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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Autophagy gene atg16l1 prevents lethal T cell alloreactivity mediated by dendritic cells.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Atg16L1 mediates the cellular degradative process of autophagy and is considered a critical regulator of inflammation based on its genetic association with inflammatory bowel disease. Here we find that Atg16L1 deficiency leads to an exacerbated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a mouse model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Atg16L1-deficient allo-HSCT recipients with GVHD displayed increased T cell proliferation due to increased dendritic cell (DC) numbers and costimulatory molecule expression. Reduced autophagy within DCs was associated with lysosomal abnormalities and decreased amounts of A20, a negative regulator of DC activation. These results broaden the function of Atg16L1 and the autophagy pathway to include a role in limiting a DC-mediated response during inflammatory disease, such as GVHD.
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Regression of eosinophil counts after diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease as a potential marker for improved clinical outcome.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Eosinophilia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been associated with the development of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). However, a limited number of studies have investigated the course of eosinophil counts in relation to the onset of cGVHD. In this study, the course of relative eosinophil counts (RECs) was retrospectively analyzed in 64 patients who developed cGVHD following allogeneic HSCT in relation to overall survival (OS), relapse rate and clinical course of cGVHD. At onset of cGVHD, eosinophilia was observed in 45% of the patients and developed one week prior to cGVHD diagnosis. Furthermore, a trend towards improved OS in patients with eosinophilia was observed. Beneficial effects were most evident in patients who exhibited decreasing eosinophil counts one week after diagnosis of cGVHD. By contrast, an increase in or stable eosinophil counts one week after diagnosis were associated with significantly impaired OS and a significantly higher rate of later aggravation of cGVHD. Findings of this study suggested that the course of eosinophil counts may provide a useful parameter in the assessment of cGVHD development and activity allowing the potential identification of patient subpopulations with a good outcome and reduced cGVHD-related mortality.
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Cytostatic conditioning in experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: Busulfan causes less early gastrointestinal toxicity but Treosulfan results in improved immune reconstitution.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the impact of the conditioning regimen on aGVHD comparing Treosulfan (Treo) and Busulfan (Bu) with total body irradiation (TBI).
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Endothelial dysfunction and altered mechanical and structural properties of resistance arteries in a murine model of graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A putative involvement of the vasculature seems to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We aimed to characterize alterations of mesenteric resistance arteries in GVHD in a fully MHC-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned with total body irradiation that underwent transplantation with bone marrow cells and splenocytes from syngeneic (BALB/c) or allogeneic (C57BL/6) donors. After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed and mesenteric resistance arteries were studied in a pressurized myograph. The expression of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide (NO)-synthase (iNOS) was quantified and vessel wall ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. The myograph study revealed an endothelial dysfunction in allogeneic-transplant recipients, whereas endothelium-independent vasodilation was similar to syngeneic-transplant recipients or untreated controls. The expression of eNOS was decreased and iNOS increased, possibly contributing to endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, arteries of allogeneic transplant recipients exhibited a geometry-independent increase in vessels strain. For both findings, electron microscopy provided a structural correlate by showing severe damage of the whole vessel wall in allogeneic-transplant recipient animals. Our study provides further data to prove, and is the first to characterize, functional and structural vascular alterations in the early course after allogeneic transplantation directly in an ex vivo setting and, therefore, strongly supports the hypothesis of a vascular form of GVHD.
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Metagenomic analysis of the stool microbiome in patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation: loss of diversity is associated with use of systemic antibiotics and more pronounced in gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Next-generation sequencing of the hypervariable V3 region of the 16s rRNA gene isolated from serial stool specimens collected from 31 patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) was performed to elucidate variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiome in the course of allogeneic SCT. Metagenomic analysis was complemented by strain-specific enterococcal PCR and indirect assessment of bacterial load by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of urinary indoxyl sulfate. At the time of admission, patients showed a predominance of commensal bacteria. After transplantation, a relative shift toward enterococci was observed, which was more pronounced under antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment of neutropenic infections. The shift was particularly prominent in patients that developed subsequently or suffered from active gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The mean proportion of enterococci in post-transplant stool specimens was 21% in patients who did not develop GI GVHD as compared with 46% in those that subsequently developed GI GVHD and 74% at the time of active GVHD. Enterococcal PCR confirmed predominance of Enterococcus faecium or both E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in these specimens. As a consequence of the loss of bacterial diversity, mean urinary indoxyl sulfate levels dropped from 42.5 ± 11 ?mol/L to 11.8 ± 2.8 ?mol/L in all post-transplant samples and to 3.5 ± 3 ?mol/L in samples from patients with active GVHD. Our study reveals major microbiome shifts in the course of allogeneic SCT that occur in the period of antibiotic treatment but are more prominent in association with GI GVHD. Our data indicate early microbiome shifts and a loss of diversity of the intestinal microbiome that may affect intestinal inflammation in the setting of allogeneic SCT.
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Allogeneic Transplantation Versus Chemotherapy as Postremission Therapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Prospective Matched Pairs Analysis.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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The majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who achieve complete remission (CR) relapse with conventional postremission chemotherapy. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT) might improve survival at the expense of increased toxicity. It remains unknown for which patients alloSCT is preferable.
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The Nlrp3 inflammasome regulates acute graft-versus-host disease.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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The success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is limited by acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), a severe complication accompanied by high mortality rates. Yet, the molecular mechanisms initiating this disease remain poorly defined. In this study, we show that, after conditioning therapy, intestinal commensal bacteria and the damage-associated molecular pattern uric acid contribute to Nlrp3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1? production and that gastrointestinal decontamination and uric acid depletion reduced GvHD severity. Early blockade of IL-1? or genetic deficiency of the IL-1 receptor in dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells improved survival. The Nlrp3 inflammasome components Nlrp3 and Asc, which are required for pro-IL-1? cleavage, were critical for the full manifestation of GvHD. In transplanted mice, IL-1? originated from multiple intestinal cell compartments and exerted its effects on DCs and T cells, the latter being preferentially skewed toward Th17. Compatible with these mouse data, increased levels of active caspase-1 and IL-1? were found in circulating leukocytes and intestinal GvHD lesions of patients. Thus, the identification of a crucial role for the Nlrp3 inflammasome sheds new light on the pathogenesis of GvHD and opens a potential new avenue for the targeted therapy of this severe complication.
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Entrapment syndrome of multiple nerves in graft-versus-host disease.
Muscle Nerve
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Introduction: Peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes are associated with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and a variety of rheumatic and endocrinological diseases. Methods: We report a patient with entrapment syndromes of multiple nerves associated with chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nerve ultrasound, histology, and ultrastructural changes were assessed. Results: The 51-year-old man had developed severe deep dermal sclerosis due to chronic GVHD with a progressive polyneuropathy and entrapment syndromes of multiple nerves. Pre-stenotic enlargement was shown by nerve ultrasound. Histology demonstrated fibrosis of the epineurium with scarce infiltration of macrophages. Electron microscopy demonstrated alterations of the myelin sheaths and marked depletion of normal-sized myelinated nerve fibers. Conclusions: In addition to polyneuropathy, chronic GVHD can be associated with peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes and should be added to the differential diagnosis of compressive neuropathies. Muscle Nerve 49: 138-142, 2014.
