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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Testing the Predictive Value of Peripheral Gene Expression for Nonremission Following Citalopram Treatment for Major Depression.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) in general, and anxious-depression in particular, are characterized by poor rates of remission with first-line treatments, contributing to the chronic illness burden suffered by many patients. Prospective research is needed to identify the biomarkers predicting nonremission prior to treatment initiation. We collected blood samples from a discovery cohort of 34 adult MDD patients with co-occurring anxiety and 33 matched, nondepressed controls at baseline and after 12 weeks (of citalopram plus psychotherapy treatment for the depressed cohort). Samples were processed on gene arrays and group differences in gene expression were investigated. Exploratory analyses suggest that at pretreatment baseline, nonremitting patients differ from controls with gene function and transcription factor analyses potentially related to elevated inflammation and immune activation. In a second phase, we applied an unbiased machine learning prediction model and corrected for model-selection bias. Results show that baseline gene expression predicted nonremission with 79.4% corrected accuracy with a 13-gene model. The same gene-only model predicted nonremission after 8 weeks of citalopram treatment with 76% corrected accuracy in an independent validation cohort of 63 MDD patients treated with citalopram at another institution. Together, these results demonstrate the potential, but also the limitations, of baseline peripheral blood-based gene expression to predict nonremission after citalopram treatment. These results not only support their use in future prediction tools but also suggest that increased accuracy may be obtained with the inclusion of additional predictors (eg, genetics and clinical scales).Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.226.
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Laminar and Cellular Analyses of Reduced Somatostatin Gene Expression in the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Major Depression.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide expressed in dendritic-targeting gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons, is decreased across corticolimbic areas in major depressive disorder (MDD). SST-positive GABA neurons form heterogeneous subgroups with different laminar distributions and electrophysiological properties, so knowing the anatomical and cellular localization of reduced SST may provide insight into the nature of the pathology in MDD. In cohorts of MDD subjects with known reduction of SST in postmortem sgACC gray matter, we used in situ hybridization to quantify the laminar and cellular patterns of altered SST mRNA expression. SST mRNA levels were lower across all cortical layers in the MDD subjects. Expression levels per cell were also lower, but the density of labeled neurons did not differ between subject groups. Consistent with the previous tissue level analysis, differences were more robust in females. In summary, we report MDD-related reduction in SST expression per cell across cortical layers in sgACC, suggesting a general vulnerability of SST neurons independent of specific cell type.
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A unique gene expression signature associated with serotonin 2C receptor RNA editing in the prefrontal cortex and altered in suicide.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Editing of the pre-mRNA for the serotonin receptor 2C (5-HT2CR) by site-specific adenosine deamination (A-to-I pre-mRNA editing) substantially increases the functional plasticity of this key neurotransmitter receptor and is thought to contribute to homeostatic mechanisms in neurons. 5-HT2CR mRNA editing generates up to 24 different receptor isoforms. The extent of editing correlates with 5-HT2CR functional activity: more highly edited isoforms exhibit the least function. Altered 5-HT2CR editing has been reported in postmortem brains of suicide victims. We report a comparative analysis of the connections among 5-HT2CR editing, genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in suicide victims, individuals with major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls. The results confirm previous findings of an overrepresentation of highly edited mRNA variants (which encode hypoactive 5-HT2CR receptors) in the brains of suicide victims. A large set of genes for which the expression level is associated with editing was detected. This signature set of editing-associated genes is significantly enriched for genes that are involved in synaptic transmission, genes that are preferentially expressed in neurons, and genes whose expression is correlated with the level of DNA methylation. Notably, we report that the link between 5-HT2CR editing and gene expression is disrupted in suicide victims. The results suggest that the postulated homeostatic function of 5-HT2CR editing is dysregulated in individuals who committed suicide.
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Beyond genotype: serotonin transporter epigenetic modification predicts human brain function.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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We examined epigenetic regulation in regards to behaviorally and clinically relevant human brain function. Specifically, we found that increased promoter methylation of the serotonin transporter gene predicted increased threat-related amygdala reactivity and decreased mRNA expression in postmortem amygdala tissue. These patterns were independent of functional genetic variation in the same region. Furthermore, the association with amygdala reactivity was replicated in a second cohort and was robust to both sampling methods and age.
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Opposing effects of acute versus chronic blockade of frontal cortex somatostatin-positive inhibitory neurons on behavioral emotionality in mice.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Reduced expression of somatostatin (SST) is reported across chronic brain conditions including major depression and normal aging. SST is a signaling neuropeptide and marker of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurons, which specifically inhibit pyramidal neuron dendrites. Studies in auditory cortex suggest that chronic reduction in dendritic inhibition induces compensatory homeostatic adaptations that oppose the effects of acute inhibition. Whether such mechanisms occur in frontal cortex (FC) and affect behavioral outcome is not known. Here, we used two complementary viral vector strategies to examine the effects of acute vs chronic inhibition of SST-positive neurons on behavioral emotionality in adult mice. SST-IRES-Cre mice were injected in FC (prelimbic/precingulate) with CRE-dependent adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector encoding the engineered Gi/o-coupled human muscarinic M4 designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD-hM4Di) or a control reporter (AAV-DIO-mCherry) for acute or chronic cellular inhibition. A separate cohort was injected with CRE-dependent AAV vectors expressing diphtheria toxin (DTA) to selectively ablate FC SST neurons. Mice were assessed for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors (defined as emotionality). Results indicate that acute inhibition of FC SST neurons increased behavioral emotionality, whereas chronic inhibition decreased behavioral emotionality. Furthermore, ablation of FC SST neurons also decreased behavioral emotionality under baseline condition and after chronic stress. Together, our results reveal opposite effects of acute and chronic inhibition of FC SST neurons on behavioral emotionality and suggest the recruitment of homeostatic plasticity mechanisms that have implications for understanding the neurobiology of chronic brain conditions affecting dendritic-targeting inhibitory neurons.
