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Design, Synthesis and Anti-HIV Evaluation of Novel Triazine Derivatives Targeting the Entrance Channel of the NNRTI Binding Pocket.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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A novel series of triazine derivatives targeting the entrance channel of the HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor binding pocket (NNIBP) were designed and synthesized on the basis of our previous work. The results of a cell-based antiviral screening assay indicated that most compounds showed good to moderate activity against wild-type HIV-1 with EC50 values within the concentration range of 0.0078-0.16 ?M (compound DCS-a4, EC50 = 7.8 nM). Some compounds displayed sub-micromolar activity against the K103N/Y181C resistant mutant strain (such as compound DCS-a4, EC50 = 0.65 ?M). Molecular modeling studies confirmed that the new compounds could bind into the NNIBP similarly as the lead compound, and the newly introduced flexible heterocycles could occupy the entrance channel effectively. In addition, the preliminary structure-activity relationship and the RT inhibitory assay are presented in this paper. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Arylazolyl(azinyl)thioacetanilides. Part 16: Structure-based bioisosterism design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel pyrimidinylthioacetanilides as potent HIV-1 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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A series of novel pyrimidinylthioacetanilides were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their biological activity as potent HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Most of the tested compounds were proved to be effective in inhibiting HIV-1 (IIIB) replication with EC50 ranging from 0.15 ?M to 24.2 ?M, thereinto compound 15 was the most active lead with favorable inhibitory activity against HIV-1 (IIIB) (EC50=0.15 ?M, SI=684). Besides, compound 6 displayed moderate inhibition against the double-mutated HIV-1 strain (K103N/Y181C) (EC50=3.9 ?M). Preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs), structure-cytotoxicity relationships (SCRs) data, and molecular modeling studies were discussed as well, which may provide valuable insights for further optimizations.
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Design, synthesis and anti-HIV evaluation of novel diarylnicotinamide derivatives (DANAs) targeting the entrance channel of the NNRTI binding pocket through structure-guided molecular hybridization.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Through a structure-based molecular hybridization approach, a novel series of diarylnicotinamide derivatives (DANAs) targeting the entrance channel of HIV-1 NNRTIs binding pocket (NNIBP) were rationally designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities in MT-4 cells together with the inhibition against the reverse transcriptase (RT) in an enzymatic assay. Encouragingly, most of the new DANAs were found to be active against wild-type HIV-1 with an EC50 in the range of 0.027-4.54 ?M. Among them, compound 6b11 (EC50 = 0.027 ?M, SI > 12518) and 6b5 (EC50 = 0.029 ?M, SI = 2471) were identified as the most potent inhibitors, which were more potent than the reference drugs nevirapine (EC50 = 0.31 ?M) and delavirdine (EC50 = 0.66 ?M). Some DANAs were also active at micromolar concentrations against the K103N + Y181C resistant mutant. Compound 6b11 exhibited the highest enzymatic inhibition activity (IC50 = 20 nM), which is equal to that of efavirenz (EC50 = 20 nM) and 31 times higher than that of nevirapine (EC50 = 0.62 ?M). Preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) and molecular modeling of these new DANAs have been discussed.
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Discovery of small molecular inhibitors targeting HIV-1 gp120-CD4 interaction drived from BMS-378806.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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The HIV-1 entry into host cells is a complex, multi-factors involved, and multi-step process. Especially, the attachment of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the host cell receptor CD4 is the first key step during entry process, representing a promising antiviral therapeutic target. Among the HIV-1 attachment inhibitors blocking the interaction between gp120 and CD4 cells, BMS-378806 and NBD-556 are two representative small molecular chemical entities. Particularly, BMS-378806 and its derivatives are newly identified class of orally bioavailable HIV-1 inhibitors that interfere gp120-CD4 interaction. In this review, we focused on describing the structure-activity relationships (SARs), structural modifications, in vitro or even in vivo pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of BMS-378806 and its analogues as HIV-1 gp120 attachment inhibitors. In addition, the brief SARs, structural modifications of NBD-556 and its derivatives targeting the "Phe-43 cavity" as CD4 mimics were also described.
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Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel 4-Aminopiperidinyl-linked 3,5-Disubstituted-1,2,6-thiadiazine-1,1-dione Derivatives as HIV-1 NNRTIs.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Based on the hybridization of the privileged fragments in DABO and DAPY-typed HIV-1 NNRTIs, a novel series of 4-aminopiperidinyl-linked 3,5-disubstituted-1,2,6-thiadiazine-1,1-dione derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anti-HIV activities in MT-4 cells. Most of the target compounds showed weak inhibitory activity against WT HIV-1. In order to confirm the mode of action of the target compounds, representative compounds Ba8 and Bb8 were selected to perform the HIV-1 RT inhibitory assay. In this assay, Ba8 and Bb8 displayed good activity with IC50 values of 3.15 and 1.52 ?M, respectively. Additionally, preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) analysis and molecular docking studies of newly synthesized compounds are also discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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2-(4-Chlorobenzyl)-6-arylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles: synthesis, cytotoxic activity and mechanism of action.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The cytotoxic activity of a new series of 2-(4'-chlorobenzyl)-5,6-disubstituted imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles against different human and murine cancer cell lines is reported. Among the tested compounds, two derivatives namely 2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-6-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole-5-carbaldehyde 4i and 2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-6-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazol-5-yl thiocyanate 5i emerged as the most potent against all the cell lines. To investigate the mechanism of action, we selected compounds 4i for cell cycle study, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential and Annexin V-FITC flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation assay. Results showed that 4i induced cytotoxicity by inducing apoptosis without arresting the cell cycle.
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Discovery of novel diarylpyrimidines as potent HIV NNRTIs via a structure-guided core-refining approach.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Guided by crystal structures of HIV-1 RT/DAPY complex and molecular modeling studies, a series of novel DAPY derivatives were rationally designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities. Among them, 16 compounds significantly inhibited HIV-1 IIIB replication with EC50 values lower than 66 nM. Particularly, compound 7a was the most potent inhibitor against HIV-1 wild-type and double RT mutant HIV-1 strain K103N/Y181C, with an EC50 value of 2.5 nM (SI = 13,740) and 0.33 ?M (SI = 107), respectively. Unexpectedly, compound 8c was found to show moderate anti-HIV-2 potency (EC50 = 5.57 ?M). Preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) and molecular modeling of these new analogues were also discussed in detail.
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Novel 3,5-bis(arylidene)-4-oxo-1-piperidinyl dimers: structure-activity relationships and potent antileukemic and antilymphoma cytotoxicity.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Novel clusters of 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-oxo-1-piperidinyl dimers 3-5 were evaluated against human Molt4/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes and human HeLa cervix adenocarcinoma cells as well as murine L1210 leukemia neoplasms. Several of these compounds demonstrated IC50 values in the submicromolar and low micromolar range and compounds possessing 4-fluoro, 4-chloro and 3,4,5-trimethoxy substituents in the series 3 and 4 were identified as potent molecules. A heat map revealed the very high cytotoxic potencies of representative compounds against a number of additional leukemic and lymphoma cell lines and displayed greater toxicity to these cells than nonmalignant MCF10A and Hs-27 neoplasms. These dienones are more refractory to breast and prostate cancers. The evaluation of representative compounds in series 3-5 against a panel of human cancer cell lines revealed them to be potent cytotoxins with average IC50 values ranging from 0.05 to 8.51 ?M. In particular, the most potent compound 4g demonstrated over 382-fold and 590-fold greater average cytotoxic potencies in this screen than the reference drugs, melphalan and 5-fluorouracil, respectively. A mode of action investigation of two representative compounds 3f and 4f indicated that they induce apoptosis which is due, at least in part, to the activation of caspase-3 and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential.