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TLR5 stop codon polymorphism is associated with invasive aspergillosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Med. Mycol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with an increased incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). We analyzed 41 patients with proven/probable IA after allo-SCT for an association of SNPs, within the TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and NOD2/CARD15 genes, with susceptibility to IA. The control group consisted of 130 patients who had allo-SCT but did not develop IA. While no association was found for donor SNPs and the recipients risk of IA, analysis of recipient SNPs showed a significant association between the presence of recipient TLR5-Stop SNP (1174C> T) and the incidence of IA (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the recipient TLR5-Stop SNP appeared as an independent risk factor for IA after allo-SCT. Our study suggests that TLR5 is involved in host defense against Aspergillus fumigatus, and that the recipient TLR5-Stop SNP represents a risk factor for the development of IA after allo-SCT.
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Low Paneth cell numbers at onset of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease identify patients at high risk for nonrelapse mortality.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is an often lethal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Clinical severity correlates with outcomes, but histopathologic grading is primarily used to confirm the clinical diagnosis. One barrier to using histopathologic grading to predict clinical outcomes is inter-grader variability among transplant centers. Recent experimental models have shown that the loss of Paneth cells, which are located in the small intestine and help regulate the GI microbiome by secreting antimicrobial peptides, correlates with clinical GVHD severity. Because Paneth cells are easy to identify and quantify by light microscopy, we evaluated the mean number of Paneth cells per high-powered field (hpf) in 116 duodenal biopsies obtained at diagnosis of GI GVHD at 2 different centers with their clinical outcomes. Paneth cell counts were reproducible between centers (r(2) = 0.81; P < .0001). Lower numbers of Paneth cells at diagnosis correlated with clinically more severe GI GVHD (P < .0001) and less likelihood of response to GVHD treatment (P < .0001). A threshold of 4 Paneth cells per hpf stratified patients according to nonrelapse mortality (28% vs 56%; P = .004). We conclude that the enumeration of duodenal Paneth cells is a readily available index of disease severity that provides important information regarding GVHD prognosis.
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with lymphomatoid granulomatosis: a European group for blood and marrow transplantation report.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LG) is a very rare, Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder of B cells. Prognosis is poor, particularly after relapse and no curative treatment exists. We report the results of high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) or reduced-intensity conditioning and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in patients with multiply relapsed LG. A European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation survey identified 10 patients who had received 9 ASCT and 4 alloSCT. All patients had active disease at the time of transplantation. With a median follow-up of 5.1 (range, 1.4 to 6.3) years, 6 patients are alive and disease-free. Two ASCT patients died of septicemia early after transplantation, and 1 committed suicide after being in continuous complete remission 19 months after ASCT. Another patient allografted 4 years after ASCT remained disease-free but died of severe graft-versus-host disease 3 months after alloSCT. High-dose therapy followed by ASCT and alloSCT are effective therapeutic options and should be considered in all patients with refractory and multiply relapsed LG.
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Genetic susceptibility to increased bacterial translocation influences the response to biological therapy in patients with Crohns disease.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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The aetiology of Crohns disease (CD) has been related to nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain containing 2 (NOD2) and ATG16L1 gene variants. The observation of bacterial DNA translocation in patients with CD led us to hypothesise that this process may be facilitated in patients with NOD2/ATG16L1-variant genotypes, affecting the efficacy of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapies.
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Current practice in diagnosis and treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease: results from a survey among German-Austrian-Swiss hematopoietic stem cell transplant centers.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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To assess current clinical practice in diagnosis and treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), we performed a survey among German, Austrian, and Swiss allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) centers. Thirty-four of 72 contacted centers (47%) completed both the diagnostic and therapeutic sections of the survey, representing 65% of allo-HSCT activity within the participating countries in 2011. Three pediatric centers answered as requested only the diagnostic part of the survey. In the presence of diarrhea and decreased oral intake after engraftment, only 4 centers (12%) do not perform any endoscopy before the start of immunosuppressive treatment. In case of a skin rash with the differential diagnosis of drug reaction, only 12 centers (35%) perform a skin biopsy up front, whereas 19 do so after failure of systemic steroids. In the presence of rapidly increasing cholestasis occurring without any other signs of aGVHD, 11 centers (32%) perform a liver biopsy up front and 14 only after failure of steroid treatment, whereas 9 centers do not perform a liver biopsy at all. Twenty centers (59%) use a percutaneous approach, 12 a transvenous approach, and 1 mini-laparoscopy for liver biopsies. First-line treatment of cutaneous aGVHD stage 1 consists of topical treatment alone in 17 of 31 responding centers (61%), whereas isolated cutaneous aGVHD stage III is treated with systemic steroids (prednisolone below 0.5 mg/kg/day n = 2, 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg/day n = 10, above 1.0 to 2.5 mg/kg/day n = 19) without or with topical agents (steroids n = 10; calcineurin inhibitors n = 3). In gastrointestinal manifestations of aGVHD, 9 centers (29%) add topical to systemic steroids, and 3 consider topical steroids as the only treatment for mild gastrointestinal and cutaneous aGVHD. The choice of agent for second-line treatment as well as the sequence of administration are extremely heterogeneous, most likely due to a lack of convincing data published. Most frequently used are mycophenolate mofetil (n = 14) and extracorporeal photopheresis (n = 10). Our survey also demonstrates that clinicians chose salvage therapies for steroid-refractory aGVHD based on their centers own clinical experience.
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The lack of memory B cells including T cell independent IgM+ IgD+ memory B cells in chronic graft-versus host disease is associated with susceptibility to infection.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
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The chronic graft-versus host disease (cGVHD) is associated with a perturbed B cell homeostasis and an increased infection rate. Aiming to determine the impact of lymphocyte subsets on cGVHD, blood samples from 98 patients at least 100 days following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (median 1066 days) were analyzed, serum levels of immunoglobulins measured and the incidence of severe infections retrospectively documented. Absolute CD19(+) B cell counts, including counts of immature (CD10(+) CD38(++) CD20(+) IgM(++)) and transitional (CD10(-) CD38(++) CD20(+) IgM(++)) as well as class switched memory (CD19(+) CD27(+) IgM(-) IgD(-)) B cells in patients with active cGVHD (n = 52) were significantly decreased as compared to those with inactive (n = 18) or without cGVHD (n = 28). In addition, nonclass switched IgM(+) memory B cells (CD19(+) CD27(+) IgM(+) IgD(+)) were absent in patients with cGVHD, but not in patients with inactive (0.4 × 10(6) /l) or without (1.7 × 10(6) /l) cGVHD (both P < 0.001). In line with these results we found significantly decreased lgG levels in patients with cGVHD, which was associated with a significantly higher rate of severe infections in cGVHD patients. Our data underline the close association of diminished B cell counts with cGVHD and the onset of severe infections. The lack of IgM(+) memory B cells in patients with cGVHD may indicate functional asplenia.