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A conserved BDNF, glutamate- and GABA-enriched gene module related to human depression identified by coexpression meta-analysis and DNA variant genome-wide association studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Large scale gene expression (transcriptome) analysis and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for single nucleotide polymorphisms have generated a considerable amount of gene- and disease-related information, but heterogeneity and various sources of noise have limited the discovery of disease mechanisms. As systematic dataset integration is becoming essential, we developed methods and performed meta-clustering of gene coexpression links in 11 transcriptome studies from postmortem brains of human subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and non-psychiatric control subjects. We next sought enrichment in the top 50 meta-analyzed coexpression modules for genes otherwise identified by GWAS for various sets of disorders. One coexpression module of 88 genes was consistently and significantly associated with GWAS for MDD, other neuropsychiatric disorders and brain functions, and for medical illnesses with elevated clinical risk of depression, but not for other diseases. In support of the superior discriminative power of this novel approach, we observed no significant enrichment for GWAS-related genes in coexpression modules extracted from single studies or in meta-modules using gene expression data from non-psychiatric control subjects. Genes in the identified module encode proteins implicated in neuronal signaling and structure, including glutamate metabotropic receptors (GRM1, GRM7), GABA receptors (GABRA2, GABRA4), and neurotrophic and development-related proteins [BDNF, reelin (RELN), Ephrin receptors (EPHA3, EPHA5)]. These results are consistent with the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of MDD and provide a set of putative interacting molecular partners, potentially reflecting components of a functional module across cells and biological pathways that are synchronously recruited in MDD, other brain disorders and MDD-related illnesses. Collectively, this study demonstrates the importance of integrating transcriptome data, gene coexpression modules and GWAS results for providing novel and complementary approaches to investigate the molecular pathology of MDD and other complex brain disorders.
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Meta-analysis methods for combining multiple expression profiles: comparisons, statistical characterization and an application guideline.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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As high-throughput genomic technologies become accurate and affordable, an increasing number of data sets have been accumulated in the public domain and genomic information integration and meta-analysis have become routine in biomedical research. In this paper, we focus on microarray meta-analysis, where multiple microarray studies with relevant biological hypotheses are combined in order to improve candidate marker detection. Many methods have been developed and applied in the literature, but their performance and properties have only been minimally investigated. There is currently no clear conclusion or guideline as to the proper choice of a meta-analysis method given an application; the decision essentially requires both statistical and biological considerations.
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Sex chromosome complement regulates expression of mood-related genes.
Biol Sex Differ
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Studies on major depressive and anxiety disorders suggest dysfunctions in brain corticolimbic circuits, including altered gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and modulatory (serotonin and dopamine) neurotransmission. Interestingly, sexual dimorphisms in GABA, serotonin, and dopamine systems are also reported. Understanding the mechanisms behind these sexual dimorphisms may help unravel the biological bases of the heightened female vulnerability to mood disorders. Here, we investigate the contribution of sex-related factors (sex chromosome complement, developmental gonadal sex, or adult circulating hormones) to frontal cortex expression of selected GABA-, serotonin-, and dopamine-related genes.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in late-life depression and comorbid mild cognitive impairment: A longitudinal study.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level are implicated in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline in depression and neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association over two years between BDNF and persistent cognitive decline in individuals with remitted late-life depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment (LLD + MCI) compared to either individuals with remitted LLD and no cognitive decline (LLD + NCD) or never-depressed, cognitively normal, elderly control participants. We additionally evaluated the effect of double-blind, placebo-controlled donepezil treatment on BDNF levels in all of the remitted LLD participants (across the levels of cognitive function). We included 160 elderly participants in this study (72 LLD + NCD, 55 LLD + MCI and 33 never-depressed cognitively normal elderly participants). At the same visits, cognitive assessments were conducted and blood sampling to determine serum BDNF levels were collected at baseline assessment and after one and two years of follow-up. We utilized repeated measure, mixed effect models to assess: (1) the effects of diagnosis (LLD + MCI, LLD + NCD, and controls), time, and their interaction on BDNF levels; and (2) the effects of donepezil treatment (donepezil vs. placebo), time, baseline diagnosis (LLD + MCI vs. LLD + NCD), and interactions between these contrasts on BDNF levels. We found a significant effect of time on BDNF level (p = 0.02) and a significant decline in BDNF levels over 2 years of follow-up in participants with LLD + MCI (p = 0.004) and controls (p = 0.04). We found no effect of donepezil treatment on BDNF level. The present results suggest that aging is an important factor related to decline in BDNF level. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00177671.
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Biological substrates underpinning diagnosis of major depression.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Major depression is characterized by low mood, a reduced ability to experience pleasure and frequent cognitive, physiological and high anxiety symptoms. It is also the leading cause of years lost due to disability worldwide in women and men, reflecting a lifelong trajectory of recurring episodes, increasing severity and progressive treatment resistance. Yet, antidepressant drugs at best treat only one out of every two patients and have not fundamentally changed since their discovery by chance >50 yr ago. This status quo may reflect an exaggerated emphasis on a categorical disease classification that was not intended for biological research and on oversimplified gene-to-disease models for complex illnesses. Indeed, genetic, molecular and cellular findings in major depression suggest shared risk and continuous pathological changes with other brain-related disorders. So, an alternative is that pathological findings in major depression reflect changes in vulnerable brain-related biological modules, each with their own aetiological factors, pathogenic mechanisms and biological/environment moderators. In this model, pathological entities have low specificity for major depression and instead co-occur, combine and interact within individual subjects across disorders, contributing to the expression of biological endophenotypes and potentially clinical symptom dimensions. Here, we discuss current limitations in depression research, review concepts of gene-to-disease biological scales and summarize human post-mortem brain findings related to pyramidal neurons, ?-amino butyric acid neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, as prototypical brain circuit biological modules. Finally we discuss nested aetiological factors and implications for dimensional pathology. Evidence suggests that a focus on local cell circuits may provide an appropriate integration point and a critical link between underlying molecular mechanisms and neural network dysfunction in major depression.