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Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Substituted Guanidine Indole Derivatives as Potential Inhibitors of HIV-1 Tat-TAR Interaction.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The interaction between the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat and RNA response element (TAR) plays a critical role in HIV-1 transcription. Based on the pharmacophore model of reported inhibitors, a series of novel substituted guanidine indole derivatives was designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro HIV-1 and HIV-2 inhibitory activity using the IIIB strain and ROD strain, respectively. Preliminary biological evaluation indicated that three compounds exhibited marked inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IIIB. Quite unexpectedly, compound a-7 was also endowed with the moderate anti-HIV-2 potency (EC50 = 58.14 µM). In addition, preliminary discussion on the activity results and molecular modeling of these new analogues were presented in this manuscript.
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Design and synthesis of a new series of cyclopropylamino-linking diarylpyrimidines as HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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A new series of 29 diarylpyrimidine analogues featuring a cyclopropylamino group between the pyrimidine scaffold and the aryl wing have been synthesized. All of the new compounds have been characterized by spectra analysis. The target molecules were evaluated for their in vitro anti-HIV activity with FDA-approved drugs as references. Some of the compounds exhibited moderate to potent activities against wild-type HIV-1. The compound 4-((4-((cyclopropylamino)(2,5-difluorophenyl)methyl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)benzonitrile (1e) displayed potent anti-HIV-1 activity against WT HIV-1 with an IC50 of 0.099 ?M and a selectivity index of 2302. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) of this new series of compounds was also investigated.
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Structural modifications of CH(OH)-DAPYs as new HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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A series of CR2(OH)-diarylpyrimidine derivatives (CR2(OH)-DAPYs) featuring a hydrophobic group at CH(OH) linker between wing I and the central pyrimidine were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cell cultures. All the target compounds except for compound 3k displayed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 wild-type with EC50 values ranging from 7.21±1.99 to 0.067±0.006 ?M. Among them, compound 3d showed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50=0.067±0.006 ?M, SI>592), which was approximately 2-fold more potent than the reference drugs nevirapine (NVP) and delaviridine (DLV) in the same assay. In addition, the binding modes with HIV-1 RT and the preliminary SAR studies of these new derivatives were also investigated.
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Fused heterocyclic compounds bearing bridgehead nitrogen as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs. Part 1: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 5,7-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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In our continuous efforts to identify novel potent HIV-1 NNRTIs, a novel class of 5,7-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives were rationally designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities in MT4 cell cultures. Biological results showed that most of the tested compounds displayed excellent activity against wild-type HIV-1 with a wide range of EC50 values from 5.98 to 0.07?M. Among the active compounds, 5a was found to be the most promising analogue with an EC50 of 0.07?M against wild-type HIV-1 and very high selectivity index (SI, 3999). Compound 5a was more effective than the reference drugs nevirapine (by 2-fold) and delavirdine (by 2-fold). In order to further confirm their binding target, an HIV-1 RT inhibitory assay was also performed. Furthermore, SAR analysis among the newly synthesized compounds was discussed and the binding mode of the active compound 5a was rationalized by molecular modeling studies.
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Design and synthesis of a new series of modified CH-diarylpyrimidines as drug-resistant HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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This article reports the design, synthesis and antiviral evaluation of a new series of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). The basic skeleton of these target 18 molecules is diarylpyrimidine featuring a substituted amino group between the pyrimidine scaffold and the aryl wing. All of the new compounds have been characterized by spectra analysis. The entire target molecules were evaluated for their in vitro anti-HIV activity with controlling group of FDA approved drugs. Most of them showed good to potent activities against wild-type (WT) HIV-1 with IC50 values in the range of 0.0175-69.21 ?M. 2-(4-Cyanophenylamino)-4-(2-cyanovinylphenylhydrazonomethyl)pyrimidine (1d) displayed potent anti-HIV-1 activity against WT HIV-1 with a selectivity index (SI) of 106367 and an IC50 value of 1.75 nM, which was 47 fold lower than that of AZT. Compound 1d also showed a broad-spectrum inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 5.33 ?M and 5.05 ?M against both HIV-1 double-mutated (K103N/Y181C) strain and HIV-2 strain, respectively. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) was also investigated. The binding modes with HIV-1 RT for both the wild type and mutant type have also been discussed.
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Discovery of nitropyridine derivatives as potent HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors via a structure-based core refining approach.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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As a continuation of our efforts to discover and develop back-up analogs of DAPYs, novel substituted nitropyridine derivatives were designed via a structure-based core refining approach, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro HIV-1 activity in MT-4 cells. Preliminary biological evaluation indicated that most of the compounds exhibited marked inhibitory activity against wild-type HIV-1 IIIB. Most notably, the compound 7b was identified as the most promising candidate in inhibiting HIV-1 replication with an EC50 value of 0.056 ?M and a selective index (SI) of 1251, which were much better than those of NVP (EC?? = 0.23 ?M) and DLV (EC?? = 0.51 ?M). Some other compounds, 7k, 7c, 7j and 7e, were also endowed with a favorable anti-HIV-1 potency (EC?? = 0.034, 0.11, 0.11 and 0.16 ?M, respectively). Some antivirally active compounds also showed moderate inhibitory activity against RT. Preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) and molecular modeling of these new analogs provide valuable avenues for future molecular optimization.
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Antiproliferative and antiviral activity of three libraries of adamantane derivatives.
Arch. Pharm. (Weinheim)
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Three libraries of adamantane derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for antiviral and antiproliferative activities against a broad variety of DNA and RNA viruses. Whereas none of the compounds exhibit antiviral activity at subtoxic concentrations, antiproliferative activity was found against murine leukemia cells (L1210), human T-lymphocyte cells (CEM), and cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa) for 4, 8, and 10.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of CHX-DAPYs as HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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A series of new diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs) characterized by a halogen atom on the methylene linker between wing I and the central pyrimidine ring was synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cell cultures. The two most promising compounds 7f and 7g showed excellent activity against wild-type HIV-1 with low nanomolar EC50 values of 0.005 and 0.009 ?M, respectively, which were comparable to or more potent than all the reference drugs zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), nevirapine (NEV), efavirenz (EFV), delaviridine (DLV) and etravirine (ETV). In particular, 7g also displayed strong activity against the double mutant strain 103N + 181C with an EC50 value of 8.2 ?M. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) and molecular docking analysis of this new series of CHX-DAPYs were also investigated.
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Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-hydroxyl derivatives.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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A series of 4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-hydroxyl derivatives (Ia-Im and IIa-IIe) designed as novel HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was synthesized via an expeditious route and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities in MT-4 cell cultures. All the synthesized compounds were structurally confirmed by spectral analyses. Biological results showed that three analogues displayed moderate inhibitory activity against wild-type (wt) HIV-1 replication with EC(50) values ranging from 16 to 22 ?m. Molecular docking of compound Ih with wt HIV-1 RT was performed to understand the binding mode between these inhibitors and the wt HIV-1 RT and to rationalize some SARs.