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Tryptophan catabolism is associated with acute GVHD after human allogeneic stem cell transplantation and indicates activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway, acts as a potent immunoregulatory loop. To address its role in human allogeneic stem cell transplantation, we measured major tryptophan metabolites, such as quinolinic acid and kynurenine, in serial urine specimens from 51 patients by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were collected between admission and day 90 after transplantation, and metabolite levels were correlated with early clinical events and outcome. In selected patients, IDO gene expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in intestinal biopsies. Surviving patients had significantly lower metabolite levels on days 28, 42, and 90, respectively, compared with patients dying of GVHD and associated complications (n = 10). Kynurenine levels were directly correlated with severity and clinical course of GVHD: Mean urinary quinolinic acid levels were 4.5 ± 0.3 ?mol/mmol creatinine in the absence of acute GVHD, 8.0 ± 1.1 ?mol/mmol creatinine for GVHD grade 1 or 2, and 13.5 ± 2.7 ?mol/mmol creatinine for GVHD grade 3 or 4 (P < .001), respectively. GVHD-dependent induction of IDO was further suggested by increased expression of IDO mRNA in intestinal biopsies from patients with severe GVHD. Our data indicate reactive release of kynurenines in GVHD-associated inflammation.
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Regenerating islet-derived 3-alpha is a biomarker of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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There are no plasma biomarkers specific for GVHD of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the GVHD target organ most associated with nonrelapse mortality (NRM) following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Using an unbiased, large-scale, quantitative proteomic discovery approach to identify candidate biomarkers that were increased in plasma from HCT patients with GI GVHD, 74 proteins were increased at least 2-fold; 5 were of GI origin. We validated the lead candidate, REG3?, by ELISA in samples from 1014 HCT patients from 3 transplantation centers. Plasma REG3? concentrations were 3-fold higher in patients at GI GVHD onset than in all other patients and correlated most closely with lower GI GVHD. REG3? concentrations at GVHD onset predicted response to therapy at 4 weeks, 1-year NRM, and 1-year survival (P ? .001). In a multivariate analysis, advanced clinical stage, severe histologic damage, and high REG3? concentrations at GVHD diagnosis independently predicted 1-year NRM, which progressively increased with higher numbers of onset risk factors present: 25% for patients with 0 risk factors to 86% with 3 risk factors present (P < .001). REG3? is a plasma biomarker of GI GVHD that can be combined with clinical stage and histologic grade to improve risk stratification of patients.
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Whole-body UVB irradiation during allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is safe and decreases acute graft-versus-host disease.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Depletion of host Langerhans cells (LCs) prevents cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in mice. We analyzed whether UVB irradiation is tolerated during the course of human allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and whether depletion of LCs by broadband UVB could improve GvHD outcome. A total of 17 patients received six whole-body UVB irradiations with 75% of the individually determined minimal erythemal dose after conditioning with a reduced intensity protocol. LCs, dermal dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages were analyzed before and after UVB irradiation by immunohistochemical analysis. Circulating blood cells and serum factors were analyzed in parallel. In striking contrast to previous data, our irradiation protocol was well tolerated in all patients. UVB treatment decreased the number of LCs and also affected dermal DCs. UVB-treated patients also had significantly higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 serum levels and higher numbers of circulating CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Strikingly, nine out of nine patients with complete LC depletion (<1 LC per field) developed only grade I GvHD or no GvHD up to day 100. Our results strongly suggest that prophylactic UVB irradiation post transplant is safe and should be further explored as a clinical strategy to prevent acute (skin) GvHD.
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Quantitative profiling of tryptophan metabolites in serum, urine, and cell culture supernatants by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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A sensitive, selective, and comprehensive method for the quantitative determination of tryptophan and 18 of its key metabolites in serum, urine, and cell culture supernatants was developed. The analytes were separated on a C18 silica column by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, except for indoxyl sulfate which was measured in negative ion MRM mode in a separate run. The limits of detection and lower limits of quantification were in the range of 0.1-50 and 0.5-100 nM, respectively. Fully (13)C isotope-labeled and deuterated internal standards were used to achieve accurate quantification. The applicability of the method to analyze serum, urine, and cell culture supernatants was demonstrated by recovery experiments and the evaluation of matrix effects. Precision for the analysis of serum, urine, and cell culture supernatants ranged between 1.3% and 16.0%, 1.5% and 13.5%, and 1.0% and 17.4%, respectively. The method was applied to analyze changes in tryptophan metabolism in cell culture supernatants from IFN-?-treated monocytes and immature or mature dendritic cells.
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CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells enhance the allogeneic activity of endothelial-specific CD8+/CD28-CTL.
Int. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Numerous data indicate that CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) can attenuate alloresponses of conventional T lymphocytes against professional antigen-presenting cells and thus qualify for clinical use in various transplant settings. However, it is unknown whether Treg cells also influence T cell-endothelial cell interactions. CD8+ PBMC (CD8+ PBMC, CTL) from healthy human donors were stimulated for 7 days with an allogeneic microvascular endothelial cell line (CDC/EU. HMEC-1, an immortalized human microvascular endothelial cell line, further referred to as HMEC) and additional endothelial cell types and analysed for their lytic activity against these target cells in the presence or absence of Treg cells. Addition of Treg cells (1:1:1) to the CTL/HMEC co-cultures in the efferent immune phase (day -1 prior to the assay) led to an increased cytotoxicity against HMEC. In contrast, Treg cells alone did not lyse HMEC. Treg cell-mediated enhancement of CTL activity was endothelial cell specific since lysis of HLA-matched Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphoblastoid cells (B-LCL) was not influenced by the addition of Treg cells. Further analysis of CD28-positive and CD28-negative CTL sub-populations revealed that only the CD28-negative CTL showed an increased activity against HMEC after Treg cell co-culture. Although there is no doubt about the potential therapeutic efficacy of Treg cells to ameliorate outcome of allogeneic transplants, the endothelium might require additional protective interventions to prevent endothelial cell type-specific alloreactivity.
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Metabolic bone diseases in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: report from the Consensus Conference on Clinical Practice in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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With improved outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for hematologic malignancies, long-term complications gain greater importance. Skeletal complications such as osteoporosis or avascular necrosis (AVN) occur frequently in allogeneic recipients with a cumulative incidence of diminished bone mineral density of 24-50% between 2 and 12 months after allo-SCT and a cumulative incidence of AVN in as many as 19% of patients 3 years after allo-SCT. Here, we present a review as part of the German, Austrian, and Swiss Consensus Conference on clinical practice in chronic graft-versus-host disease, held 2009 in Regensburg. The Consensus Conference aimed to achieve a consensus on the current evidence of diagnosis, prevention, and therapeutic options of late complications after allo-SCT summarizing and discussing the literature on these topics. In this report, we provide recommendations for metabolic bone diseases agreed upon by the working party. This includes guidelines for diagnosis, prevention, and therapeutic options in patients with low bone mass or AVN.
