During a search for inhibitors of oncogenic K-Ras, we detected two known and two new examples of the rare neoantimycin structure class from a liquid cultivation of Streptomyces orinoci, and reassigned/assigned structures to all based on detailed spectroscopic analysis and microscale C3 Marfey's and C3 Mosher chemical degradation/derivatization/analysis. SAR investigations inclusive of the biosynthetically related antimycins and respirantin, and synthetic benzoxazolone, documented a unique N-formyl amino-salicylamide pharmacophore as a potent inhibitor of oncogenic K-Ras.
A soil Streptomyces nov. sp. (MST-115088) isolated from semiarid terrain near Wollogorang Station, Queensland, returned two known and two new examples of a rare class of cyclic hexapeptide, desotamides A and B (1 and 2) and E and F (3 and 4), respectively, together with two new d-Orn homologues, wollamides A and B (5 and 6). Structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic and C3 Marfey's analysis. The desotamides/wollamides exhibit growth inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria (IC50 0.6-7 ?M) and are noncytotoxic to mammalian cells (IC50 >30 ?M). The wollamides exhibit antimycobacterial activity (IC50 2.8 and 3.1 ?M), including reduction in the intracellular mycobacterial survival in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.
Chemical investigations of a soil-derived Streptomyces sp. led to the isolation of five new polyketides, (+)-oxanthromicin, (±)-hemi-oxanthromicins A/B, (±)-spiro-oxanthromicin A and oxanthroquinone, and the known alkaloid staurosporine, and the detection of four new metastable analogues, (±)-spiro-oxanthromicins B1/B2/C1/C2. Among the compounds tested, SAR investigations established that the synthetic oxanthroquinone ethyl ester and 3-O-methyl-oxanthroquinone ethyl ester were optimal at mislocalising oncogenic mutant K-Ras from the plasma membrane of intact Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells (IC50 4.6 and 1.2 ?M), while a sub-EC50 dose of (±)-spiro-oxanthromicin A was optimal at potentiating (750%) the K-Ras inhibitory activity of staurosporine (IC50 60 pM). These studies demonstrate that a rare class of Streptomyces polyketide modulates K-Ras plasma membrane localisation, with implications for the future treatment of K-Ras dependent cancers.
Chemical analysis of fermentation products from two Australian Streptomyces isolates yielded all four known and twelve new examples of the rare reveromycin class of polyketide spiroketals, including hemi-succinates, hemi-fumarates and hemi-furanoates. Reveromycins were identified with the aid of HPLC-DAD-MS and HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR methodology, and structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis. The structural and mechanistic requirements for an unprecedented hemi-succinate?:?ketal-succinyl equilibrium were defined and provided a basis for proposing that reveromycin 4-methyl esters and 5,6-spiroketals were artifacts. A plausible reveromycin polyketide biosynthesis is proposed, requiring a 2-methylsuccinyl-CoA starter unit, with flexible incorporation of a C(6-8) polyketide chain extension and diacid esterification units. Structure activity relationship investigations by co-metabolites were used to assess the anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal properties of reveromycins.
An Australian marine-derived isolate of Aspergillus versicolor (MST-MF495) yielded the known fungal metabolites sterigmatocystin, violaceol I, violaceol II, diorcinol, (-)-cyclopenol, and viridicatol, along with a new alkaloid, cottoquinazoline A (1), and two new cyclopentapeptides, cotteslosins A (2) and B (3). Structures for 1-3 and the known compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1-3 were addressed by chemical degradation and application of the C(3) Marfeys method. The use of "cellophane raft" high-nutrient media as a device for up-regulating secondary metabolite diversity in marine-derived fungi is discussed. The antibacterial properties displayed by A. versicolor (MST-MF495) were attributed to the phenols violaceol I, violaceol II, and diorcinol, while cotteslosins 2 and 3 were identified as weak cytotoxic agents.
Oncogenic mutant Ras is frequently expressed in human cancers, but no anti-Ras drugs have been developed. Since membrane association is essential for Ras biological activity, we developed a high content assay for inhibitors of Ras plasma membrane localization. We discovered that staurosporine and analogs potently inhibit Ras plasma membrane binding by blocking endosomal recycling of phosphatidylserine, resulting in redistribution of phosphatidylserine from plasma membrane to endomembrane. Staurosporines are more active against K-Ras than H-Ras. K-Ras is displaced to endosomes and undergoes proteasomal-independent degradation, whereas H-Ras redistributes to the Golgi and is not degraded. K-Ras nanoclustering on the plasma membrane is also inhibited. Ras mislocalization does not correlate with protein kinase C inhibition or induction of apoptosis. Staurosporines selectively abrogate K-Ras signaling and proliferation of K-Ras-transformed cells. These results identify staurosporines as novel inhibitors of phosphatidylserine trafficking, yield new insights into the role of phosphatidylserine and electrostatics in Ras plasma membrane targeting, and validate a new target for anti-Ras therapeutics.
Protein prenylation is required for membrane anchorage of small GTPases. Correct membrane targeting is essential for their biological activity. Signal output of the prenylated proto-oncogene Ras in addition critically depends on its organization into nanoscale proteolipid assemblies of the plasma membrane, so called nanoclusters. While protein prenylation is an established drug target, only a handful of nanoclustering inhibitors are known, partially due to the lack of appropriate assays to screen for such compounds. Here, we describe three cell-based high-throughput screening amenable Förster resonance energy transfer NANOclustering and Prenylation Sensors (NANOPS) that are specific for Ras, Rho, and Rab proteins. Rab-NANOPS provides the first evidence for nanoclustering of Rab proteins. Using NANOPS in a cell-based chemical screen, we now identify macrotetrolides, known ionophoric antibiotics, as submicromolar disruptors of Ras nanoclustering and MAPK signaling.
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