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Current race in the development of DAAs (direct-acting antivirals) against HCV.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) currently in development for treatment of hepatitis C fall into four categories: (i) NS3/4A protease inhibitors: ABT-450/r, faldaprevir, asunaprevir, GS-9256, vedroprevir (GS-9451), danoprevir, MK-5172, vaniprevir, sovaprevir, ACH-2684, narlaprevir and simeprevir, in addition to those that are already developed [telaprevir (Incivek®) and boceprevir (Victrelis®)], (ii) NS5A protein inhibitors: ABT-267, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, ACH-2928, ACH-3102, PPI-668, AZD-7295, MK-8742, and GSK 2336805; (iii) NS5B (nucleoside-type) polymerase inhibitors: sofosbuvir (now approved by the FDA since 6 December 2013), GS-0938, mericitabine, VX-135, ALS 2158 and TMC 649128; (iv) NS5B (non-nucleoside-type) polymerase inhibitors: VX-222, ABT-072, ABT-333, deleobuvir, tegobuvir, setrobuvir, VCH-916, VCH-759, BMS-791325 and TMC-647055. Future drug combinations will likely exist of two or more DAAs belonging to any of the 4 categories, with the aim to achieve (i) pan-genotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity, (ii) little or no risk for resistance; (iii) short duration (i.e. 12 weeks) of treatment, and (iv) a sustained viral response (SVR) and definite cure of the disease.
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Discovery of 2-pyridone derivatives as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs using molecular hybridization based on crystallographic overlays.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Based on crystallographic overlays of the known inhibitors TMC125 and R221239 complexed in RT, we designed a novel series of 4-phenoxy-6-(phenylamino)pyridin-2(1H)-one derivatives as HIV NNRTIs by molecular hybridization approach. The biological testing results indicated that 2-pyridone scaffold of these inhibitors was indispensable for their anti-HIV-1 activity, and substitution of halogen at the 3-position of the 2-pyridone ring would decrease the anti-HIV activity. Four most potent compounds had anti-HIV-1 IIIB activities at low micromolar concentrations (EC??=0.15-0.84 ?M), comparable to that of nevirapine and delavidine. Some compounds were selected to test their anti-HIV-1 RT inhibitory action and to perform molecular modeling studies to predict the binding mode of these 2-pyridone derivatives.
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Recent progress in the research of small molecule HIV-1 RNase H inhibitors.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Reverse transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a crucial step in the life cycle initiated by the viral-coded reverse transcriptase (RT), functioning as RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP and DDDP) and the ribonuclease H (RNase H). The RNase H functions to degrade the RNA strand of the RNA:DNA heteroduplex, which makes it an attractive target for rational anti-HIV-1 drug design and development. Although development of drugs targeting the DNA polymerase have been highly successful, the discovery of drugable inhibitors of HIV RNase H is still in its infancy and none of RNase H inhibitors has reached the clinical development stage currently. This review describes the recent progress in the HIV-1 RNase H inhibitors, focusing on their chemical feature, mechanism and the structure-activity relationship (SAR).
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Fused heterocycles bearing bridgehead nitrogen as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs. Part 2: discovery of novel [1,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines using a structure-guided core-refining approach.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Guided by crystal structures of HIV-1 RT/DAPY complex and molecular modeling studies, a series of novel [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives were rationally designed via structure-based core refining approach, synthesized through the readily accessible synthetic methods and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities in MT-4 cells. Preliminary biological evaluation indicated that most of the compounds exhibited marked inhibitory activity against the wild-type HIV-1 IIIB. Particularly, compound 7n was the most potent inhibitor against wild-type and K103N/Y181C double resistant mutant strain of HIV-1, possessing EC50 values of 0.02 ?M and 7.6 ?M, respectively, which were much better than or similar to nevirapine (NVP, EC50 = 0.15 ?M, 2.9 ?M) and delavirdine (DLV, EC50 = 0.07 ?M, >36 ?M). Besides, some other compounds, 5b, 7c, 7e, 7f, and 7m, were also endowed with favorable anti-HIV-1 potency (EC50 = 0.07, 0.05, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.05 ?M, respectively), which were better than or similar to those of NVP and DLV, suggesting a high potential to further develop this type of bridgehead nitrogen heterocycle as a novel class of NNRTIs with improved antiviral efficacy and resistance profile. The selected compound, 7i, was found moderately inhibitory towards RT (IC50 = 0.39 ?M), which was higher than for ETV (IC50 = 0.56 ?M). Preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) and molecular modeling of these new analogues were detailed in this manuscript.
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Antiviral drug development--success and failure: a personal perspective with a Japanese connection.
Antivir. Chem. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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At the 25th International Conference on Antiviral Research, I received a special recognition for my contribution to the International Society of Antiviral Research over a period of 25 years (from 1987 until 2012). This review follows the theme of my presentation at that event, which comprised 10 reminiscences, all with a Japanese connection concerning the success, or otherwise, in the clinical development of: double- and single-stranded polynucleotides; suramin, a polysulfonate; dextran sulfate, a polysulfate; brivudin; BVaraU; 2,3-dideoxynucleoside analogues; HEPT; adefovir and tenofovir; CXCR4 antagonists; and elvitegravir.
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Substituted naphthalen-1-yl-acetic acid hydrazides: synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and QSAR analysis.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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A series of naphthalen-1-yl-acetic acid benzylidene/(1-phenyl-ethylidene)-hydrazides (1-36) was synthesized and tested, in vitro, for antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activities. The antibacterial and antifungal screening results indicated that compounds having o-bromo, methoxy and hydroxy substitutents were the most active ones. The results of antiviral evaluation showed that none of the synthesized derivatives inhibited the viral infection at subtoxic concentrations. QSAR investigations revealed that the multi-target QSAR model was more effective in describing the antimicrobial activity than the one-target QSAR models. Further, it revealed the importance of the partition coefficient (log P) followed by energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and topological parameters, molecular connectivity indices (1?, 3? and 3?v) in describing the antimicrobial activity of substituted hydrazides.
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Design, synthesis and preliminary SAR studies of novel N-arylmethyl substituted piperidine-linked aniline derivatives as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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A series of novel N-arylmethyl substituted piperidine-linked aniline derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cells. All the new compounds showed moderate to potent activities against wild-type (wt) HIV-1 with an EC50 range from 0.022 to 2.1?M. Among them, compound 5a6 (EC50=0.022±0.0091?M, SI >10,770) was confirmed to be the most potent and selective inhibitor, which proved more potent than DDI and DLV in a cell-based assay against wt HIV-1, and more efficient than NVP in an RT (reverse transcriptase) assay. Besides, it is worth noting that compound 7a1 retained moderate inhibitory activity (EC50=4.8±0.95?M) against the HIV-1 double RT mutant strain (K103N/Y181C). The preliminary structure-activity relationship was discussed and rationalized by molecular simulation.
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Synthesis, antimycobacterial, antiviral, antimicrobial activity and QSAR studies of N(2)-acyl isonicotinic acid hydrazide derivatives.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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A series of N(2)-acyl isonicotinic acid hydrazides (1-17) was synthesized and tested for its in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the results indicated that the compound, isonicotinic acid N- tetradecanoyl-hydrazide (12) was more active than the reference compound isoniazid. The results of antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger indicated that compounds with dichloro, hydroxyl, tri-iodo and N(2)-tetradecanoyl substituent were the most active ones. The antiviral activity studies depicted that none of the tested compounds were active against DNA or RNA viruses. The multi-target QSAR model was found to be effective in describing the antimicrobial activity of N(2)-acyl isonicotinic acid hydrazides.
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Novel piperidinylamino-diarylpyrimidine derivatives with dual structural conformations as potent HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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A series of novel piperidinylamino-diarylpyrimidine (pDAPY) derivatives with dual structural conformations was designed through a molecular hybridization strategy and expected to bind into the non-nucleoside inhibitor binding pocket (NNIBP) of HIV-1 RT in a flexible manner. A cell-based antiviral screening assay showed that some compounds were active against both wild-type and drug-resistant mutant virus strains (K103N+Y181C RT) of HIV-1 (compound 10b3 with EC50=0.047 and 4.6?M, selectivity index=2145 and 22, respectively). Molecular simulation studies indicated that compound 10b3 could maintain the key hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds with the NNIBP of two RT/ligand complexes. In particular, it could simultaneously occupy the protein/solvent interface and the entrance channel. Exploring these hybrid molecules with dual binding conformations might provide optional chemical scaffolds as novel HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (HIV-1 NNRTIs).