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Prophylactic application of nebulized liposomal amphotericin B in hematologic patients with neutropenia.
Onkologie
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Pulmonary invasive fungal infections (IFI) are well-recognized complications with high morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies.
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease: long-term results from a randomized trial on graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with or without anti-T-cell globulin ATG-Fresenius.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Previous randomized graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-prophylaxis trials have failed to demonstrate reduced incidence and severity of chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Here we reanalyzed and updated a randomized phase 3 trial comparing standard GVHD prophylaxis with or without pretransplantation ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F) in 201 adult patients receiving myeloablative conditioning before transplantation from unrelated donors. The cumulative incidence of extensive cGVHD after 3 years was 12.2% in the ATG-F group versus 45.0% in the control group (P < .0001). The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse and of nonrelapse mortality was 32.6% and 19.4% in the ATG-F group and 28.2% and 33.5% in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.21, P = .47, and HR = 0.68, P = .18), respectively. This nonsignificant reduction in nonrelapse mortality without increased relapse risk led to an overall survival rate after 3 years of 55.2% in the ATG-F group and 43.3% in the control group (HR = 0.84, P = .39, nonsignificant). The HR for receiving immunosuppressive therapy (IST) was 0.31 after ATG-F (P < .0001), and the 3-year probability of survival free of IST was 52.9% and 16.9% in the ATG-F versus control, respectively. The addition of ATG-F to standard cyclosporine, methotrexate GVHD prophylaxis lowers the incidence and severity of cGVHD, and the risk of receiving IST without raising the relapse rate. ATG-F prophylaxis reduces cGVHD morbidity.
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Allogeneic transplantation as post-remission therapy for cytogenetically high-risk acute myeloid leukemia: landmark analysis from a single prospective multicenter trial.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Background Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is considered the preferred post-remission therapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia cytogenetically defined as being at high risk. To substantiate evidence for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in first complete remission in these high-risk patients we performed a landmark analysis within a single prospective multicenter treatment trial.
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Danger signals activating innate immunity in graft-versus-host disease.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Extensive cell death with consecutive release of danger signals can cause immune-mediated tissue destruction. The abundance of cell death is likely to determine the relevance of the danger signals as physiological mechanisms that counteract immune activation may be overruled. Such constellation is conceivable in chemo-/radiotherapy-induced tissue damage, reperfusion injury, trauma, and severe infection. Studies on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) development have to consider the effects of chemo-/radiotherapy-related tissue damage leading to the release of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Our previous work has demonstrated a role for adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) as an endogenous danger signal in GvHD. Besides ATP, uric acid or soluble extracellular matrix components are functional danger signals that activate the NLRP3 inflammasome when released from dying cells or from extracellular matrix. In contrast to sterile inflammation, GvHD is more complex since bacterial components that leak through damaged intestinal barriers and the skin can activate pattern recognition receptors and directly contribute to GvHD pathogenesis. These exogenous danger signals transmit immune activation via toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors of the innate immune system. This review covers both the impact of endogenous and exogenous danger signals activating innate immunity in GvHD.
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The treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease: consensus recommendations of experts from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is the commonest complication of allogeneic bone marrow and blood stem-cell transplantation, occurring in 50% of all cases and causing late mortality in as many as 25%. There are now about 10 000 patients with cGVHD in Germany, and their number is growing by about 500 each year. cGVHD is a chronic multisystem disease due to impaired tolerance mechanisms. It affects many organs in variable ways, impairing organ function and lowering quality of life.
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Antimicrobial peptide response to blood translocation of bacterial DNA in Crohns disease is affected by NOD2/CARD15 genotype.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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Blood translocation of bacterial-DNA has been described in patients with Crohns disease (CD). The hosts immune cell types cooperate to respond against bacterial insults. Some antimicrobial peptides are inducible after culture with bacterial products and a linkage has been established between them and NOD2/CARD15. The aim was to test whether defensins and cathelicidin (LL-37) expression and NOD2/CARD15 mutations in blood neutrophils are related to molecular bacterial translocation events in CD patients.
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Neurological manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: report from the Consensus Conference on Clinical Practice in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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A major obstacle of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is graft-versus-host disease, an immune-mediated disorder that affects multiple tissues and organs with varying severity. Neurological complications of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease are rare but can produce severe clinical problems with significant morbidity and mortality. In this article, we review neurological manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease that comprise immune-mediated neuropathies, myasthenia gravis and myositis in the peripheral nervous system and various cerebrovascular complications, demyelination and immune-mediated encephalitis in the central nervous system. The National Institutes of Health consensus on criteria for clinical trials in chronic graft-versus-host disease recommended that the diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease of the nervous system can be made only when other organs are affected by graft-versus-host disease and frequent neurological differential diagnoses such as drug-induced toxicities or opportunistic infections are excluded. The Consensus Conference on Clinical Practice in chronic graft-versus-host disease, held in autumn 2009 in Regensburg, aimed to summarize the literature and to provide guidelines for the diagnostic approach in children and adults with neurological manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Moreover, we present therapeutic recommendations and their level of evidence for the management of these complications. Overlapping symptoms and comorbidities after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the limited knowledge about the underlying biological mechanisms of chronic graft-versus-host disease affecting the nervous system emphasize the need for further experimental and clinical investigations.
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Heat-shock protein expression in leukemia.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are thought to play a role in the development of cancer and to modulate tumor response to cytotoxic therapy. In this study, Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp90?, and HspBP1 gene expression was investigated in human leukemia cell lines as well as in leukemia cells derived from patients with the onset of the disease. Hsp70 membrane expression and expression of Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90?, and HspBP1 genes were also tested in samples from leukemia patients. Relative Hsps gene expression was examined in human leukemia cell lines and also in patients, using real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hsp70 cell surface expression was studied in patients with leukemia onset using flow cytometry. All tested cell lines showed significantly increased expression of Hsp60, Hsp90?, and HspBP1 genes compared with a cohort of healthy controls; additionally there was increased Hsp27 expression except for Jurkat and CCRF cells. Significantly higher gene expression of Hsp27, Hsp60, Hsp90?, and HspBP1 was observed in the peripheral blood of patients compared with bone marrow and healthy control samples, while Hsp70 expression was without any significant difference among cohorts. Hsp70 cell surface expression was found on defrosted and cultured leukemia cells but not on unprocessed biological samples from patients. Leukemia cells showed a heterogeneous pattern of Hsp gene expression among leukemia cell lines as well as in peripheral blood and bone marrow of patients.