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Molecular aging of the brain, neuroplasticity, and vulnerability to depression and other brain-related disorders.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The increased risk for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with extended lifespan has long suggested mechanistic links between chronological age and brain-related disorders, including depression, Recent characterizations of age-dependent gene expression changes now show that aging of the human brain engages a specific set of biological pathways along a continuous lifelong trajectory, and that the same genes that are associated with normal brain aging are also frequently and similarly implicated in depression and other brain-related disorders. These correlative observations suggest a model of age-by-disease molecular interactions, in which brain aging promotes biological changes associated with diseases, and additional environmental factors and genetic variability contribute to defining disease risk or resiliency trajectories. Here we review the characteristic features of brain aging in terms of changes in gene function over time, and then focus on evidence supporting accelerated molecular aging in depression. This proposed age-by-disease biological interaction model addresses the current gap in research between "normal" brain aging and its connection to late-life diseases. The implications of this model are profound, as it provides an investigational framework for identifying critical moderating factors, outlines opportunities for early interventions or preventions, and may form the basis for a dimensional definition of diseases that goes beyond the current categorical system.
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Anticipated brain molecular aging in major depression.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Brain molecular aging, the pervasive and consistent transcriptome changes associated with normal brain aging, appears to overlap with disease pathways and may be anticipated in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we characterize the global interaction of MDD-related gene changes with age, starting from our previous report of downregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and BDNF-dependent genes in the amygdala of women with MDD.
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The age-by-disease interaction hypothesis of late-life depression.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The phenomenologic diagnosis of depression is successful in increasing diagnostic reliability, but it is a classification scheme without biologic bases. One subtype of depression for which evidence suggests a unique biologic basis is late-life depression (LLD), with first onset of symptoms after the age of 65. LLD is common and poses a significant burden on affected individuals, caretakers, and society. The pathophysiology of LLD includes disruptions of the neural network underlying mood, which can be conceptualized as the result of dysfunction in multiple underlying biologic processes. Here, we briefly review current LLD hypotheses and then describe the characteristics of molecular brain aging and their overlap with disease processes. Furthermore, we propose a new hypothesis for LLD, the age-by-disease interaction hypothesis, which posits that the clinical presentation of LLD is the integrated output of specific biologic processes that are pushed in LLD-promoting directions by changes in gene expression naturally occurring in the brain during aging. Hence, the brain is led to a physiological state that is more susceptible to LLD, because additional pushes by genetic, environmental, and biochemical factors may now be sufficient to generate dysfunctional states that produce depressive symptoms. We put our propositions together into a decanalization model to aid in illustrating how age-related biologic changes of the brain can shift the repertoire of available functional states in a prodepression direction, and how additional factors can readily lead the system into distinct and stable maladaptive phenotypes, including LLD. This model brings together basic research on neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases more closely with the investigation of normal aging. Specifically, identifying biologic processes affected during normal aging may inform the development of new interventions for the prevention and treatment of LLD.
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The Role of Genetic Sex in Affect Regulation and Expression of GABA-Related Genes Across Species.
Front Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although circulating hormones and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related factors are known to affect mood, considerable knowledge gaps persist for biological mechanisms underlying the female bias in mood disorders. Here, we combine human and mouse studies to investigate sexual dimorphism in the GABA system in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD) and then use a genetic model to dissect the role of sex-related factors in GABA-related gene expression and anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors in mice. First, using meta-analysis of gene array data in human postmortem brain (N?=?51 MDD subjects, 50 controls), we show that the previously reported down-regulation in MDD of somatostatin (SST), a marker of a GABA neuron subtype, is significantly greater in women with MDD. Second, using gene co-expression network analysis in control human subjects (N?=?214; two frontal cortex regions) and expression quantitative trait loci mapping (N?=?170 subjects), we show that expression of SST and the GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and GAD65 are tightly co-regulated and influenced by X-chromosome genetic polymorphisms. Third, using a rodent genetic model [Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice], in which genetic and gonadal sex are artificially dissociated (N???12/group), we show that genetic sex (i.e., X/Y-chromosome) influences both gene expression (lower Sst, Gad67, Gad65 in XY mice) and anxiety-like behaviors (higher in XY mice). This suggests that in an intact male animal, the observed behavior represents the outcomes of male genetic sex increasing and male-like testosterone decreasing anxiety-like behaviors. Gonadal sex was the only factor influencing depressive-like behavior (gonadal males?
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Reduced brain somatostatin in mood disorders: a common pathophysiological substrate and drug target?
Front Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of affect dysregulation has progressively increased, but the pharmacological treatments remain inadequate. Here, we summarize the current literature on deficits in somatostatin, an inhibitory modulatory neuropeptide, in major depression and other neurological disorders that also include mood disturbances. We focus on direct evidence in the human postmortem brain, and review rodent genetic and pharmacological studies probing the role of the somatostatin system in relation to mood. We also briefly go over pharmacological developments targeting the somatostatin system in peripheral organs and discuss the challenges of targeting the brain somatostatin system. Finally, the fact that somatostatin deficits are frequently observed across neurological disorders suggests a selective cellular vulnerability of somatostatin-expressing neurons. Potential cell intrinsic factors mediating those changes are discussed, including nitric oxide induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, high inflammatory response, high demand for neurotrophic environment, and overall aging processes. Together, based on the co-localization of somatostatin with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), its presence in dendritic-targeting GABA neuron subtypes, and its temporal-specific function, we discuss the possibility that deficits in somatostatin play a central role in cortical local inhibitory circuit deficits leading to abnormal corticolimbic network activity and clinical mood symptoms across neurological disorders.