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Multivalent agents: a novel concept and preliminary practice in Anti-HIV drug discovery.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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The term multivalency (polyvalency) in the biological science is defined as the simultaneous binding of multiple ligands to one receptor (or multiple receptors to one ligand). The possibility of gaining potency and selectivity was significantly increased through the use of multivalent ligand as a homo- or hetero-dimer, thus multivalent ligands provided a more attractive strategy to design novel anti-HIV agents with therapeutic applications. Moreover, similar to phenomenon of multivalency, an alternative strategy is called the "mixed sites inhibitor", viz. a single molecule that possesses enough chemical space to maximize interactions with its complementary binding pocket, or to bind simultaneously in more than one regions in a target. Actually, the addition of a third heterocyclic nucleus to the parent compound resulted in "mixed sites" anti-HIV agents with broad spectrum of activities against the mutant HIV-1 strains. Based on current representative examples, the present article provided a brief review on the rationale for the design of different classes of multivalency anti-HIV agents and also discussed the advantages over their monomeric counterparts, providing a novel paradigm to facilitate the development of anti-HIV/AIDS therapeutic agents in treatment of HIV infected community.
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Dancing with chemical formulae of antivirals: A panoramic view (Part 2).
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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In this second part of "Dancing with antivirals as chemical formulae" I will focus on a number of chemical compounds that in the last few years have elicited more than common attraction from a commercial viewpoint: (i) favipiravir (T-705), as it is active against influenza, but also several other RNA viruses; (ii) neuraminidase inhibitors such as zanamivir and oseltamivir; (iii) peramivir and laninamivir octanoate, which might be effective against influenza virus following a single (intravenous or inhalation) administration; (iv) sofosbuvir, the (anticipated) cornerstone for the interferon-free therapy of HCV infections; (v) combinations of DAAs (direct antiviral agents) to achieve, in no time, a sustained virus response (SVR) against HCV infection; (vi) HIV protease inhibitors, the latest and most promising being darunavir; (vii) the integrase inhibitors (INIs) (raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir), representing a new dimension in the anti-HIV armamentarium; (viii), a new class of helicase primase inhibitors (HPIs) that may exceed acyclovir and the other anti-herpes compounds in both potency and safety; (ix) CMX-001, as the latest of Dr. Antonín Holýs legacy for its activity against poxviruses and CMV infections, and (x) noroviruses for which the ideal antiviral compounds are still awaited for.
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Arylazolylthioacetanilide. Part 11: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,2,4-triazole thioacetanilide derivatives as novel non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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A series of novel 1,2,4-triazole thioacetanilide derivatives has been designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities in MT-4 cells. Half of these compounds showed moderate to potent activities against wild-type HIV-1 with an EC50 ranging from 38.0 ?M to 4.08 µM. Among them, 2-(4-(2-fluorobenzyl)-5-isopropyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol- 3-ylthio)-N-(2-nitrophenyl)acetamide 7d was identified as the most promising compound (EC50 = 4.26 µM, SI = 49). However, no compound was active against HIV-2. The preliminary structure-activity relationships among the newly synthesized congeners are discussed.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-benzyloxy-linked pyrimidinylphenylamine derivatives as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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A novel series of 3-benzyloxy-linked pyrimidinylphenylamine derivatives (8a-8s) was designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cell cultures. Most of the compounds inhibited wild-type (wt) HIV-1 replication in the lower micromolar concentration range (EC(50)=0.05-35 ?M) with high selectivity index (SI) values (ranged from 10 to >4870). In particular, 8h and 8g displayed excellent antiretroviral activity against wt HIV-1 with low cytotoxicity (EC(50)=0.07 ?M, CC(50) >347 ?M, SI >4870; EC50=0.05 ?M, CC(50)=42 ?M, SI=777, respectively), comparable to that of the marked drug nevirapine (EC(50)=0.113 ?M, CC(50) >15 ?M, SI >133). In order to confirm the binding target, 8h was selected to perform the anti-HIV-1 RT assay. Additionally, preliminary structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis and molecular docking studies of newly synthesized compounds were also discussed, as well as the predicted physicochemical properties.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N2,N4-disubstituted-1,1,3-trioxo-2H,4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b][1,2,4,6]thiatriazine derivatives as HIV-1 NNRTIs.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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A series of N2,N4-disubstituted-1,1,3-trioxo-2H,4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b][1,2,4,6]thiatriazine derivatives (PTTDs) was designed and synthesized by a facile route. The biological assay results showed that five most potent compounds displayed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 at low micromolar concentrations (EC50=5.1-8.9 ?M). Structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that N2-(3-halogenated-benzyl) analogues were more potent than N2-(unsubstituted-benzyl) analogues. The N4-substitutions contributed to the antiviral activity in the following order: 2-/3-cyano substituted benzyl > 2-/3-halogenated benzyl > non-substituted benzyl > 4-halogenated benzyl. Docking studies of the representative compound revealed the binding conformation of these compounds and provided critical insights for the further development of PTTD analogues.
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Antinociceptive and antitumor activity of novel synthetic mononuclear Ruthenium (II) compounds.
J Res Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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From the thousands of years, metal compounds have been used in medicine for treatment of various diseases including various types of cancers. Ruthenium was seen as a promising metal due to its similar kinetics to platinum and its lower toxicity. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the newer mononuclear ruthenium (II) compounds for antinociceptive and antitumor activities.
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Towards new C6-rigid S-DABO HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors: synthesis, biological investigation and molecular modeling studies.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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A series of C6-rigid S-DABO analogs characterized by a substituted benzoyl group at C6 position of the pyrimidine ring has been synthesized and biological evaluation as NNRTIs against wild-type HIV-1 strain IIIB, double RT mutant (K103N+Y181C) strain RES056 as well as HIV-2 strain ROD in MT-4 cell cultures. Most of the compounds exhibited moderate antiviral activities. Among them, compound 7q displayed the highest anti-HIV-1 activity with an EC50 value of 0.26?M and a selectivity index (SI) of 541. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these new S-DABOs was investigated, the target RT was confirmed and docking study was performed.
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The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors in the treatment of HIV infections (AIDS).
Adv. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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The majority of the drugs currently used for the treatment of HIV infections (AIDS) belong to either of the following three classes: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs). At present, there are 7 NRTIs, 5 NNRTIs, and 10 PIs approved for clinical use. They are discussed from the following viewpoints: (i) chemical formulae; (ii) mechanism of action; (iii) drug combinations; (iv) clinical aspects; (v) preexposure prophylaxis; (vi) prevention of mother-to-child transmission; (vii) their use in children; (viii) toxicity; (ix) adherence (compliance); (x) resistance; (xi) new NRTIs, NNRTIs, or PIs in (pre)clinical development; and (xii) the prospects for a "cure" of the disease.
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The Holý Trinity: the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates.
Adv. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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The Holý Trinity was named after Dr Antonín Holý (the Holý Trinity being an Unesco recognized monument in Olomouc, Czech Republic), who together with Dr John C. Martin (Gilead Sciences) and myself pioneered a new class of antiviral agents, the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. These compounds have revolutionized the antiviral drug field with several drugs that have been approved for the treatment of various DNA virus infections (cidofovir), hepatitis B (adefovir), and AIDS (HIV infection; tenofovir). The latter is also available as its oral prodrug, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, for the treatment of hepatitis B and in combination with emtricitabine ((-)FTC) for the treatment and prophylaxis of HIV infections and in combination with (-)FTC and other HIV inhibitors, that is, efavirenz, rilpivirine, or elvitegravir (and a pharmacoenhancer thereof, cobicistat), for the treatment of AIDS.