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Steroid treatment alters adhesion molecule and chemokine expression in experimental acute graft-vs.-host disease of the intestinal tract.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) that is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Systemic treatment with steroids has been the mainstay of first-line therapy of aGVHD, although controlled experimental data in this context are limited.
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Impact of genomic risk factors on outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Non-HLA gene polymorphisms have been shown to influence outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Results were derived from heterogeneous, small populations and their value remains a matter of debate.
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Validation of the human activity profile questionnaire in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) associated morbidity and mortality remain major barriers for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Currently, no reliable measures are established to monitor cGVHD activity changes for use in clinical trials. The Human Activity Profile (HAP) patient self-report was proposed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cGVHD consensus project as an independent measure of patients functional status that could also indirectly reflect improvement of cGVHD, but that has not been validated in an alloHSCT patient population. One hundred seventy-six patients (median age 44 years [range: 18-72 years] after alloHSCT were evaluated with a German translation of the HAP, the NIH criteria-based cGVHD activity assessment, the Lee cGVHD Symptom-Scale, FACT-BMT, SF36, Berlin Social Support Scale, 24-Item Adjective Measure (24-AM), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the NCCN-Distress-Thermometer. Enrollment occurred a median of 286 (range: 85-4003) days after alloHSCT. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 12 months after the baseline survey. Although 117 patient had cGVHD at time of enrollment (mild n = 33, moderate n = 50, or severe n = 34), 59 patients were included into the study in the absence of cGVHD between days 85 and 395 after transplantation. The maximum activity score (MAS) and adjusted activity score (AAS) of the HAP correlated inversely with grading of cGVHD severity (mild, moderate, or severe) (r = -0.25 for MAS and -0.24 for AAS). Lung manifestations of cGVHD correlated with AAS (r = 0.17), but not with MAS. HAP scores correlated with subscales from other instruments measuring physical domains, especially the physical functioning scale of the SF36. Performance was improved by use of an HSCT-modified HAP scoring system that excluded activities prohibited within the first year after alloHSCT. No significant correlation of the HAP was found with personality, age, sex, symptom burden, or social functioning or social well-being. Moreover, the HAP displayed a higher sensitivity to change of cGVHD activity compared to the SF36 and the FACT-BMT. In addition, steroid myopathy correlated with both HAP scores, but not the SF36. The HAP is a simple and valid questionnaire for the evaluation of the physical activity in patients after alloHSCT, with the advantage of detecting changes in cGVHD status independently of other quality-of-life measures and with a superior sensitivity compared to the SF36.
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Association of the NOD2 genotype with bacterial translocation via altered cell-cell contacts in Crohns disease patients.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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Recent insights into the pathogenesis of Crohns disease (CD) point to an important role of the mucosal barrier and intestinal microflora that may induce a chronic inflammation after crossing the intestinal barrier. The first detected susceptibility gene for CD, NOD2, is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) for the recognition of the bacterial cell wall component muramyldipeptide (MDP). Binding of MDP to NOD2 is followed by activation of proinflammatory pathways mainly regulated by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). In this study we investigated whether impaired recognition of MDP via NOD2 variants is associated with increased bacterial translocation across the epithelial barrier and whether this is followed by increased or decreased NF-kappaB activation.
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Consensus Conference on Clinical Practice in Chronic GVHD: Second-Line Treatment of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Steroid refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Although first-line treatment of cGVHD is based on controlled trials, second-line treatment is almost solely based on phase II trials or retrospective analyses. The consensus conference on clinical practice in cGVHD held in Regensburg aimed to achieve a consensus on the current evidence of treatment options as well as to provide guidelines for daily clinical practice. Treatment modalities are the use of steroids and calcineurin inhibitors as well as immunomodulating modalities (photopheresis, mTOR-inhibitors, thalidomide, hydroxychloroquine, vitamin A analogs, clofazimine), and cytostatic agents (mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, pentostatin). Recent reports showed some efficacy of rituximab, alemtuzumab, and etanercept in selected patients. Moreover, tyrosine kinase inihibitors such as imatinib came into the field because of their ability to interfere with the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-R) pathway involved in fibrosis. An other treatment option is low-dose thoracoabdominal irradiation. Although different treatment options are available, the "trial-and-error system" remains the only way to identify the drug effective in the individual patient, and valid biomarkers are eagerly needed to identify the likelihood of response to a drug in advance. Moreover, the sparse evidence for most treatment entities indicates the urgent need for systematic evaluation of second-line treatment options in cGVHD.
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Consensus conference on clinical practice in chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD): first-line and topical treatment of chronic GVHD.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. First-line treatment of cGVHD is based on steroids of 1 mg/kg/day of prednisone. The role of calcineurin inhibitors remains controversial, especially in patients with low risk for mortality (normal platelets counts), whereas patients with low platelets at diagnosis and/or high risk for steroid toxicity may be treated upfront with the combination of prednisone and a calcineurin inhibitor. Additional systemic immunosuppressive agents, like thalidomide, mycophenolic acid, and azathioprine, failed to improve treatment results in the primary treatment of cGVHD and are in part associated with higher morbidity, and in the case of azathioprine, with higher mortality. Despite advances in diagnosis of cGVHD as well as supportive care, half of the patients fail to achieve a long-lasting response to first-line treatment, and infectious morbidity continues to be significant. Therefore, immunomodulatory interventions with low infectious morbidity and mortality such as photopheresis need urgent evaluation in clinical trials. Beside systemic immunosuppression, the use of topical immunosuppressive interventions may improve local response rates and may be used as the only treatment in mild localized organ manifestations of cGVHD.
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Diagnosis and staging of chronic graft-versus-host disease in the clinical practice.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Based on expert opinion and retrospective data the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Project proposed criteria for diagnosis and staging of both overall severity as well as organ severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) for use in clinical trials. In 2008, representatives of German and Austrian allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) centers established a study group on cGVHD during the annual meeting of the German Working Group on Bone Marrow and Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (DAG-KBT) to intensify a dialog among HSCT physicians, pathologists, and medical consultants focusing on the usefulness of the NIH consensus criteria for patient care in clinical practice and to promote collaborations between HSCT centers as well as different medical specialities involved in HSCT. We first conducted a survey of current practices of diagnosis, staging, and overall grading of cGVHD in daily clinical routine by sending an electronic questionnaire to the heads of the HSCT centers. During 3 meetings in 2009, more representatives of allogeneic HSCT centers were included into the discussion process, resulting in 81% participation representing 88% of all allogeneic HSCT activities in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. During the third consensus meeting held in Regensburg, Germany, from November 6 to November 7, 2009, important agreements were achieved among participant having a strong impact on care of patients with cGVHD. Areas of disagreement such as distinction between classical NIH cGVHD and overlap syndrome or assignment of liver GVHD after day 100 to acute or chronic category will be further assessed in prospective observational studies among participants in the near future.