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Advances in bipolar disorder: selected sessions from the 2011 International Conference on Bipolar Disorder.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2011
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Recently, the 9(th) International Conference on Bipolar Disorder (ICBD) took place in Pittsburgh, PA, June 9-11, 2011. The conference focused on a number of important issues concerning the diagnosis of bipolar disorders across the life span, advances in neuroscience, treatment strategies for bipolar disorders, early intervention, and medical comorbidity. Several of these topics were discussed in four plenary sessions. This meeting report describes the major points of each of these sessions and included (1) strategies for moving biology forward; (2) bipolar disorder and the forthcoming new DSM-5 nomenclature; (3) management of bipolar disorders-both theory and intervention, with an emphasis on the medical comorbidities; and, (4) a review of several key task force reports commissioned by the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD).
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MetaQC: objective quality control and inclusion/exclusion criteria for genomic meta-analysis.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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Genomic meta-analysis to combine relevant and homogeneous studies has been widely applied, but the quality control (QC) and objective inclusion/exclusion criteria have been largely overlooked. Currently, the inclusion/exclusion criteria mostly depend on ad-hoc expert opinion or naïve threshold by sample size or platform. There are pressing needs to develop a systematic QC methodology as the decision of study inclusion greatly impacts the final meta-analysis outcome. In this article, we propose six quantitative quality control measures, covering internal homogeneity of coexpression structure among studies, external consistency of coexpression pattern with pathway database, and accuracy and consistency of differentially expressed gene detection or enriched pathway identification. Each quality control index is defined as the minus log transformed P values from formal hypothesis testing. Principal component analysis biplots and a standardized mean rank are applied to assist visualization and decision. We applied the proposed method to 4 large-scale examples, combining 7 brain cancer, 9 prostate cancer, 8 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 17 major depressive disorder studies, respectively. The identified problematic studies were further scrutinized for potential technical or biological causes of their lower quality to determine their exclusion from meta-analysis. The application and simulation results concluded a systematic quality assessment framework for genomic meta-analysis.
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Abnormal left-sided orbitomedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity during happy and fear face processing: a potential neural mechanism of female MDD.
Front Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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Background: Pathophysiologic processes supporting abnormal emotion regulation in major depressive disorder (MDD) are poorly understood. We previously found abnormal inverse left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala effective connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD. We aimed to replicate and expand this previous finding in an independent participant sample, using a more inclusive neural model, and a novel emotion processing paradigm. Methods: Nineteen individuals with MDD in depressed episode (12 females), and 19 healthy individuals, age, and gender matched, performed an implicit emotion processing and automatic attentional control paradigm to examine abnormalities in prefrontal cortical-amygdala neural circuitry during happy, angry, fearful, and sad face processing measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a 3-T scanner. Effective connectivity was estimated with dynamic causal modeling in a trinodal neural model including two anatomically defined prefrontal cortical regions, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), and the amygdala. Results: We replicated our previous finding of abnormal inverse left-sided top-down ventromedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p?=?0.04), and also showed a similar pattern of abnormal inverse left-sided sgACC-amygdala connectivity to these stimuli (p?=?0.03). These findings were paralleled by abnormally reduced positive left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical-sgACC connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p?=?0.008), and abnormally increased positive left-sided sgACC-amygdala connectivity to fearful faces in females, and all individuals, with MDD (p?=?0.008; p?=?0.003). Conclusion: Different patterns of abnormal prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity to happy and fearful stimuli might represent neural mechanisms for the excessive self-reproach and comorbid anxiety that characterize female MDD.
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Differentially expressed genes in major depression reside on the periphery of resilient gene coexpression networks.
Front Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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The structure of gene coexpression networks reflects the activation and interaction of multiple cellular systems. Since the pathology of neuropsychiatric disorders is influenced by diverse cellular systems and pathways, we investigated gene coexpression networks in major depression, and searched for putative unifying themes in network connectivity across neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, based on the prevalence of the lethality–centrality relationship in disease-related networks, we hypothesized that network changes between control and major depression-related networks would be centered around coexpression hubs, and secondly, that differentially expressed (DE) genes would have a characteristic position and connectivity level in those networks. Mathematically, the first hypothesis tests the relationship of differential coexpression to network connectivity, while the second “hybrid” expression-and-network hypothesis tests the relationship of differential expression to network connectivity. To answer these questions about the potential interaction of coexpression network structure with differential expression, we utilized all available human post-mortem depression-related datasets appropriate for coexpression analysis, which spanned different microarray platforms, cohorts, and brain regions. Similar studies were also performed in an animal model of depression and in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder microarray datasets. We now provide results which consistently support (1) that genes assemble into small-world and scale-free networks in control subjects, (2) that this efficient network topology is largely resilient to changes in depressed subjects, and (3) that DE genes are positioned on the periphery of coexpression networks. Similar results were observed in a mouse model of depression, and in selected bipolar- and schizophrenia-related networks. Finally, we show that baseline expression variability contributes to the propensity of genes to be network hubs and/or to be DE in disease. In summary, our results suggest that the small-world and scale-free properties of gene networks are resilient to pathological changes in major depression, and that the network structure may constrain the extent to which a gene may be DE in the illness, hence informing further gene-network-based mechanistic studies of neuropsychiatric disorders.
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A human-mouse conserved sex bias in amygdala gene expression related to circadian clock and energy metabolism.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Major depression affects twice as many women as men, but the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the heightened female vulnerability are not known. The amygdala, composed of heterogeneous subnuclei, participates in multiple functional circuits regulating emotional responses to stress. We hypothesized that sex differences in molecular structure may contribute to differential mood regulation and disease vulnerability.
