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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Can prebiotics and probiotics improve therapeutic outcomes for undernourished individuals?
Gut Microbes
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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It has become clear in recent years that the human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in maintaining health and thus is an attractive target for clinical interventions. Scientists and clinicians have become increasingly interested in assessing the ability of probiotics and prebiotics to enhance the nutritional status of malnourished children, pregnant women, the elderly, and individuals with non-communicable disease-associated malnutrition. A workshop was held by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), drawing on the knowledge of experts from industry, medicine, and academia, with the objective to assess the status of our understanding of the link between the microbiome and under-nutrition, specifically in relation to probiotic and prebiotic treatments for under-nourished individuals. These discussions led to four recommendations:   (1) The categories of malnourished individuals need to be differentiated To improve treatment outcomes, subjects should first be categorized based on the cause of malnutrition, additional health-concerns, differences in the gut microbiota, and sociological considerations. (2) Define a baseline "healthy" gut microbiota for each category Altered nutrient requirement (for example, in pregnancy and old age) and individual variation may change what constitutes a healthy gut microbiota for the individual. (3) Perform studies using model systems to test the effectiveness of potential probiotics and prebiotics against these specific categories These should illustrate how certain microbiota profiles can be altered, as members of different categories may respond differently to the same treatment. (4) Perform robust well-designed human studies with probiotics and/or prebiotics, with appropriate, defined primary outcomes and sample size These are critical to show efficacy and understand responder and non-responder outcomes. It is hoped that these recommendations will lead to new approaches that combat malnutrition. This report is the result of discussion during an expert workshop titled "How do the microbiota and probiotics and/or prebiotics influence poor nutritional status?" held during the 10th Meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in Cork, Ireland from October 1-3, 2012. The complete list of workshop attendees is shown in Table 1.
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Effects of regular consumption of vitamin C-rich or polyphenol-rich apple juice on cardiometabolic markers in healthy adults: a randomized crossover trial.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the consumption of two cloudy apple juices with different polyphenol and vitamin C contents on antioxidant status, cardiometabolic and inflammation markers in healthy young adults.
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Influence of health behaviours on the incidence of infection and allergy in adolescents: the AFINOS cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Some health behaviours are liable to affect the incidence of allergies and/or common infections in young people; however, the extent and ways in which these might occur are mostly unknown. This study examines the association of health behaviours related to physical activity, sedentariness, diet and sleep with allergy and infection symptoms in adolescents, and also with biological markers that might mediate disease incidence.
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Influence of early environmental factors on lymphocyte subsets and gut microbiota in infants at risk of celiac disease; the PROFICEL study.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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It is known that the HLA genotype can explain about a 40% of the genetic risk of celiac disease (CD), thus, other genetic predisposing factors as well as factors that subtly modulate T cell activation and differentiation need to be studied. This includes environmental factors that are currently believed to impact on the immune system and gut microbiota development.
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High fat diets are associated with higher abdominal adiposity regardless of physical activity in adolescents; the HELENA study.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Failure to attain fat balance may contribute to obesity development even without excessive energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of dietary macronutrient distribution with abdominal adiposity in adolescents and to evaluate whether these relationships were attenuated by physical activity.
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Influence of environmental and genetic factors linked to celiac disease risk on infant gut colonization by Bacteroides species.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy involving genetic and environmental factors whose interaction might influence disease risk. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of milk-feeding practices and the HLA-DQ genotype on intestinal colonization of Bacteroides species in infants at risk of CD development. This study included 75 full-term newborns with at least one first-degree relative suffering from CD. Infants were classified according to milk-feeding practice (breast-feeding or formula feeding) and HLA-DQ genotype (high or low genetic risk). Stools were analyzed at 7 days, 1 month, and 4 months by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The Bacteroides species diversity index was higher in formula-fed infants than in breast-fed infants. Breast-fed infants showed a higher prevalence of Bacteroides uniformis at 1 and 4 months of age, while formula-fed infants had a higher prevalence of B. intestinalis at all sampling times, of B. caccae at 7 days and 4 months, and of B. plebeius at 4 months. Infants with high genetic risk showed a higher prevalence of B. vulgatus, while those with low genetic risk showed a higher prevalence of B. ovatus, B. plebeius, and B. uniformis. Among breast-fed infants, the prevalence of B. uniformis was higher in those with low genetic risk than in those with high genetic risk. Among formula-fed infants, the prevalence of B. ovatus and B. plebeius was increased in those with low genetic risk, while the prevalence of B. vulgatus was higher in those with high genetic risk. The results indicate that both the type of milk feeding and the HLA-DQ genotype influence the colonization process of Bacteroides species, and possibly the disease risk.
