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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Widespread FRA1-dependent control of mesenchymal transdifferentiation programs in colorectal cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tumor invasion and metastasis involves complex remodeling of gene expression programs governing epithelial homeostasis. Mutational activation of the RAS-ERK is a frequent occurrence in many cancers and has been shown to drive overexpression of the AP-1 family transcription factor FRA1, a potent regulator of migration and invasion in a variety of tumor cell types. However, the nature of FRA1 transcriptional targets and the molecular pathways through which they promote tumor progression remain poorly understood. We found that FRA1 was strongly expressed in tumor cells at the invasive front of human colorectal cancers (CRCs), and that its depletion suppressed mesenchymal-like features in CRC cells in vitro. Genome-wide analysis of FRA1 chromatin occupancy and transcriptional regulation identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes as a major class of direct FRA1 targets in CRC cells. Expression of the pro-mesenchymal subset of these genes predicted adverse outcomes in CRC patients, and involved FRA-1-dependent regulation and cooperation with TGF? signaling pathway. Our findings reveal an unexpectedly widespread and direct role for FRA1 in control of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in CRC cells, and suggest that FRA1 plays an important role in mediating cross talk between oncogenic RAS-ERK and TGF? signaling networks during tumor progression.
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A switch in the expression of embryonic EMT-inducers drives the development of malignant melanoma.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Aberrant expression of embryonic epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs) in epithelial cells triggers EMT, neoplastic transformation, stemness, and metastatic dissemination. We found that regulation and functions of EMT-TFs are different in malignant melanoma. SNAIL2 and ZEB2 transcription factors are expressed in normal melanocytes and behave as tumor-suppressor proteins by activating an MITF-dependent melanocyte differentiation program. In response to NRAS/BRAF activation, EMT-TF network undergoes a profound reorganization in favor of TWIST1 and ZEB1. This reversible switch cooperates with BRAF in promoting dedifferentiation and neoplastic transformation of melanocytes. We detected EMT-TF reprogramming in late-stage melanoma in association with enhanced phospho-ERK levels. This switch results in E-cadherin loss, enhanced invasion, and constitutes an independent factor of poor prognosis in melanoma patients.
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Actin-binding protein alpha-actinin 4 (ACTN4) is a transcriptional co-activator of RelA/p65 sub-unit of NF-kB.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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ACTN4 is an actin-binding protein that participates in cytoskeleton organisation. It resides both in the cytoplasm and nucleus and physically associates with various transcription factors. Here, we describe an effect of ACTN4 expression on transcriptional activity of the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-kB. We demonstrate that ACTN4 enhances RelA/p65-dependant expression of c-fos, MMP-3 and MMP-1 genes, but it does not affect TNC, ICAM1 and FN1 expression. Importantly, actin-binding domains of ACTN4 are not critical for the nuclear translocation and co-activation of RelA/p65- dependent transcription. Collectively, our data suggest that in the nucleus, ACTN4 functions as a selective transcriptional co-activator of RelA/p65.
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Novel monoclonal antibodies detect Smad-interacting protein 1 (SIP1) in the cytoplasm of human cells from multiple tumor tissue arrays.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Smad-interacting protein 1 (SIP1, also known as ZEB2) represses the transcription of E-cadherin and mediates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in development and tumor metastasis. Due to the lack of human SIP1-specific antibodies, its expression in human tumor tissues has not been studied in detail by immunohistochemistry. Hence, we generated two anti-SIP1 monoclonal antibodies, clones 1C6 and 6E5, with IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, respectively. The specificity of these antibodies was shown by Western blotting studies using siRNA mediated downregulation of SIP1 and ZEB1 in a human osteosarcoma cell line. In the same context, we also compared them with 5 commercially available SIP1 antibodies. Antibody specificity was further verified in an inducible cell line system by immunofluorescence. By using both antibodies, we evaluated the tissue expression of SIP1 in paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays consisting of 22 normal and 101 tumoral tissues of kidney, colon, stomach, lung, esophagus, uterus, rectum, breast and liver. Interestingly, SIP1 predominantly displayed a cytoplasmic expression, while the nuclear localization of SIP1 was observed in only 6 cases. Strong expression of SIP1 was found in distal tubules of kidney, glandular epithelial cells of stomach and hepatocytes, implicating a co-expression of SIP1 and E-cadherin. Squamous epithelium of the esophagus and surface epithelium of colon and rectum were stained with moderate to weak intensity. Normal uterus, breast and lung tissues remained completely negative. By comparison with their normal tissues, we observed SIP1 overexpression in cancers of the kidney, breast, lung and uterus. However, SIP1 expression was found to be downregulated in tumors from colon, rectum, esophagus, liver and stomach tissues. Finally we did nuclear/cytoplasmic fractionation in 3 carcinoma cell lines and detected SIP1 in both fractions, nucleus being the dominant one. To our best knowledge, this is the first comprehensive immunohistochemical study of the expression of SIP1 in a series of human cancers. Our finding that SIP1 is not exclusively localized to nucleus suggests that the subcellular localization of SIP1 is regulated in normal and tumor tissues. These novel monoclonal antibodies may help elucidate the role of SIP1 in tumor development.