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GABA-related transcripts in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in mood disorders.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Reduced cortical ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and altered markers for subpopulations of GABA interneurons have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD) by in-vivo brain imaging and post-mortem histological studies. Subgroups of GABA interneurons exert differential inhibitory control on principal pyramidal neurons and can be identified based on the non-overlapping expression of the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin (PV) or calretinin (CR) or the neuropeptide somatostatin (SST). As altered markers of GABAergic functions may also be present in bipolar disorder (BPD), the specificity of particular GABA-related molecular deficits in mood disorders is not known. We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to assess expression levels of two GABA synthesizing enzymes (glutamate decarboxylase; GAD65 and GAD67) and of three markers of GABA neuron subpopulations (PV, CR, SST) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; Brodmann area 9) in triads (n=19) of control subjects and matched subjects with BPD or MDD. BPD subjects demonstrated significantly reduced PV mRNA, trend level reduction in SST mRNA and no alterations in GAD67, GAD65, or CR mRNA levels; MDD subjects demonstrated reduced SST mRNA expression without alterations in the other transcripts. The characteristic age-related decline in SST expression was not observed in MDD, as low expression was detected across age in MDD subjects. After controlling for age, MDD subjects demonstrated significantly reduced SST mRNA expression. Decreased SST levels in MDD were confirmed at the protein precursor level. Results were not explained by other clinical, demographic or technical parameters. In summary, MDD was characterized by low DLPFC SST, whereas decreased PV mRNA appears to distinguish BPD from MDD.
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Integrated behavioral z-scoring increases the sensitivity and reliability of behavioral phenotyping in mice: relevance to emotionality and sex.
J. Neurosci. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Defining anxiety- and depressive-like states in mice (emotionality) is best characterized by the use of complementary tests, leading sometimes to puzzling discrepancies and lack of correlation between similar paradigms. To address this issue, we hypothesized that integrating measures along the same behavioral dimensions in different tests would reduce the intrinsic variability of single tests and provide a robust characterization of the underlying "emotionality" of individual mouse, similarly as mood and related syndromes are defined in humans through various related symptoms over time. We describe the use of simple mathematical and integrative tools to help phenotype animals across related behavioral tests (syndrome diagnosis) and experiments (meta-analysis). We applied z-normalization across complementary measures of emotionality in different behavioral tests after unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) or prolonged corticosterone exposure - two approaches to induce anxious-/depressive-like states in mice. Combining z-normalized test values, lowered the variance of emotionality measurement, enhanced the reliability of behavioral phenotyping, and increased analytical opportunities. Comparing integrated emotionality scores across studies revealed a robust sexual dimorphism in the vulnerability to develop high emotionality, manifested as higher UCMS-induced emotionality z-scores, but lower corticosterone-induced scores in females compared to males. Interestingly, the distribution of individual z-scores revealed a pattern of increased baseline emotionality in female mice, reminiscent of what is observed in humans. Together, we show that the z-scoring method yields robust measures of emotionality across complementary tests for individual mice and experimental groups, hence facilitating the comparison across studies and refining the translational applicability of these models.
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Reduced somatostatin in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in major depression.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Converging evidence suggests a central role for dysfunction of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Underlying mechanisms may include altered GABAergic function. Expression of somatostatin (SST), an inhibitory neuropeptide localized to a subset of GABA neurons, has been shown to be lower in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of male MDD subjects. Here, to investigate whether alterations in SST may contribute to sgACC dysfunction in MDD, and whether the alterations display sex-specificity, we measured sgACC SST at the mRNA and precursor peptide levels in a large cohort of subjects with MDD. SST mRNA levels were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the postmortem sgACC from male (n=26) and female (n=25) subjects with MDD and sex-matched subjects with no psychiatric diagnosis (n=51). Prepro-SST protein levels were assessed in a subset of subjects (n=42 pairs) by semi-quantitative Western blot. The mRNA expression of SST was significantly reduced by 38% in female subjects and by 27% in male subjects with MDD. The characteristic age-related decline in SST expression was observed in control (Pearson R=-0.357, p=0.005) but not MDD (R=-0.104, p=0.234) subjects, as low expression was detected across ages in MDD subjects. Protein expression was similarly reduced by 19% in both MDD groups, and findings were more robust in female (p=0.0056) than in males (p=0.0373) compared to respective controls. In conclusion, low SST represents a robust pathological finding in MDD. Specifically, alterations in SST signaling and/or SST-bearing GABA neurons may represent a critical pathophysiological entity that contributes to sgACC dysfunction and that matches to the high female vulnerability to develop MDD.
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Between destiny and disease: genetics and molecular pathways of human central nervous system aging.
Prog. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2010
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Aging of the human brain is associated with "normal" functional, structural, and molecular changes that underlie alterations in cognition, memory, mood and motor function, amongst other processes. Normal aging also imposes a robust constraint on the onset of many neurological diseases, ranging from late onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers (AD) and Parkinsons diseases (PD), to early onset psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). The molecular mechanisms and genetic underpinnings of age-related changes in the brain are understudied, and, while they share some overlap with peripheral mechanisms of aging, many are unique to the largely non-mitotic brain. Hence, understanding mechanisms of brain aging and identifying associated modulators may have profound consequences for the prevention and treatment of age-related impairments and diseases. Here we review current knowledge on age-related functional and structural changes, their molecular and genetic underpinnings, and discuss how these pathways may contribute to the vulnerability to develop age-related neurological diseases. We highlight recent findings from human post-mortem brain microarray studies, which we hypothesize, point to a potential genetically controlled transcriptional program underlying molecular changes and age-gating of neurological diseases. Finally, we discuss the implications of this model for understanding basic mechanisms of brain aging and for the future investigation of therapeutic approaches.