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Dancing with chemical formulae of antivirals: a personal account.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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A chemical structure is a joy forever, and this is how I perceived the chemical structures of a number of antiviral compounds with which I have been personally acquainted over the past 3 decades: (1) amino acid esters of acyclovir (i.e. valaciclovir); (2) 5-substituted 2-deoxyuridines (i.e. brivudin); (3) 2,3-dideoxynucleoside analogues (i.e. stavudine); (4) acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) (i.e. cidofovir, adefovir); (5) tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and drug combinations therewith; (6) tenofovir alafenamide (TAF, GS-7340), a new phosphonoamidate prodrug of tenofovir; (7) pro-prodrugs of PMEG (i.e. GS-9191 and GS-9219); (8) new ANPs: O-DAPy and 5-aza-C phosphonates; (9) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): HEPT and TIBO derivatives; and (10) bicyclam derivatives (i.e. AMD3100).
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Molecular design, synthesis and biological evaluation of BP-O-DAPY and O-DAPY derivatives as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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This paper reports the synthesis and antiviral evaluation of a series of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) that combine the peculiar structural features of diarylpyrimidine derivatives (DAPYs) and benzophenone derivatives (BPs). The DAPY derivatives bearing benzoyl or alkoxyl substitutes on the A-ring showed the inhibitory activity against wild-type HIV-1 at the cellular level within the range of EC50 values from micromolar to nanomolar. Among these compounds, 1u exhibited the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 0.06 ± 0.01 ?M, SI > 6260), which were about 1.8-fold more active than nevirapine (NVP) and delavirdine (DLV). In addition, the binding modes with HIV-1 RT and the preliminary SAR studies of these derivatives were also considered for further investigation.
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The Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates (ANPs): Antonín Holýs Legacy.
Med Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The name of Antonín Holý has become synonymous for the era of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), which started with (S)-HPMPA as the prototype and (S)-HPMPC (cidofovir) as the first marketed compound. It has now evolved to a number of compounds clinically used in the treatment of HIV and hepatitis B virus infections, either as such [tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, Viread®)] or in combination [Truvada®, Atripla®, Complera®, Stribild®]. Truvada has also been approved for the prevention of HIV infections. Forthcoming is a new formulation of tenofovir (TAF: tenofovir alafenamide). Also forthcoming are several "quad" drug combinations containing either TDF or TAF. Other ANPs, based on either an alkoxy side chain or 5-azacytosine heterocycle seem highly promising and worth further pursuing.
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Discovery of piperidine-linked pyridine analogues as potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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In our continued efforts to discover more active and less toxic HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, we recently designed a novel series of piperidine-linked pyridine analogues on the basis of diarylpyrimidine derivatives, among which two drugs-etravirine and rilpivirine-are approved for use by the US FDA. The title compounds were evaluated for activity against wild-type and resistant mutant strains of HIV-1 as well as HIV-2 in MT-4 cells. The highly potent compound BD-c1 (EC50 =10?nM, CC50 ?146??M, SI?14?126) displays lower cytotoxicity and higher selectivity than etravirine (EC50 =2.2?nM, CC50 =28??M, SI=12?884) against wild-type HIV-1. Compound BD-e2 (EC50 =5.1?nM) shows greater antiviral efficacy against wild-type HIV-1 than do the four reference drugs nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz, and zidovudine. Many compounds were also found to be active against the frequently observed drug-resistant double mutant (K103N+Y181C) HIV-1 strain. Herein we report the design, synthesis, anti-HIV evaluation, preliminary structure-activity relationships, and molecular simulations of novel piperidine-linked pyridine analogues.
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A Cutting-Edge View on the Current State of Antiviral Drug Development.
Med Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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Prominent in the current stage of antiviral drug development are: (i) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the use of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs), the most recent example being Stribild(TM) ; (ii) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), the pleiade of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that should be formulated in the most appropriate combinations so as to obtain a cure of the infection; (iii)-(v) new strategies (i.e., AIC316, AIC246, and FV-100) for the treatment of herpesvirus infections: herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), respectively; (vi) the role of a new tenofovir prodrug, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) (GS-7340) for the treatment of HIV infections; (vii) the potential use of poxvirus inhibitors (CMX001 and ST-246); (viii) the usefulness of new influenza virus inhibitors (peramivir and laninamivir octanoate); (ix) the position of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors [lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir, telbivudine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)]; and (x) the potential of new compounds such as FGI-103, FGI-104, FGI-106, dUY11, and LJ-001 for the treatment of filoviruses (i.e., Ebola). Whereas for HIV and HCV therapy is aimed at multiple-drug combinations, for all other viruses, HSV, CMV, VZV, pox, influenza, HBV, and filoviruses, current strategies are based on the use of single compounds.
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Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel 3,5-disubstituted-1,2,6-thiadiazine-1,1-dione derivatives as HIV-1 NNRTIs.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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On the basis of structural features, binding mode, and structure-activity relationship studies of two pyrimidine-derived non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, DABOs, and diaryl pyrimidines, a novel class of 1,2,6-thiadiazine-1,1-dione derivatives were rationally designed using the strategies of bioisosterism and molecular hybridization, synthesized, and evaluated for their anti-HIV activity in MT4 cell cultures. Three compounds were found to have moderate activity against HIV-1 replication with EC50 values ranging from 23 to 32 ?m. To further confirm the binding target, compound IIg was selected to conduct an HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitory assay. In addition, preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis among the newly synthesized compounds was discussed, and the binding mode of the active compound IIg was rationalized by molecular docking and physicochemical studies.
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Coumarins hinged directly on benzimidazoles and their ribofuranosides to inhibit hepatitis C virus.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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A new compound library that contained 20 hinged benzimidazole-coumarin hybrids and their ?-d-ribofuranosides was established. The anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity of all novel coumarin derivatives, which were obtained by use of organic synthetic methods, was tested. Two of these hybrids exhibited appealing EC50 values of as low as 3.0 and 5.5 ?M. The best selectivity index was 14. The incorporation of a d-ribofuranose into the hinged hybrids provided the corresponding nucleosides with the ? configuration, one of which inhibited HCV replication with an EC50 value of 20 ?M. Additionally, the structure-activity relationship is elucidated on the basis of the functional groups that were attached to the nuclei of benzimidazole, coumarin, and ribofuranose of the hybrids.
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Selective anti-herpesvirus agents.
Antivir. Chem. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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This review article focuses on the anti-herpesvirus agents effective against herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus, which have either been licensed for clinical use (idoxuridine, trifluridine, brivudin, acyclovir, valaciclovir, valganciclovir, famciclovir and foscarnet) or are under clinical development (CMX001 [the hexadecyloxypropyl prodrug of cidofovir], the helicase-primase inhibitor BAY 57-1293 [now referred to as AIC316], FV-100 [the valine ester of Cf 1743] and the terminase inhibitor letermovir [AIC246]).
