint inflammation and bone erosion and reduces differentiation of Th17 cells during experimental arthritis.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the infiltration of T helper cells into the joints. It is unclear whether interferon-gamma (IFNgamma)-producing Th1 cells or the novel T helper subset, interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing Th17 cells, are the pathogenic mediators of joint inflammation in chronic nonautoimmune arthritis. Therefore, this study was aimed at examining whether the Th2-specific transcription factor GATA-3 can regulate arthritis, in an experimental murine model, by modulating Th1 and/or Th17 cell polarization.
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Effect of Arthritic Synovial Fluids on the Expression of Immunomodulatory Factors by Mesenchymal Stem Cells: An Explorative in vitro Study.
Front Immunol
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Background: In diseased joints, the catabolic environment results in progressive joint damage. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can have immunomodulatory effects by secreting anti-inflammatory factors. To exert these effects, MSCs need to be triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines. To explore the potential of MSCs as a treatment for diseased joints, we studied the effect of synovial fluid (SF) from donors with different joint diseases and donors without joint pathology on the immunomodulatory capacities of human MSCs in vitro. We hypothesized that SF of diseased joints influences the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs. Materials and Methods: MSCs were cultured in medium with SF of six osteoarthritis (OA) or six rheumatoid arthritis (RA) donors and three donors without joint pathology were used as control. Gene expressions of IL-6, HGF, TNFa, TGFb1, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) were analyzed. l-kynurenine concentration in conditioned medium (CM) by MSCs with SF was determined as a measure of IDO activity by MSCs. Furthermore, the effect of CM with SF on proliferation of activated lymphocytes was analyzed. Results: Addition of SF significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of IL-6 and IDO in MSCs. SF(OA) induced significantly higher expression of IDO than SF(control), although no difference in IDO activity of the MSCs could be shown with a l-kynurenine assay. Medium conditioned by MSCs with SF(OA or RA) suppressed activated lymphocyte proliferation in vitro more than medium conditioned by MSCs without SF or with SF(control). Discussion: SF can influence the expression of genes involved in immunomodulation by MSCs and the effect on lymphocyte proliferation. We found indications for disease-specific differences between SFs but the variation between donors, even within one disease group was high. These data warrant further research to examine the potential application of MSC therapy in arthritic joints.
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TNF blockade requires 1,25(OH)2D3 to control human Th17-mediated synovial inflammation.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
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T helper 17 (Th17) cells from patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) induce a proinflammatory feedback loop upon RA synovial fibroblast (RASF) interaction, including autocrine interleukin (IL)-17A production. A major challenge in medicine is how to control the pathogenic Th17 cell activity in human inflammatory autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to examine whether tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockade and/or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) controls Th17-mediated synovial inflammation.
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