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Brain molecular aging, promotion of neurological disease and modulation by sirtuin 5 longevity gene polymorphism.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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Mechanisms determining characteristic age-of-onset for neurological diseases are largely unknown. Normal brain aging associates with robust and progressive transcriptome changes ("molecular aging"), but the intersection with disease pathways is mostly uncharacterized. Here, using cross-cohort microarray analysis of four human brain areas, we show that neurological disease pathways largely overlap with molecular aging and that subjects carrying a newly-characterized low-expressing polymorphism in a putative longevity gene (Sirtuin5; SIRT5(prom2)) have older brain molecular ages. Specifically, molecular aging was remarkably conserved across cohorts and brain areas, and included numerous developmental and transcription-regulator genes. Neurological disease-associated genes were highly overrepresented within age-related genes and changed almost unanimously in pro-disease directions, together suggesting an underlying genetic "program" of aging that progressively promotes disease. To begin testing this putative pathway, we developed and used an age-biosignature to assess five candidate longevity gene polymorphisms association with molecular aging rates. Most robustly, aging was accelerated in cingulate, but not amygdala, of subjects carrying a SIRT5 promoter polymorphism (+9 years, p=0.004), in concordance with cingulate-specific decreased SIRT5 expression. This effect was driven by a set of core transcripts (+24 years, p=0.0004), many of which were mitochondrial, including Parkinsons disease genes, PINK-1 and DJ-1/PARK7, hence suggesting that SIRT5(prom2) may represent a risk factor for mitochondrial dysfunction-related diseases, including Parkinsons, through accelerated molecular aging of disease-related genes. Based on these results we speculate that a "common mechanism" may underlie age-of-onset across several neurological diseases. Confirming this pathway and its regulation by common genetic variants would provide new strategies for predicting, delaying, and treating neurological diseases.
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Altered gene synchrony suggests a combined hormone-mediated dysregulated state in major depression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Coordinated gene transcript levels across tissues (denoted "gene synchrony") reflect converging influences of genetic, biochemical and environmental factors; hence they are informative of the biological state of an individual. So could brain gene synchrony also integrate the multiple factors engaged in neuropsychiatric disorders and reveal underlying pathologies? Using bootstrapped Pearson correlation for transcript levels for the same genes across distinct brain areas, we report robust gene transcript synchrony between the amygdala and cingulate cortex in the human postmortem brain of normal control subjects (n = 14; Control/Permutated data, p<0.000001). Coordinated expression was confirmed across distinct prefrontal cortex areas in a separate cohort (n = 19 subjects) and affected different gene sets, potentially reflecting regional network- and function-dependent transcriptional programs. Genewise regional transcript coordination was independent of age-related changes and array technical parameters. Robust shifts in amygdala-cingulate gene synchrony were observed in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD, denoted here "depression") (n = 14; MDD/Permutated data, p<0.000001), significantly affecting between 100 and 250 individual genes (10-30% false discovery rate). Biological networks and signal transduction pathways corresponding to the identified gene set suggested putative dysregulated functions for several hormone-type factors previously implicated in depression (insulin, interleukin-1, thyroid hormone, estradiol and glucocorticoids; p<0.01 for association with depression-related networks). In summary, we showed that coordinated gene expression across brain areas may represent a novel molecular probe for brain structure/function that is sensitive to disease condition, suggesting the presence of a distinct and integrated hormone-mediated corticolimbic homeostatic, although maladaptive and pathological, state in major depression.
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A molecular signature of depression in the amygdala.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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Major depressive disorder is a heterogeneous illness with a mostly uncharacterized pathology. Recent gene array attempts to identify the molecular underpinnings of the illness in human postmortem subjects have not yielded a consensus. The authors hypothesized that controlling several sources of clinical and technical variability and supporting their analysis with array results from a parallel study in the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) rodent model of depression would facilitate identification of the molecular pathology of major depression.
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Corticolimbic transcriptome changes are state-dependent and region-specific in a rodent model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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Gene microarrays may enable the elucidation of neurobiological changes underlying the pathophysiology and treatment of major depression. However, previous studies of antidepressant treatments were performed in healthy normal rather than depressed animals. Since antidepressants are devoid of mood-changing effects in normal individuals, the clinically relevant rodent transcriptional changes could remain undetected. We investigated antidepressant-related transcriptome changes in a corticolimbic network of mood regulation in the context of the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS), a naturalistic model of depression based on socio-environmental stressors. Mice subjected to a 7-week UCMS displayed a progressive coat state deterioration, reduced weight gain, and increased agonistic and emotion-related behaviors. Chronic administration of an effective (fluoxetine) or putative antidepressant (corticotropin-releasing factor-1 (CRF1) antagonist, SSR125543) reversed all physical and behavioral effects. Changes in gene expression differed among cingulate cortex (CC), amygdala (AMY) and dentate gyrus (DG) and were extensively reversed by both drugs in CC and AMY, and to a lesser extent in DG. Fluoxetine and SSR125543 also induced additional and very similar molecular profiles in UCMS-treated mice, but the effects of the same drug differed considerably between control and UCMS states. These studies established on a large-scale that the molecular impacts of antidepressants are region-specific and state-dependent, revealed common transcriptional changes downstream from different antidepressant treatments and supported CRF1 targeting as an effective therapeutic strategy. Correlations between UCMS, drug treatments, and gene expression suggest distinct AMY neuronal and oligodendrocyte molecular phenotypes as candidate systems for mood regulation and therapeutic interventions.