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Design, synthesis, antimicrobial activity and anti-HIV activity evaluation of novel hybrid quinazoline-triazine derivatives.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Abstract A series of novel hybrid quinazoline-triazine derivatives was designed and synthesized from cyanuric chloride and anthranilic acid through sequential reactions, which contain different pharmacophores like quinazoline and substituted diaryl triazine (DATA) linked with ethylene diamine. All the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by infrared, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and elemental analysis. Further, we evaluated the in vitro anti-HIV activity of the newly synthesized compounds against HIV-1 (III(B)) and HIV-2 (ROD) viral strains and as well as in vitro antimicrobial activity against four bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two fungi (Aspergillus clavatus, Candida albicans) using the paper agar streak dilution method. The bioassay results indicate that four compounds namely 7d, 7n, 7r and 7s could be considered as possible potential agents.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of pyridazine derivatives as novel HIV-1 NNRTIs.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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In continuation of our efforts toward identification and optimization of novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), we have employed a structure-based bioisosterism strategy, with which a new series of diarylpyridazine (DAPD) derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) activity. Most of the title compounds displayed excellent anti-HIV-1 activity at submicromolar concentrations ranging from 34 nM to 5.08 ?M. The most promising compound 8g inhibited HIV-1 IIIB in MT-4 cells at a low EC50 value (0.034 ?M), which was lower than the reference drug nevirapine and delavirdine. The structure activity relationships (SARs) were discussed and rationalized by docking simulations.
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Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis of HIV infection: quo vadis?
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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The pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (now commonly referred to as PrEP) of HIV infection has gained increased momentum, concomitantly with the successful use of combination drug regimens for the treatment of AIDS. A pivotal component in the current drug combination regimens for the treatment of AIDS as well as the ongoing PrEP trials is tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, Viread®) and its combination with emtricitabine (FTC). The combination of TDF with FTC has been marketed as Truvada®. TDF and TDF/FTC has proven effective, if orally administered daily or intermittently, in the prevention of rectal simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in macaques. Topical tenofovir gel has proven effective in the prevention of HIV infection in women in South Africa. Oral TDF/FTC has proven effective in the prevention of HIV infection in men having sex with men, and recent press releases divulged that oral TDF/FTC is also effective in preventing HIV infection in serodiscordant couples in Botswana, Kenya and Uganda. Other PrEP studies are still ongoing. Available data point to the efficacy and safety of TDF with or without FTC in the prophylaxis of HIV infection (AIDS).
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Discovery of dihydro-alkyloxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidines as promising anti-influenza virus agents.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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A series of novel dihydro-alkyloxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their activity against influenza virus in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Four dihydro-alkyloxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidine derivatives (4a1, 4a2, 4a3, and 4d1) showed potent activity against influenza virus. Among them, compound 4a3 was the most promising lead with broad activity against influenza A (antiviral EC(50) values of 9 and 18 ?m for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 subtype, respectively) and influenza B viruses (EC(50) : 33 ?m). The antiviral mechanism of action of these dihydro-alkyloxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidine derivatives must be quite different from that of the currently approved anti-influenza virus drugs that target the viral M2 or neuraminidase proteins. The dihydro-alkyloxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidine derivatives represent a new avenue for further optimization and development of novel anti-influenza virus agents.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of cycloalkyl arylpyrimidines (CAPYs) as HIV-1 NNRTIs.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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A series of 18 cycloalkyl arylpyrimidines (CAPYs) were designed from lead compounds diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs), synthesized and evaluated for in vitro anti-HIV activity. Among them, the compound 1p displayed potent anti-HIV-1 activity against WT HIV-1 with an EC(50) value of 0.055 ?M and a selectivity index (SI) >7290. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) of this new series of compounds was also investigated, which enriched the SAR of diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs).
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Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of aryl-2-[(4-cyanophenyl)amino]-4-pyrimidinone hydrazones as potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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A series of novel diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs) with a ketone hydrazone substituent on the methylene linker between the pyrimidine nucleus and the aryl moiety at the C-4 position were synthesized, and their antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 in MT-4 cells was evaluated. Most compounds of this class exhibited excellent activity against wild-type HIV-1, with EC(50) values in the range of 1.7-13.2 nM. Of these compounds, 2-bromophenyl-2-[(4-cyanophenyl)amino]-4-pyrimidinone hydrazone (9k) displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity (EC(50) =1.7±0.6 nM), with excellent selectivity for infected over uninfected cells (SI=5762). In addition, the 4-methyl phenyl analogue 9d (EC(50) =2.4±0.2?nM, SI=18461) showed broad spectrum HIV inhibitory activity, with EC(50) values of 2.4±0.2 nM against wild-type HIV-1, 5.3±0.4 ?M against HIV-1 double-mutated strain RES056 (K103N+Y181C), and 5.5 ?M against HIV-2 ROD strain. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) data and molecular modeling results for these compounds are also discussed.
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of novel diarylpyrimidines with hydromethyl linker (CH(OH)-DAPYs) as HIV-1 NNRTIs.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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A series of 26 diarylpyrimidines, characterized by the hydroxymethyl linker between the left wing benzene ring and the central pyrimidine, were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro anti-HIV activity. Most of the compounds exhibited moderate to excellent activities against wild-type HIV-1. Among them, compound 10i, bearing a chlorine atom at the C-2 position of left benzene ring, was the best congener and showed potent activity against wild-type HIV-1 with an EC(50) value of 0.009 ?M, along with moderate activities against the double RT mutant (K103N+Y181C) HIV-1(III(B)) and HIV-2(ROD) with an EC(50) value of 6.2 and 6.0 ?M, respectively. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) of this new series of compounds was also investigated.
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Benzylidene-bis-(4-hydroxycoumarin) and benzopyrano-coumarin derivatives: synthesis, ¹H/¹³C-NMR conformational and X-ray crystal structure studies and in vitro antiviral activity evaluations.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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We report on the synthesis of 4-hydroxycoumarin dimers 1-15 bearing an aryl substituent on the central linker and fused benzopyranocoumarin derivatives 16-20 and on their in vitro broad anti-DNA and RNA virus activity evaluations. The chemical identities and structure of compounds 1-20 were deduced from their homo- and heteronuclear NMR measurements whereas the conformational properties of 5, 14 and 20 were assessed by the use of 1D difference NOE enhancements. Unequivocal proof of the stereostructure of compounds 7, 9, 16 and 18 was obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The X-ray crystal structure analysis revealed that two 4-hydroxycoumarin moieties in the 4-trifluoromethylphenyl- and 2-nitrophenyl derivatives (compounds 7 and 9, respectively) are intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded between hydroxyl and carbonyl oxygen atoms. Consequently, the compounds 7 and 9 adopt conformations in which two 4-hydroxy-coumarin moieties are anti-disposed. Antiviral activity evaluation results indicated that the 4-bromobenzylidene derivative of bis-(4-hydroxycoumarin) (compound 3) possesses inhibitory activity against HSV-1 (KOS), HSV-2 (G), vaccinia virus and HSV-1 TK? KOS (ACVr) at a concentration of 9-12 ?M and at a minimum cytotoxic concentration (MCC) greater than 20 ?M. Compounds 4-6, 8, and 20 were active against feline herpes virus (50% effective concentration, EC?? = 5-8.1 ?M), that is at a 4-7-fold lower concentration than the MCC.
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A time-of-drug addition approach to target identification of antiviral compounds.
Nat Protoc
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Insight into the mode of action of newly discovered antiviral agents is now almost a prerequisite for clinical development. This protocol describes a method that provides information on the target of inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); it can also be adapted to other viruses. The results from this experiment are available within 2 d. This time-based approach determines how long the addition of a compound can be postponed before losing its antiviral activity in cell culture. The target of an antiviral compound can be identified by comparing its relative position in the time scale to that of reference drugs. Therefore, it is more precise than, for example, in the case of HIV, a determination of pre- or postintegrational mode of action, and combines in one routine different assays for studying mechanisms of action.