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General transcription factor binding at CpG islands in normal cells correlates with resistance to de novo DNA methylation in cancer cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Aberrant DNA methylation at CpG islands is thought to contribute to cancer initiation and progression, but mechanisms that establish and maintain DNA methylation status during tumorigenesis or normal development remain poorly understood. In this study, we used methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation to generate comparative DNA methylation profiles of healthy and malignant cells (acute leukemia and colorectal carcinoma) for human CpG islands across the genome. While searching for sequence patterns that characterize DNA methylation states, we discovered several nonredundant sequences in CpG islands that were resistant to aberrant de novo methylation in cancer and that resembled consensus binding sites for general transcription factors (TF). Comparing methylation profiles with global CpG island binding data for specific protein 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and yin-yang 1 revealed that their DNA binding activity in normal blood cells correlated strictly with an absence of de novo methylation in cancer. In addition, global evidence showed that binding of any of these TFs to their consensus motif depended on their co-occurrence with neighboring consensus motifs. In summary, our results had two major implications. First, they pointed to a major role for cooperative binding of TFs in maintaining the unmethylated status of CpG islands in health and disease. Second, our results suggest that the majority of de novo methylated CpG islands are characterized by the lack of sequence motif combinations and the absence of activating TF binding.
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Graft-versus-host disease: regulation by microbe-associated molecules and innate immune receptors.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the major obstacle to a more favorable therapeutic outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). GVHD is characterized by tissue damage in gut, liver, and skin, caused by donor T cells that are critical for antitumor and antimicrobial immunity after HSCT. One obstacle in combating GVHD used to be the lack of understanding the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the initiation phase of this syndrome. Recent research has demonstrated that interactions between microbial-associated molecules (pathogen-associated molecular patterns [PAMPs]) and innate immune receptors (pathogen recognition receptors [PRRs]), such as NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), control adaptive immune responses in inflammatory disorders. Polymorphisms of the genes encoding NOD2 and TLR4 are associated with a higher incidence of GVHD in HSC transplant recipients. Interestingly, NOD2 regulates GVHD through its inhibitory effect on antigen-presenting cell (APC) function. These insights identify important mechanisms regarding the induction of GVHD through the interplay of microbial molecules and innate immunity, thus opening a new area for future therapeutic approaches. This review covers current knowledge of the role of PAMPs and PRRs in the control of adaptive immune responses during inflammatory diseases, particularly GVHD.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo SCT) for chronic myeloid leukemia in the imatinib era: evaluation of its impact within a subgroup of the randomized German CML Study IV.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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The role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in chronic myeloid leukemia is being reevaluated. Whereas drug treatment has been shown to be superior in first-line treatment, data on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo SCT) as second-line therapy after imatinib failure are scarce. Using an interim safety analysis of the randomized German CML Study IV designed to optimize imatinib therapy by combination, dose escalation, and transplantation, we here report on 84 patients who underwent consecutive transplantation according to predefined criteria (low European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation [EBMT] score, imatinib failure, and advanced disease). Three-year survival after transplantation of 56 patients in chronic phase was 91% (median follow-up: 30 months). Transplantation-related mortality was 8%. In a matched pair comparison of patients who received a transplant and those who did not, survival was not different. Three-year survival after transplantation of 28 patients in advanced phase was 59%. Eighty-eight percent of patients who received a transplant achieved complete molecular remissions. We conclude that allo SCT could become the preferred second-line option after imatinib failure for suitable patients with a donor. The study is registered at the National Institutes of Health, http://clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00055874.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation after reduced-intensity conditioning in patients with myelofibrosis: a prospective, multicenter study of the Chronic Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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From 2002 to 2007, 103 patients with primary myelofibrosis or postessential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera myelofibrosis and a median age of 55 years (range, 32-68 years) were included in a prospective multicenter phase 2 trial to determine efficacy of a busulfan (10 mg/kg)/fludarabine (180 mg/m(2))-based reduced-intensity conditioning regimen followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation from related (n = 33) or unrelated donors (n = 70). All but 2 patients (2%) showed leukocyte and platelet engraftment after a median of 18 and 22 days, respectively. Acute graft-versus-host disease grade 2 to 4 occurred in 27% and chronic graft-versus-host disease in 43% of the patients. Cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 1 year was 16% (95% confidence interval, 9%-23%) and significantly lower for patients with a completely matched donor (12% vs 38%; P = .003). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years was 22% (95% confidence interval, 13%-31%) and was influenced by Lille risk profile (low, 14%; intermediate, 22%; and high, 34%; P = .02). The estimated 5-year event-free and overall survival was 51% and 67%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, age older than 55 years (hazard ratio = 2.70; P = .02) and human leukocyte antigen-mismatched donor (hazard ratio = 3.04; P = .006) remained significant factors for survival. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT 00599547.
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Standard graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with or without anti-T-cell globulin in haematopoietic cell transplantation from matched unrelated donors: a randomised, open-label, multicentre phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation from unrelated donors. Anti-T-cell globulins (ATGs) might lower the incidence of GVHD. We did a prospective, randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 trial to compare standard GVHD prophylaxis with ciclosporin and methotrexate with or without anti-Jurkat ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F).
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Regulatory T-cell suppression of CD8+ T-cell-mediated graft-versus-host reaction requires their presence during priming.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Despite the promising therapeutic potential of regulatory T cells (Treg) in animal studies of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), little is known about their effect on human GVHD. Whether Treg are capable of ameliorating GVHD tissue damage has never been demonstrated in humans. It is also unknown whether Treg modulation of GVH histopathologic damage relies on their presence during effector T-cell priming, or whether allogeneic Treg are safe to use clinically.
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Pathophysiology and management of graft-versus-host disease in the era of reduced-intensity conditioning.
Curr Opin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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Both indirect and direct effects contribute to changes in the clinical presentation of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) compared with standard intensity regimens. A delay in acute GvHD after RIC may be explained by reduced conditioning-related inflammation and by altered allostimulatory capacities of recipient antigen-presenting cells (APC). A higher frequency of chronic GvHD results from the almost exclusive use of peripheral blood stem cells, the absence of tolerance induction by current regimens for prophylactic immunosuppression and modified kinetics in the replacement of recipient APC. Established acute and chronic GvHD requires standard treatment irrespective of the type of conditioning. To improve long-term outcome in GvHD, pre-emptive strategies or more selective approaches aimed at immunomodulation rather than immunosuppression are needed.