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The roles of sex and serotonin transporter levels in age- and stress-related emotionality in mice.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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Mood disorders are influenced by genetic make-up and differentially affect men and women. The s/l promoter polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene moderates both trait emotion and the vulnerability to develop depressive states in humans. Similarly, male mice lacking SERT (Knockout/KO) display an elevated emotionality phenotype. We now report that the SERT-KO phenotype is maintained throughout late-adulthood, and that female KO mice develop a larger emotionality phenotype with increasing age. Thus, to test the hypothesis that these findings reflected a putative sexual dimorphism in SERT-mediated modulation of emotionality, we submitted adult male and female wild-type, heterozygous (HZ) and KO mice to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and assessed behavioral changes. In males, the elevated SERT-KO emotion-related behavior converged with other groups after UCMS. Conversely, female SERT-KO displayed a normal non-stressed baseline, but highest UCMS-induced emotionality. SERT-HZ displayed variable and intermediate phenotypes in both experiments. Thus, consistent results across different biological modalities (age, stress) revealed a high contribution of SERT genotype for baseline "trait" emotionality in males, and low contribution for females. In contrast, age-correlated and stress-induced behavioral changes resulted in a high SERT genotype-mediated behavioral variance in females, but low in males. This suggests that high emotionality states associated with low SERT were differentially achieved in males (high baseline/trait) compared to females (increased vulnerability to develop high emotionality). This sex-by-SERT double dissociation provides a framework to investigate molecular substrates of emotionality regulation in concert with serotonin function and may contribute to the sexually dimorphic features of mood disorders.
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Sleep-dependent gene expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex following long-term potentiation.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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The activity-dependent transcription factor zif268 is re-activated in sleep following hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, the activation of secondary genes, possibly involved in modifying local synaptic strengths and ultimately stabilizing memory traces during sleep, has not yet been studied. Here, we investigated changes in hippocampal and cortical gene expression at a time point subsequent to the previously reported initial zif268 re-activation during sleep. Rats underwent unilateral hippocampal LTP and were assigned to SLEEP or AWAKE groups. Eighty minutes after a long rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) episode (or an equivalent amount of time for awake group) animals had their hippocampi dissected and processed for gene microarray hybridization. Prefrontal and parietal cortices were also collected for qRT-PCR analysis. The microarray analysis identified 28 up-regulated genes in the hippocampus: 11 genes were enhanced in the LTPed hemisphere of sleep animals; 13 genes were enhanced after sleep, regardless of hemisphere; and 4 genes were enhanced in LTPed hemisphere, regardless of behavioral state. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the up-regulation of aif-1 and sc-65 during sleep. Moreover, we observed a down-regulation of the purinergic receptor, P2Y4R in the LTP hemisphere of awake animals and a trend for the protein kinase, CaMKI to be up-regulated in the LTP hemisphere of sleep animals. In the prefrontal cortex, we showed a significant LTP-dependent down-regulation of gluR1 and spinophilin specifically during sleep. Zif268 was down-regulated in sleep regardless of the hemisphere. No changes in gene expression were observed in the parietal cortex. Our findings indicate that a set of synaptic plasticity-related genes have their expression modulated during sleep following LTP, which can reflect biochemical events associated with reshaping of synaptic connections in sleep following learning.
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Reciprocal phylogenetic conservation of molecular aging in mouse and human brain.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Studies of age-related molecular profiles have separately focused on the human and rodent brains, but the extent to which each organism predicts molecular events across species for the global signature of aging and for specific biological functions has only begun to be characterized. We previously showed that the molecular correlates of aging in the mouse cortex moderately, but significantly, predicted transcript changes in human frontal cortex. Using orthologous gene links between large-scale gene expression datasets, we now report a similar reciprocal human-to-mouse prediction of molecular aging in frontal cortex, but a limited and variable conservation of age-effects across a wide spectrum of biological functions. Thus, the moderate transcriptome correlations and partial functional concordance between late-life human and rodent cohorts (13-77 years in humans and 3-24 months in mice) suggest limitations of the mouse to model normal aging of the human brain cortex.
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Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived models to investigate human cytomegalovirus infection in neural cells.
PLoS ONE
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is one of the leading prenatal causes of congenital mental retardation and deformities world-wide. Access to cultured human neuronal lineages, necessary to understand the species specific pathogenic effects of HCMV, has been limited by difficulties in sustaining primary human neuronal cultures. Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells now provide an opportunity for such research. We derived iPS cells from human adult fibroblasts and induced neural lineages to investigate their susceptibility to infection with HCMV strain Ad169. Analysis of iPS cells, iPS-derived neural stem cells (NSCs), neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons suggests that (i) iPS cells are not permissive to HCMV infection, i.e., they do not permit a full viral replication cycle; (ii) Neural stem cells have impaired differentiation when infected by HCMV; (iii) NPCs are fully permissive for HCMV infection; altered expression of genes related to neural metabolism or neuronal differentiation is also observed; (iv) most iPS-derived neurons are not permissive to HCMV infection; and (v) infected neurons have impaired calcium influx in response to glutamate.
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Age-by-disease biological interactions: implications for late-life depression.
Front Genet
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Onset of depressive symptoms after the age of 65, or late-life depression (LLD), is common and poses a significant burden on affected individuals, caretakers, and society. Evidence suggests a unique biological basis for LLD, but current hypotheses do not account for its pathophysiological complexity. Here we propose a novel etiological framework for LLD, the age-by-disease biological interaction hypothesis, based on the observations that the subset of genes that undergoes lifelong progressive changes in expression is restricted to a specific set of biological processes, and that a disproportionate number of these age-dependent genes have been previously and similarly implicated in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The age-by-disease biological interaction hypothesis posits that age-dependent biological processes (i) are "pushed" in LLD-promoting directions by changes in gene expression naturally occurring during brain aging, which (ii) directly contribute to pathophysiological mechanisms of LLD, and (iii) that individual variability in rates of age-dependent changes determines risk or resiliency to develop age-related disorders, including LLD. We review observations supporting this hypothesis, including consistent and specific age-dependent changes in brain gene expression and their overlap with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease pathways. We then review preliminary reports supporting the genetic component of this hypothesis. Other potential biological mediators of age-dependent gene changes are proposed. We speculate that studies examining the relative contribution of these mechanisms to age-dependent changes and related disease mechanisms will not only provide critical information on the biology of normal aging of the human brain, but will inform our understanding of age-dependent diseases, in time fostering the development of new interventions for prevention and treatment of age-dependent diseases, including LLD.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction in major depressive disorder.