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Recent advances in DAPYs and related analogues as HIV-1 NNRTIs.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) nowadays represent most promising anti-AIDS drugs that specifically inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). They have a unique antiviral potency, high specificity and low cytotoxicity. However, to a great extent, the efficacy of HIV-1 NNRTIs is compounded by rapid emergence of drug resistant virus strains, which calls for continuous efforts to develop novel HIV-1 NNRTIs. Diarylpyrimidine (DAPY) derivatives, one family of NNRTIs with superior activity profiles against wild-type HIV-1 and mutant strains, have attracted considerable attention over the past few years. Among the potent lead DAPY compounds, etravirine was approved by FDA in January 2008, and its analogue rilpivirine (TMC278) has advanced to phase III clinical trials. The successful development of DAPYs results from a multidisciplinary approach involving traditional medicinal chemistry, structural biology, crystallography and computational chemistry. Recently, a number of novel characteristics of DAPYs including conformational flexibility, positional adaptability, key hydrogen bonds and specifically targeting conserved residues of RT, have been identified, providing valuable avenues for further optimization and development of new DAPY analogues as promising anti-HIV drug candidates. In this review, we first present a brief historical account of the medicinal chemistry of the DAPY NNRTIs, then focus on the extensive structural modifications, SAR studies, and binding mode analysis based on crystallographic and molecular modeling. Other structural related NNRTI scaffolds will also be reviewed.
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New therapeutic approaches targeted at the late stages of the HIV-1 replication cycle.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Owing to the serious clinical consequences associated with acquisition of resistance to current antiretroviral drugs, discovery of new drug targets and development of novel anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents have become a high research priority. The late stages of HIV-1 replication involve the processes of assembly, budding and maturation, and comprise several new potential therapeutic targets which have not (yet) been targeted by any of the antiretroviral drugs approved at present. The structural protein Gag plays a central role in these stages through its different regions and mature Gag proteins working in concert. In this article, we highlight a number of steps in the late stages of HIV-1 replication that represent promising targets for drug discovery. Recent progress in development of related inhibitors targeting at CA, zinc fingers of NC, p6-Tsg101 interaction, lipid rafts of plasma membrane, proteolytic cleavage sites in Gag and gp160 processing is also reviewed.
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Functional roles of azoles motif in anti-HIV agents.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Currently, there has been considerable interest in the discovery of original molecules with broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity and favourable pharmacokinetic profiles, to be used as an alternative to the approved anti-HIV/AIDS drugs, should they fail as therapeutics. Five-membered azole heterocycles represent an important class of lead structures for novel anti-HIV drug development. They can serve as versatile building blocks to introduce different new functional groups, (i) as scaffolds to anchor these groups into the optimal space for interactions with the target, (ii) as basic pharmacophore elements to make hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic interaction for facilitating the spatial filling at the binding site, (iii) as ester surrogates to improve metabolic stability, or (iv) as pharmacophoric motif of metal coordination to coordinate metal ions (i.e. magnesium) within the active site of target (i.e. integrase). This article will summarize recent progress in the development of some azoles derivatives that inhibit the replication of HIV-1 and will illustrate the possible functional role(s) of the azole motif in the search for new anti-HIV drugs.
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HIV-1 NNRTIs: structural diversity, pharmacophore similarity, and implications for drug design.
Med Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) nowadays represent very potent and most promising anti-AIDS agents that specifically target the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). However, the effectiveness of NNRTI drugs can be hampered by rapid emergence of drug-resistant viruses and severe side effects upon long-term use. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel, highly potent NNRTIs with broad spectrum antiviral activity and improved pharmacokinetic properties, and more efficient strategies that facilitate and shorten the drug discovery process would be extremely beneficial. Fortunately, the structural diversity of NNRTIs provided a wide space for novel lead discovery, and the pharmacophore similarity of NNRTIs gave valuable hints for lead discovery and optimization. More importantly, with the continued efforts in the development of computational tools and increased crystallographic information on RT/NNRTI complexes, structure-based approaches using a combination of traditional medicinal chemistry, structural biology, and computational chemistry are being used increasingly in the design of NNRTIs. First, this review covers two decades of research and development for various NNRTI families based on their chemical scaffolds, and then describes the structural similarity of NNRTIs. We have attempted to assemble a comprehensive overview of the general approaches in NNRTI lead discovery and optimization reported in the literature during the last decade. The successful applications of medicinal chemistry strategies, crystallography, and computational tools for designing novel NNRTIs are highlighted. Future directions for research are also outlined.
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3,5-Bis(benzylidene)-1-[3-(2-hydroxyethylthio)propanoyl]piperidin-4-ones: a novel cluster of potent tumor-selective cytotoxins.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Novel 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-1-[3-(2-hydroxyethylthio)propanoyl]piperidin-4-ones (3a-e) display potent cytotoxicity and a preferential lethality toward various neoplasms compared to some normal cells. The corresponding sulfonic acid analogues 5a-e and an isostere 4 demonstrated substantially lower activity. The leads 3d and 3e possess very high activity against colon cancer and leukemia cell lines, caused DNA fragmentation, and activated caspase-3 in HL-60 cells. The enones 3b-e were well tolerated in a short-term toxicity screen in mice.
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Bis[3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-oxo-1-piperidinyl]amides: a novel class of potent cytotoxins.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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The principal objective of this study was the examination of the theory of cytotoxic synergism. In this exploratory study, we tested the hypothesis that doubling the number of sites available for thiol alkylation in a series of candidate cytotoxins increases potency more than two-fold. This concept was verified in one-third of our comparisons using human Molt 4/C8 and CEM T-lymphocytes and murine L1210 cells. In addition, the significant potencies of various members of our compound series justified further studies. Molecular modeling revealed that relative locations of the amidic groups correlate with cytotoxicity. A potent cytotoxic compound, 1,2-bis(3,5-dibenzylidene-4-oxo-piperidin-1-yl)ethane-1,2-dione (1a) inhibited the growth of a large number of human tumor cell lines and displayed greater toxicity toward certain non-adherent cells than toward adherent neoplasms or fibroblasts. The mode of action of 1a includes induction of apoptosis and necrosis.
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Arylazolylthioacetanilide. Part 8: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 2-(2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)-N-arylacetamides as potent HIV-1 inhibitors.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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The development of novel HIV-1 NNRTIs offers the possibility of generating novel structures with increased potency. Based on the bioisosteric principle, a novel series of 2-(2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)-N-arylacetamide derivatives were designed, synthesized using a simple and efficient synthetic route, structurally confirmed by spectral analysis, evaluated for their anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cells and their inhibitory effect on HIV-1 RT. The results showed that some of the new compounds displayed low micromolar potency for inhibiting HIV-1 replication and promising activities against several selected resistant strains that confer resistance to current NNRTIs. However, all newly synthesized derivatives were not active against HIV-2 replication.
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Coumarin-purine ribofuranoside conjugates as new agents against hepatitis C virus.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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About 3% of worlds population is infected by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), for which prophylactic vaccine is not available yet. Nowadays, pegylated interferon-? and ribavirin are commonly used to treat HCV; unfortunately these drugs often produce significant side effects. Upon the desperate need of anti-HCV drugs, a plan to establish a new compound library was set that included leads with high antiviral activity, good hydrophilicity, yet low toxicity. Accordingly, 26 new conjugated compounds were synthesized through the chemical coupling of various 9-(?-D-ribofuranosyl)purine-8-thiones with 3-(chloromethyl)coumarins bearing various substituents. A -SCH(2)- unit was used to link the coumarin and the purine moieties. The three hydroxyl groups at the 2-, 3-, and 5-positions were selectively protected with an acyl or acetal group in these coumarin-purine ribofuranosides. Their anti-HCV and cytostatic determination assays were performed, and the structure-activity relationship was established. Three conjugates in the family of 8-(coumarin-3-yl)methylthio-9-(?-D-ribofuranos-1-yl)purine possessed an appealing ability to inhibit HCV replication with EC(50) between 5.5 and 6.6 ?M and EC(90) of ?20 ?M. These data in the new compound library provide clues for the future in the development of anti-HCV leads for viral eradication.