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ZEB proteins link cell motility with cell cycle control and cell survival in cancer.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Epithelial mesenchymal transitions (EMT), the generation of motile mesenchymal cells from epithelial sheets, are differentiation programs which take place at several critical steps of embryonic development and in metastatic cancer. Recent data have shown that the transcription factors which are master regulators of EMT also regulate cell cycle progression, apoptosis and senescence. In light of these new observations, the role of these factors in human cancer may be broader than previously anticipated. Here we review recent literature on non-EMT functions of EMT-controlling transcription factors. We will mainly focus on transcription factors belonging to the ZEB family, but some important results obtained by investigators studying other key EMT regulators, Snail and Twist are also discussed.
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SIP1 protein protects cells from DNA damage-induced apoptosis and has independent prognostic value in bladder cancer.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2009
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The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to cancer metastasis. Two ZEB family members, ZEB1 and ZEB2(SIP1), inhibit transcription of the E-cadherin gene and induce EMT in vitro. However, their relevance to human cancer is insufficiently studied. Here, we performed a comparative study of SIP1 and ZEB1 proteins in cancer cell lines and in one form of human malignancy, carcinoma of the bladder. Whereas ZEB1 protein was expressed in all E-cadherin-negative carcinoma cell lines, being in part responsible for the high motility of bladder cancer cells, SIP1 was hardly ever detectable in carcinoma cells in culture. However, SIP1 represented an independent factor of poor prognosis (P = 0.005) in a series of bladder cancer specimens obtained from patients treated with radiotherapy. In contrast, ZEB1 was rarely expressed in tumor tissues; and E-cadherin status did not correlate with the patients survival. SIP1 protected cells from UV- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis in vitro but had no effect on the level of DNA damage. The anti-apoptotic effect of SIP1 was independent of either cell cycle arrest or loss of cell-cell adhesion and was associated with reduced phosphorylation of ATM/ATR targets in UV-treated cells. The prognostic value of SIP1 and its role in DNA damage response establish a link between genetic instability and metastasis and suggest a potential importance for this protein as a therapeutic target. In addition, we conclude that the nature of an EMT pathway rather than the deregulation of E-cadherin per se is critical for the progression of the disease and patients survival.
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Lapatinib, a dual inhibitor of ErbB-1/-2 receptors, enhances effects of combination chemotherapy in bladder cancer cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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Survival rate of patients diagnosed with the invasive form of bladder cancer is low suggesting an urgent need to implement novel treatments. GTC (gemcitabine, paclitaxel and cisplatin) is a new chemotherapeutic regimen, which has shown promise in clinical trials. Given that receptor tyrosine kinases of the ErbB family are overexpressed in a high proportion of metastatic bladder tumours, approaches involving small-molecule inhibitors of ErbB receptors in combination with conventional cytostatic drugs are of potential interest. Here, we show that the dual inhibitor of ErbB receptors, lapatinib, enhances cytostatic and induces cytotoxic effects of GTC in two bladder cancer cell lines which differ with regard to expression levels of proteins taking part in the ErbB pathway. Lapatinib inhibited phosphorylation of ErbB receptors and also reduced the level of phosphorylated AKT. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that GTC treatment affects cell cycle distribution differently in the presence or absence of lapatinib. In RT112 cells, which express high levels of ErbB receptors and harbour wild-type p53, combined GTC/lapatinib treatment resulted in the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46 and accumulation of sub-G1 cell populations. Our data indicate that a combinatorial approach involving GTC and lapatinib may have therapeutic potential in a subset of bladder tumours depending on the genetic context.
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ZEB/miR-200 feedback loop: at the crossroads of signal transduction in cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
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Embryonic differentiation programs of epithelial-mesenchymal and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (EMT and MET) represent a mechanistic basis for epithelial cell plasticity implicated in cancer. Transcription factors of the ZEB protein family (ZEB1 and ZEB2) and several microRNA species (predominantly miR-200 family members) form a double negative feedback loop, which controls EMT and MET programs in both development and tumorigenesis. In this article, we review crosstalk between the ZEB/miR-200 axis and several signal transduction pathways activated at different stages of tumor development. The close association of ZEB proteins with these pathways is indirect evidence for the involvement of a ZEB/miR-200 loop in tumor initiation, progression and spread. Additionally, the configuration of signaling pathways involving ZEB/miR-200 loop suggests that ZEB1 and ZEB2 may have different, possibly even opposing, roles in some forms of human cancer.
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Reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial sensitivity to oxidative stress determine induction of cancer cell death by p21.
J. Biol. Chem.
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p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates cell cycle arrest. Prolonged p21 up-regulation induces a senescent phenotype in normal and cancer cells, accompanied by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it has been shown recently that p21 expression can also lead to cell death in certain models. The mechanisms involved in this process are not fully understood. Here, we describe an induction of apoptosis by p21 in sarcoma cell lines that is p53-independent and can be ameliorated with antioxidants. Similar levels of p21 and ROS caused senescence in the absence of significant death in other cancer cell lines, suggesting a cell-specific response. We also found that cells undergoing p21-dependent cell death had higher sensitivity to oxidants and a specific pattern of mitochondrial polarization changes. Consistent with this, apoptosis could be blocked with targeted expression of catalase in the mitochondria of these cells. We propose that the balance between cancer cell death and arrest after p21 up-regulation depends on the specific effects of p21-induced ROS on the mitochondria. This suggests that selective up-regulation of p21 in cancer cells could be a successful therapeutic intervention for sarcomas and tumors with lower resistance to mitochondrial oxidative damage, regardless of p53 status.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.