Am J Psychiatry
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The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex is implicated in the pathology and treatment response of major depressive disorder. Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reduced markers for GABA function, including in the amygdala, are reported in major depression, but their contribution to subgenual anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction is not known.
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An R package suite for microarray meta-analysis in quality control, differentially expressed gene analysis and pathway enrichment detection.
Bioinformatics
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With the rapid advances and prevalence of high-throughput genomic technologies, integrating information of multiple relevant genomic studies has brought new challenges. Microarray meta-analysis has become a frequently used tool in biomedical research. Little effort, however, has been made to develop a systematic pipeline and user-friendly software. In this article, we present MetaOmics, a suite of three R packages MetaQC, MetaDE and MetaPath, for quality control, differentially expressed gene identification and enriched pathway detection for microarray meta-analysis. MetaQC provides a quantitative and objective tool to assist study inclusion/exclusion criteria for meta-analysis. MetaDE and MetaPath were developed for candidate marker and pathway detection, which provide choices of marker detection, meta-analysis and pathway analysis methods. The system allows flexible input of experimental data, clinical outcome (case-control, multi-class, continuous or survival) and pathway databases. It allows missing values in experimental data and utilizes multi-core parallel computing for fast implementation. It generates informative summary output and visualization plots, operates on different operation systems and can be expanded to include new algorithms or combine different types of genomic data. This software suite provides a comprehensive tool to conveniently implement and compare various genomic meta-analysis pipelines.
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Detecting disease-associated genes with confounding variable adjustment and the impact on genomic meta-analysis: with application to major depressive disorder.
BMC Bioinformatics
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Detecting candidate markers in transcriptomic studies often encounters difficulties in complex diseases, particularly when overall signals are weak and sample size is small. Covariates including demographic, clinical and technical variables are often confounded with the underlying disease effects, which further hampers accurate biomarker detection. Our motivating example came from an analysis of five microarray studies in major depressive disorder (MDD), a heterogeneous psychiatric illness with mostly uncharacterized genetic mechanisms.
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Synaptic underpinnings of altered hippocampal function in glutaminase-deficient mice during maturation.
Hippocampus
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Glutaminase-deficient mice (GLS1 hets), with reduced glutamate recycling, have a focal reduction in hippocampal activity, mainly in CA1, and manifest behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes suggestive of schizophrenia resilience. To address the basis for the hippocampal hypoactivity, we examined synaptic plastic mechanisms and glutamate receptor expression. Although baseline synaptic strength was unaffected in Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1, we found that long-term potentiation was attenuated. In wild-type (WT) mice, GLS1 gene expression was highest in the hippocampus and cortex, where it was reduced by about 50% in GLS1 hets. In other brain regions with lower WT GLS1 gene expression, there were no genotypic reductions. In adult GLS1 hets, NMDA receptor NR1 subunit gene expression was reduced, but not AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit gene expression. In contrast, juvenile GLS1 hets showed no reductions in NR1 gene expression. In concert with this, adult GLS1 hets showed a deficit in hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning, whereas juvenile GLS1 hets did not. These alterations in glutamatergic synaptic function may partly explain the hippocampal hypoactivity seen in the GLS1 hets. The maturity-onset reduction in NR1 gene expression and in contextual learning supports the premise that glutaminase inhibition in adulthood should prove therapeutic in schizophrenia.
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Neonatal testosterone partially organizes sex differences in stress-induced emotionality in mice.
Neurobiol. Dis.
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disorder of altered mood regulation. Despite well established sex differences in MDD prevalence, the mechanism underlying the increased female vulnerability remains unknown. Although evidence suggests an influence of adult circulating hormone levels on mood (i.e. activational effects of hormones), MDD prevalence is consistently higher in women across life stages (and therefore hormonal states), suggesting that additional underlying structural or biological differences place women at higher risk. Studies in human subjects and in rodent models suggest a developmental origin for mood disorders, and interestingly, a developmental process also establishes sex differences in the brain. Hence, based on these parallel developmental trajectories, we hypothesized that a proportion of the female higher vulnerability to MDD may originate from the differential organization of mood regulatory neural networks early in life (i.e. organizational effects of hormones). To test this hypothesis in a rodent system, we took advantage of a well-established technique used in the field of sexual differentiation (neonatal injection with testosterone) to masculinize sexually dimorphic brain regions in female mice. We then investigated adult behavioral consequences relating to emotionality by comparing neonatal testosterone-treated females to normal males and females. Under baseline/trait conditions, neonatal testosterone treatment of female mice did not influence adult emotionality, but masculinized adult locomotor activity, as revealed by the activational actions of hormones. Conversely, the increased vulnerability of female mice to develop high emotionality following unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) was partially masculinized by neonatal testosterone exposure, with no effect on post-UCMS locomotion. The elevated female UCMS-induced vulnerability did not differ between adult hormone treated groups. These results demonstrate that sex differences in adult emotionality in mice are partially caused by the organizational effects of sex hormones during development, hence supporting a developmental hypothesis of the human adult female prevalence of MDD.
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Adenylate cyclase 7 is implicated in the biology of depression and modulation of affective neural circuitry.
Biol. Psychiatry
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Evolutionarily conserved genes and their associated molecular pathways can serve as a translational bridge between human and mouse research, extending our understanding of biological pathways mediating individual differences in behavior and risk for psychopathology.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.