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G to C transition at position -173 of MIF gene of the recipient is associated with reduced relapse rates after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2009
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Pro-inflammatory and dendritic cell-activating properties of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) suggest a potentially important role for MIF in alloantigen-specific immune responses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). We tested whether MIF -173 G/C gene polymorphism of donor or patient had impacts on the outcomes after allo-SCT. Four hundred and fifty-four donor-patient pairs were genotyped and mortality, relapse, and development of complications were analyzed. Patient but not donor MIF -173 *C allele was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (5 years: 60.8% versus 46.3%, p=0.042) and disease free survival (DFS) (5 years: 55.4% versus 39.5%; p=0.014) due to a reduction in relapse (day 2000: 22.8% versus 42.0% p=0.006) but not due to decreased transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (p=0.44). Multivariate analysis proved patient -173 *C allele as an independent factor for reducing relapse after allo-SCT (p=0.023). Subgroup analysis showed a clear MIF -173 *C allele-related reduction in relapse for those patients who did not receive T cell depleted (TCD) SCT (p=0.01) in contrast to patients receiving TCD SCT (p=0.20). In summary, patient MIF -173 *C allele may be linked to specific, yet unrevealed functions in tumor biology and graft versus leukemia and lymphoma effects and potentially presents a novel prognostic marker for patient-tailored counseling and therapy in allo-SCT.
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Graft-versus-host disease.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Haemopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) is an intensive therapy used to treat high-risk haematological malignant disorders and other life-threatening haematological and genetic diseases. The main complication of HCT is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), an immunological disorder that affects many organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, liver, skin, and lungs. The number of patients with this complication continues to grow, and many return home from transplant centres after HCT requiring continued treatment with immunosuppressive drugs that increases their risks for serious infections and other complications. In this Seminar, we review our understanding of the risk factors and causes of GHVD, the cellular and cytokine networks implicated in its pathophysiology, and current strategies to prevent and treat the disease. We also summarise supportive-care measures that are essential for management of this medically fragile population.
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Preventive usage of broad spectrum chemokine inhibitor NR58-3.14.3 reduces the severity of pulmonary and hepatic graft-versus-host disease.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
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Pulmonary graft-versus-host disease (pGVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), which involves donor leukocyte migration into the lung along chemokine gradients, leading to pulmonary dysfunction and respiratory insufficiency. As broad spectrum chemokine inhibitor (BSCI) NR58-3.14.3 suppresses leukocyte migration in response to various chemokines, including CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, we investigated the effects of NR58-3.14.3 on the evolution of pGVHD. Lethally irradiated B6D2F1 mice received BMT from syngeneic (B6D2F1) or allogeneic (C57BL/6) donors, and animals were treated with either NR58-3.14.3 or vehicle control from day -1 to day +14. At week 6, in allogeneic recipients that received BSCI, inflammatory cell infiltrates in the lung were decreased, and reduced histopathologic changes translated into improved pulmonary function when compared to allo-controls. Acute GVHD of the liver was also diminished, whereas no differences were seen in the gut. Alloantigen-dependent splenic T cell expansion and systemic TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma levels were comparable in NR58-3.14.3-treated animals and allo-controls. No suppressive effect of NR58-3.14.3 on CTL cytotoxicity was found, and diminished cellular infiltrates in lung and liver were most likely due to decreased migration of mononuclear cells. Therefore, novel approaches involving BSCIs may provide a promising tool in the management of pGVHD.
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The release of soluble factors contributing to endothelial activation and damage after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is not limited to the allogeneic setting and involves several pathogenic mechanisms.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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This study evaluated the relative impact of the intensity of the conditioning regimen and the alloreactivity in the endothelial dysfunction occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). It involved a comparative analysis of the effect of incubating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) with serum samples from patients receiving autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) or unrelated donor allo-HSCT. In both groups, blood samples were collected through a central line before conditioning (Pre), before transplantation (day 0), and at days 7, 14, and 21 after transplantation. Changes in the expression of EC receptors and adhesion proteins, adhesion of leukocytes and platelets under flow, and signaling pathways were analyzed. Endothelial activation and damage were observed in both groups, but with differing patterns. All markers of endothelial dysfunction demonstrated a progressive increase from day Pre to day 14 in the auto-HSCT group and exhibited 2 peaks of maximal expression (at days 0 and 21) in the allo-HSCT group. Both treatments induced a proinflammatory state (ie, expression of adhesion receptors, leukocyte adhesion, and p38 MAPK activation) and cell proliferation (ie, morphology and activation of ErK42/44). Prothrombotic changes (ie, von Willebrand factor expression and platelet adhesion) predominated after allo-HSCT, and a proapoptotic tendency (ie, activation of SAPK/JNK) was seen only in this group. These findings indicate that endothelial activation and damage after HSCT also occur in the autologous setting and affect macrovascular ECs. After the initial damage induced by the conditioning regimen, other factors, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) toxicity, engraftment, and alloreactivity, may contribute to the endothelial damage seen during HSCT. Further studies are needed to explore the association between this endothelial damage and the vascular complications associated with HSCT.
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Safety and efficacy of defibrotide for the treatment of severe hepatic veno-occlusive disease.
Ther Adv Hematol
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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, is a potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapeutic conditioning used in preparation for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT). VOD may occur in up to 62% of patients undergoing SCT, with onset generally within the first month after SCT. In severe cases, 100-day mortality is in excess of 80%. Current management consists of best supportive care, with no agents to date approved for treatment in the USA or the EU. Defibrotide, a polydisperse oligonucleotide, has been shown in phase II and III trials to improve complete response and survival in patients undergoing SCT with severe VOD. This article reviews our current understanding of VOD, and examines recent clinical findings on defibrotide for the treatment and prophylaxis of VOD.
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Beta-defensins activate macrophages and synergize in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression induced by TLR ligands.
Immunobiology
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Our previous studies indicated that mouse beta defensin 14 (mBD14, Defb14), a newly identified member of the beta-defensin super family, interacts with the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR6. In this study we report that pre-stimulation of primary mouse macrophages with mBD14 results in a synergistic, enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines induced by TLR ligand re-stimulation. Experiments using specific inhibitors of G(i)-protein-coupled receptor signaling provide evidence that this effect seems to be mediated by a G(i)-protein-coupled receptor expressed on bone marrow derived macrophages. However, using primary macrophages derived from CCR6- and CCR2-deficient mice clearly demonstrated that the enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression is independent of the chemokine receptors CCR6 and CCR2. Additionally, signaling pathway analysis indicated that mBD14 is capable of inducing MAPK ERK1/2 phosphorylation and the induction of CD86 and F4/80 expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages after mBD14 stimulation. Collectively, our data indicate that ?-defensins activate primary macrophages and enhance pro-inflammatory responses by using G(i)PCRs in order to support inflammatory reactions induced by TLR ligands.
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Drug safety evaluation of defibrotide.
Expert Opin Drug Saf
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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapeutic conditioning used in preparation for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Defibrotide (DF) has been shown in Phase II and III trials to improve complete response in patients with severe VOD (sVOD). None of the articles, to date, provide a comprehensive review of the safety of DF in VOD and/or a range of other conditions.
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Muscle cramps and neuropathies in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and graft-versus-host disease.
PLoS ONE
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an immune-mediated multisystemic disorder and the leading cause of morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Peripheral nervous system manifestations of GVHD are rare but often disabling. Whereas immune-mediated neuropathies are an established feature of GVHD, muscle cramps are not well characterized.
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Chronic graft versus host disease but not the intensity of conditioning has impact on survival after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for advanced hematological diseases.