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Beneficial effects of a synbiotic supplement on self-perceived gastrointestinal well-being and immunoinflammatory status of healthy adults.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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The use of synbiotics as health promoters is still poorly defined, and human intervention studies are scarce. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a commercialized synbiotic product containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and fructooligosaccharides on the self-reported gastrointestinal well-being and the immunoinflammatory status of healthy human subjects. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 20 women and 16 men (25-45 years old) received either three tablets per day of the synbiotic product (2.4?×?10(9) colony-forming units/day) or placebo during 6 weeks. Gastrointestinal symptoms and bowel habits were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire. In those subjects suffering from any kind of digestive disturbance (mild dyspepsia, flatulence, postprandial bloating, constipation, etc.), improvements in symptoms after product consumption were also evaluated. Blood lymphocyte subsets, phagocytic activity, serum C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and adhesion molecules concentrations were analyzed prior and after treatment. A significant improvement in overall self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms and bowel habit was found in the synbiotic group. A marginal effect of treatment (analysis of variance P?=?.050) was observed with L-selectin, which showed a significant decrease in the synbiotic group (P?=?.019). In addition, basal L-selectin levels correlated with final intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 levels (r?=?0.468; P?=?.050), and basal ICAM-1 levels tended to correlate negatively with final L-selectin concentration (r?=?-0.457; P?=?.056). None of these correlations was found in the placebo group. The rest of the immunological parameters studied were not modified by the intervention. In conclusion, consumption of the synbiotic product improves self-perceived bowel habits and might facilitate a better profile of adhesion molecules in healthy adults.
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Dietary strategies of immunomodulation in infants at risk for celiac disease.
Proc Nutr Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Celiac disease is an inflammatory disorder of the small intestine, triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins contained in wheat, barley or rye, in genetically susceptible individuals. This disorder is considered to be mainly mediated by cellular immunity and restricted to the human leucocyte antigen-DQ presentation of gluten-derived toxic peptides to T-cells. Moreover, the involvement of innate immunity has been recently demonstrated to be necessary also for the development of intestinal tissue damage. Genetic susceptibility accounts for an uncertain proportion of the disease risk and gluten introduction works as the precipitating factor. However, currently, the research interest is also focused on environmental factors and gene-environment interactions, especially during the first months of life, which might help explain the onset of the disease. Infectious and dietary factors that could modulate the immune response orientating it either towards tolerance or intolerance/autoimmunity are the focus of primary attention. A significant number of studies have looked into the protective effect of breast-feeding against the disease. It is generally accepted that breast-feeding during the introduction of dietary gluten and increasing the duration of breast-feeding are associated with reduced risk of developing celiac disease. However, it is still not fully established whether breast-feeding truly protects with permanent tolerance acquisition or only reduces the symptoms and delays the diagnosis. Moreover, the timing and dose of gluten introduction also seem to be relevant and long-term prospective cohort studies are being carried out in order to elucidate its role in celiac disease development.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster are associated with delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase activities estimated by serum fatty acid ratios.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Genetic variability in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster [encoding delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 (D6D) desaturases] has been associated with plasma long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and lipid levels in adults. To better understand these relationships, we further characterized the association between FADS1-FADS2 genetic variability and D5D and D6D activities in adolescents. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,144 European adolescents (mean +/- SD age: 14.7 +/- 1.4 y). Serum phospholipid fatty acid levels were analyzed using gas chromatography. D5D and D6D activities were estimated from the C20:4n-6/C20:3n-6 and C20:3n-6/C18:2n-6 ratios, respectively. Minor alleles of nine SNPs were associated with higher 18:2n-6 levels (1.9E-18
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Breast-feeding modulates the influence of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG2) Pro12Ala polymorphism on adiposity in adolescents: The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPARG2) Pro12Ala polymorphism has been associated with a higher BMI and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The association between adiposity and PPARG variants can be influenced by environmental factors such as early growth, dietary fat, and (as recently shown) breast-feeding. The objectives of this study were to assess 1) the influence of the PPARG2 Pro12Ala polymorphism on adiposity markers in adolescents and 2) a possible modulating effect of breast-feeding on these associations.