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Synthesis and antiviral activity of N9-[3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] analogues derived from N6-substituted adenines and 2,6-diaminopurines.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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An efficient method for the synthesis of N(9)-[3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] (FPMP) derivatives of purine bases has been developed. Both (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of the N(6)-substituted FPMP derivatives of adenine and 2,6-diaminopurine were prepared and their anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anti-Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MSV) activity was evaluated. Whereas none of the 6-substituted FPMPA derivatives showed any antiviral activity, several FPMPDAP derivatives had a moderate antiretroviral activity. Moreover, the data obtained from the study of the substrate activity of the active derivatives towards N(6)-methyl-AMP aminohydrolase support the notion that the studied N(6)-substituted FPMPDAP derivatives act as prodrugs of the antiretroviral FPMPG analogues.
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The clinical potential of the acyclic (and cyclic) nucleoside phosphonates: the magic of the phosphonate bond.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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The use of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, starting with (S)-HPMPA as the prototype, yielded three clinically approved antiviral drugs, cidofovir for the treatment of CMV retinitis in AIDS patients, adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for the treatment of HIV infections (AIDS) and HBV infections. This era has now grown to many more acyclic (and cyclic) nucleoside phosphonates (such as the "open ring" DAPy and Fd4A phosphonates) and alkoxyalkyl and phosphonoamidate prodrugs thereof, as well as new clinical applications, including new drug combination regimens for the treatment of AIDS, the chemoprophylaxis of HIV infections, and the anticancer potential against some malignant disorders.
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Retroviral restriction factors TRIM5?: therapeutic strategy to inhibit HIV-1 replication.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Tripartite motif protein 5-alpha (TRIM5?) is a cytoplasmic protein that efficiently recognizes the incoming capsid (CA) protein of retroviruses and potently inhibits virus infection in a species-specific manner. Through directly recognizing and interacting with HIV CA, TRIM5? is capable of disrupting the ordered process of viral uncoating, eventually interfering with HIV-1 reverse transcription and virus replication. TRIM5? protein contains four domains: RING domain, B-box 2 domain, coiled-coil domain, and B30.2 domain (SPRY) domain. All of the domains are necessary for efficient retrovirus restriction and the B30.2 domain has been shown to be the determinant of the specificity of restriction. Species-specific innate resistance against viral infections offers novel avenues for antiviral therapeutics. Various mutants of TRIM5? have been described which differently affect the HIV-1 reverse transcription process. This makes the establishment of new and improved models for HIV replication and AIDS pathogenesis by monitoring endogenous TRIM5? an attractive approach. TRIM5?-mediated restriction is modulated by the host protein Cyclophilin A (Cyp A) which could effectively interact with the CA of HIV-1. Here we will review the structure and roles of TRIM5? protein, the interaction between Cyp A and TRIM5?, as well as gene therapy strategies associated with TRIM5? to inhibit HIV-1 infection.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 5-alkyl-2-arylthio-6-((3,4-dihydroquinolin-1(2H)-yl)methyl)pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones as potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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A series of novel S-DABO analogues of 5-alkyl-2-arylthio-6-((3,4-dihydroquinolin-1(2H)-yl)methyl)pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Among them, the most potent HIV-1 inhibitors were compounds 6c1,6c6, and 6b1 (EC(50)=0.24 ± 0.05, 0.38 ± 0.13, 0.39 ± 0.05 ?M, respectively), which possess improved or similar HIV-1 inhibitory activity compared with nevirapine (NVP) (EC(50)=0.21 ?M) and delavirdine (DLV) (EC(50)=0.32 ?M). None of these compounds were active against HIV-2 replication. Furthermore, enzyme inhibitory assays were performed with selected derivatives against HIV-1 wtRT, confirming that the main target of these compounds is the HIV-1 RT and these new S-DABOs are acting as NNRTIs. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these new congeners is discussed briefly and rationalized by docking studies.
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Synthesis and an antiviral activity evaluation of nucleoside 5´-O-(N-acyl) phosphoramidates.
Antivir. Chem. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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pyrimidine nucleoside analogues represent an established class of clinically useful antiviral agents. Once inside the cell, they are activated by a series of intracellular phosphorylation steps to produce 5´-triphosphate derivatives. In many cases, nucleoside analogues are poor substrates for the cellular kinases needed for their activation. It is clear that intracellular introduction of nucleoside analogues as phosphorylated metabolites (so called pronucleotides) could circumvent difficulties associated with the use of non-phosphorylated nucleoside analogues.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-substituted 5-alkyl-2-(phenylaminocarbonylmethylthio)pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones as potent HIV-1 NNRTIs.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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A series of new 5-alkyl-2-phenylaminocarbonylmethylthiopyrimidin-4(3H)-ones bearing variously substituted arylmethyl moieties at the C6 position of the pyrimidine ring were synthesized and evaluated for anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cells. Most of these new congeners exhibited moderate to good activities against the wild-type virus, with EC(50) values in the range of 1.40-0.19??M. Among them, 2-[(4-cyanophenylamino)carbonylmethylthio]-6-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-5-ethylpyrimidin-4(3H)-one 4?b6 is one of the compounds endowed with the highest broad-spectrum HIV-1 inhibitory activity, with EC(50) values of 0.19±0.005??M against the wild-type virus, 1.05±0.24??M (twofold resistance) against the E138K strain, and 2.38±0.13??M (4.5-fold resistance) against the Y181C strain. Furthermore, reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibition assays against wild-type HIV-1 RT were performed with selected derivatives, confirming that the main target of these compounds is HIV-1 RT and that these new S-DABO analogues act as non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs). Structure-activity relationship and molecular modeling analyses of these new congeners are also discussed.
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Design of novel CXCR4 antagonists that are potent inhibitors of T-tropic (X4) HIV-1 replication.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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A novel series of CXCR4 antagonists were identified based on the substantial redesign of AMD070. These compounds possessed potent anti-HIV-1 activity and showed excellent pharmacokinetics in rat and dog.
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Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo release kinetics, and anti-HIV activity of a sustained-release prodrug (mPEG-AZT) of 3-azido-3-deoxythymidine (AZT, Zidovudine).
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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A poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugate of 3-azido-3- deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) was designed and synthesized as a novel sustained-release prodrug. In the synthetic process, a succinate diester spacer was used to covalently couple AZT with methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG; MW=2000). The conjugate was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and NMR spectroscopies and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The in vitro release was determined in hydrochloride (HCl) solution (pH?1.2) and phosphate-buffered solution (PBS; pH?6.8), which showed the release rate of AZT from the conjugate was slower than that from the free drug, suggesting its possible increased retention in gastrointestinal conditions. Pharmacokinetic properties were evaluated experimentally by oral administration in mice. Compared to free AZT, the absorption half-life (t1/2ka) and elimination half life (t1/2ß) of AZT released from the conjugate were both extended to 0.51±0.03?h (p?<0.01) and 2.94±0.24?h (p?<0.01), respectively. Evaluation of the in vitro anti-HIV activities showed mPEG-AZT exhibited good inhibition of HIV-1, with an EC(50) value of 0.0634??M, but it is lower than that of free AZT. These results show that the conjugate is capable of releasing the parent drug in a sustained profile, potentially providing a feasible alternative to oral administration of AZT in a clinical setting.
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Synthesis and SAR of novel CXCR4 antagonists that are potent inhibitors of T tropic (X4) HIV-1 replication.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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An early lead from the AMD070 program was optimized and a structure-activity relationship was developed for a novel series of heterocyclic containing compounds. Potent CXCR4 antagonists were identified based on anti-HIV-1 activity and Ca(2+) flux inhibition that displayed good pharmacokinetics in rat and dog.
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