Onkologie
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) is often performed in cases of advanced hematological diseases, but because of the associated mortality and a high risk of relapse it is life prolonging only in some patients.
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Influence of molecular subgroups on outcome of acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype in 141 patients undergoing salvage allogeneic stem cell transplantation in primary induction failure or beyond first relapse.
Haematologica
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Based on molecular aberrations, in particular the NPM1 mutation (NPM1(mut)) and the FLT3 internal tandem duplication (Flt3-ITD), prognostic subgroups have been defined among patients with acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype. Whereas these subgroups are known to play an important role in outcome in first complete remission, and also in the indication for allogeneic stem cell transplantation, data are limited on their role after transplantation in advanced disease. To evaluate the role of molecular subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission, we analyzed the data from 141 consecutive adults (median age: 51.0 years, range 18.4-69.3 years) who had received an allogeneic transplant either in primary induction failure or beyond first complete remission. A sequential regimen of cytoreductive chemotherapy (fludarabine, high-dose AraC, amsacrine) followed by reduced intensity conditioning (FLAMSA-RIC), was uniformly used for conditioning. After a median follow up of three years, overall survival from transplantation was 64 ± 4%, 53 ± 4% and 44 ± 5% at one, two and four years, respectively. Forty patients transplanted in primary induction failure achieved an encouraging 2-year survival of 69%. Among 101 patients transplanted beyond first complete remission, 2-year survival was 81% among patients with the NPM1(mut)/FLT3(wt) genotype in contrast to 43% in other genotypes. Higher numbers of transfused CD34(+) cells (hazard ratio 2.155, 95% confidence interval 0.263-0.964, P=0.039) and favorable genotype (hazard ratio 0.142, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.898, P=0.048) were associated with superior overall survival in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, patients with acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype can frequently be rescued after primary induction failure by allogeneic transplantation following FLAMSA-RIC. The prognostic role of NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD based subgroups was carried through after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning versus standard conditioning before allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission: a prospective, open-label randomised phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have been developed to minimise early toxic effects and deaths after allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation. However, the efficacy of these regimens before this procedure has not been investigated in a randomised trial. In this prospective, open-label randomised phase 3 trial we compared a reduced-intensity fludarabine-based conditioning regimen with a standard regimen in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission.
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Donor lymphocyte infusions and second transplantation as salvage treatment for relapsed myelofibrosis after reduced-intensity allografting.
Br. J. Haematol.
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Thirty myelofibrosis patients (21 males, nine females) with relapse (n = 27) or graft-rejection (n = 3) after dose-reduced allografting underwent a salvage strategy including donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) and/or second allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twenty-six patients received a median number of three (range, 1-5) DLIs in a dose-escalated mode starting with a median dose of 1·2 × 10(6) (range, 0·003-8 × 10(6) ) up to median dose of 40 × 10(6) T-cells/kg (range, 10-130 × 10(6) ). 10/26 patients (39%) achieved complete response (CR) to DLIs. Acute (grade II-IV) and chronic graft-versus-host (GvHD) disease occurred in 12% and 36% cases. Thirteen non-responders to DLI and four patients who did not receive DLI due to graft-rejection or acute transformation of the blast phase underwent a second allogeneic HSCT from alternative (n = 15) or the same (n = 2) donor. One patient (6%) experienced primary graft-failure and died. Acute (II-IV) and chronic GvHD were observed in 47% and 46% of patients. Overall responses after second HSCT were seen in 12/15 patients (80%: CR: n = 9, partial response: n = 3). The 1-year cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality for recipients of a second allograft was 6%, and the cumulative incidence of relapse was 24%. After a median follow-up of 27 months, the 2-year overall survival and progression-free survival for all 30 patients was 70% and 67%, respectively. In conclusion, our two-step strategy, including DLI and second HSCT for non-responding or ineligible patients, is an effective and well-tolerated salvage approach for patients relapsing after reduced-intensity allograft after myelofibrosis.
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Prognostic factors affecting outcome after allogeneic transplantation for hematological malignancies from unrelated donors: results from a randomized trial.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Several prognostic factors for the outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) from matched unrelated donors have been postulated from registry data; however, data from randomized trials are lacking. We present analyses on the effects of patient-related, donor-related, and treatment-related prognostic factors on acute GVHD (aGVHD), chronic GVHD (cGVHD), relapse, nonrelapse mortality (NRM), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in a randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase III trial comparing standard graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with and without pretransplantation ATG-Fresenius (ATG-F) in 201 adult patients receiving myeloablative conditioning before HSCT from HLA-A, HLA-B antigen, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 allele matched unrelated donors. High-resolution testing (allele) of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C were obtained after study closure, and the impact of an HLA 10/10 4-digit mismatch on outcome and on the treatment effect of ATG-F versus control investigated. Advanced disease was a negative factor for relapse, DFS, and OS. Donor age ?40 adversely affected the risk of aGVHD III-IV, extensive cGVHD, and OS. Younger donors are to be preferred in unrelated donor transplantation. Advanced disease patients need special precautions to improve outcome. The degree of mismatch had no major influence on the positive effect of ATG-F on the reduction of aGVHD and cGVHD.
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Plasma biomarkers of lower gastrointestinal and liver acute GVHD.
Blood
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The lower gastrointestinal tract (LGI) and liver are the GVHD target organs most associated with treatment failure and nonrelapse mortality. We recently identified regenerating islet-derived 3-? (REG3?) as a plasma biomarker of LGI GVHD. We compared REG3? with 2 previously reported GI and liver GVHD diagnostic biomarkers, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and cytokeratin fragment 18, in 954 hematopoietic cell transplantation patients. All 3 biomarkers were significantly elevated in LGI GVHD compared with non-GVHD diarrhea; REG3? discerned LGI GVHD from non-GVHD diarrhea better than HGF and cytokeratin fragment 18. Although all 3 biomarkers predicted nonresponse to therapy at day 28 in LGI GVHD patients, only REG3? and HGF concentrations predicted 1-year nonrelapse mortality (P = .01 and P = .02, respectively). Liver GVHD without GI involvement at GVHD onset and non-GVHD liver complications were uncommon; all 3 biomarkers were elevated in liver GVHD, but did not distinguish GVHD from other causes of hyperbilirubinemia.
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Risk models predicting survival after reduced-intensity transplantation for myelofibrosis.
Br. J. Haematol.
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To define a prognostic model for predicting outcome of reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation (RIC-ASCT) for myelofibrosis we evaluated 150 homogeneously treated patients and developed a new risk score for overall survival (OS). In a multivariate Cox model for OS, only JAK2 V617F wild-type, age ?57?years and constitutional symptoms were independently predictive for OS (Hazard Ratio: 2·02; 2·43 and 2·80 respectively). Depending on the presence of one, two or all of these factors, HR of death was 3·08; 4·70 and 16·61 respectively (P?
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.