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Design and evaluation of a treatment programme for Spanish adolescents with overweight and obesity. The EVASYON Study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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The prevalence of overweight and obesity (OW/OB) among adolescents worldwide has increased since the 60 s. Spain has reached one of the highest OW/OB prevalence rates among adolescents from European countries. The aim of this methodological paper is to describe the design and evaluation in the EVASYON study (Development, implementation and evaluation of the efficacy of a therapeutic programme for adolescents with OW/OB: integral education on nutrition and physical activity).
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Immune development and intestinal microbiota in celiac disease.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
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Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy, triggered by dietary wheat gluten and similar proteins of barley and rye in genetically susceptible individuals. The etiology of this disorder is complex, involving both environmental and genetic factors. The major genetic risk factor for CD is represented by HLA-DQ genes, which account for approximately 40% of the genetic risk; however, only a small percentage of carriers develop the disease. Gluten is the main environmental factor responsible for the signs and symptoms of the disease, but exposure to gluten does not fully explain the manifestation of CD. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that environmental factors other than gluten might play a role in disease development, including early feeding practices (e.g., breast milk versus formula and duration of breastfeeding), infections, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition. Herein, we review what is known about the influence of dietary factors, exposure to infectious agents, and intestinal microbiota composition, particularly in early life, on the risk of developing CD, as well as the possible dietary strategies to induce or increase gluten tolerance.
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Influence of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on lymphocyte subsets in infants at risk of coeliac disease: the PROFICEL study.
Eur J Nutr
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In addition to genetic risk, environmental factors might influence coeliac disease (CD) development. We sought to assess the effect of the interaction between milk-feeding practices and the HLA-DQ genotype on peripheral lymphocyte subsets and their activation markers in infants at familial risk for CD.
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Influence of milk-feeding type and genetic risk of developing coeliac disease on intestinal microbiota of infants: the PROFICEL study.
PLoS ONE
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Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genes could be involved in the development of coeliac disease (CD). This study has assessed whether milk-feeding type and HLA-genotype influence the intestinal microbiota composition of infants with a family history of CD. The study included 164 healthy newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype by PCR-SSP DQB1 and DQA1 typing. Faecal microbiota was analysed by quantitative PCR at 7 days, and at 1 and 4 months of age. Significant interactions between milk-feeding type and HLA-DQ genotype on bacterial numbers were not detected by applying a linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. In the whole population, breast-feeding promoted colonization of C. leptum group, B. longum and B. breve, while formula-feeding promoted that of Bacteroides fragilis group, C. coccoides-E. rectale group, E. coli and B. lactis. Moreover, increased numbers of B. fragilis group and Staphylococcus spp., and reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum were detected in infants with increased genetic risk of developing CD. Analyses within subgroups of either breast-fed or formula-fed infants indicated that in both cases increased risk of CD was associated with lower numbers of B. longum and/or Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, in breast-fed infants the increased genetic risk of developing CD was associated with increased C. leptum group numbers, while in formula-fed infants it was associated with increased Staphylococcus and B. fragilis group numbers. Overall, milk-feeding type in conjunction with HLA-DQ genotype play a role in establishing infants gut microbiota; moreover, breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective role attributed to breast milk in this disorder.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.