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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Pharmacokinetic Properties of Two Erlotinib 150 mg Formulations with a Genetic Effect Evaluation in Healthy Korean Subjects.
Clin Drug Investig
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Erlotinib is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer. It is a reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor that acts on the epidermal growth factor receptor and inhibits cell proliferation, growth, migration, invasion and survival. This study was performed for the subsequent marketing of a test erlotinib formulation in Korea. We evaluated the comparative bioavailability and tolerability of the test and reference formulations in healthy adult volunteers.
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Inhibition of PKC? attenuates methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity via up-regulation of phosphorylation of TH-Ser40 by modulations of PP2A and PKA.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Recently, we have proposed that inhibition of protein kinase C? (PKC?) may be a useful target for protection against methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. We have demonstrated that treatment with MA resulted in a significant decrease in phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) at Ser40 in the striatum, but not in the phosphorylation of TH at Ser31. Treatment with rottlerin, a PKC? inhibitor or PKC? antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) significantly attenuated MA-induced reductions in the phosphorylation of TH at Ser40 and in the expression of protein kinase A (PKA). This attenuation was significantly counteracted by H89, a PKA inhibitor. Treatment with rottlerin or ASO significantly attenuated the MA-induced increase in protein phosphatase (PP) 2A activity. FTY720, a PP2A activator, significantly reversed the PKC? inhibition-mediated recovery in phosphorylation of TH against MA insult. Consistently, H89 and FTY720 counteracted PKC? inhibition-mediated recovery against MA-induced behavioral impairments, respectively. The effects, mediated by rottlerin or ASO, in MA-treated wild-type-mice were comparable to those in MA-treated PKC?(-/-) -mice. However, neither inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) subfamily nor inhibition of calcium calmodulin kinase II significantly altered PKC? inhibition-mediated attenuation against MA-induced impaired phosphorylation of TH. Our results suggest that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PKC? requires modulation of PKA expression and/or PP2A activity for attenuating impairments in the phosphorylation of TH at Ser40 and behavioral activity induced by MA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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A NATIONAL SURVEY OF OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE AMONG DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGISTS IN SOUTH KOREA.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate representative occupational characteristics and radiation exposure for South Korean radiologic technologists. The authors conducted a national survey by stratified sampling of South Korean administrative districts and types of medical facilities. A total of 585 technologists were surveyed, and survey data were linked with dosimetry data from the National Dose Registry. A total of 73 % of radiologic technologists sampled were male, 62 % were younger than age 40 and 86.5 % began employment after 1990. The most frequent practices among radiologic technologists were diagnostic routine X-ray followed by computed tomography (CT) and portable X-ray. Male workers were more frequently involved in CT, portable X-ray and interventional radiology whereas female workers carried out most mammography procedures. The average annual effective dose was 2.3 mSv for male and 1.3 mSv for female workers. The dose was significantly higher for workers in the provinces and those who had recently started work.
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Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles derived from natural materials of mango fruit for bio-imaging probes.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Water soluble fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FCP) obtained from a single natural source, mango fruit, were developed as unique materials for non-toxic bio-imaging with different colors and particle sizes. The prepared FCPs showed blue (FCP-B), green (FCP-G) and yellow (FCP-Y) fluorescence, derived by the controlled carbonization method. The FCPs demonstrated hydrodynamic diameters of 5-15 nm, holding great promise for clinical applications. The biocompatible FCPs demonstrated great potential in biological fields through the results of in vitro imaging and in vivo biodistribution. Using intravenously administered FCPs with different colored particles, we precisely defined the clearance and biodistribution, showing rapid and efficient urinary excretion for safe elimination from the body. These findings therefore suggest the promising possibility of using natural sources for producing fluorescent materials.
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Self-assembled proteinticle nanostructures for 3-dimensional display of antibodies.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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"Proteinticle" is a nano-scale protein particle that is self-assembled inside cells with constant 3D structure and surface topology. The binding of IgG to the B domain of Staphylococcal protein A (SPAB) molecules that are genetically inserted on the surface of proteinticle enables the variable domains of bound IgG to be well oriented to effectively capture antigens, accordingly forming a highly sensitive 3D IgG probe. The five different proteinticles that originate from humans, bacteria, and virus and totally differ in size, shape, and surface structure were used for the surface display of SPAB. The dissociation constant (KD) in the binding of IgG to SPAB on the proteinticle surface was estimated based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model: KD was 1-3 orders-of-magnitude lower compared to the previously reported KD in the binding of IgG to Staphylococcal protein A. The surface density and distribution of SPAB and especially the existence of hot (or highly congested) spots of SPAB, which depend on the surface structure and the number of subunits as well as size and shape of proteinticle, is of crucial importance for the effective binding of IgG to SPAB on proteinticles. Although the five different proteinticles were demonstrated as proof-of-concept here, SPAB-mediated immobilization of IgG on the other proteinticles would be very useful for the fabrication of sensitive 3D immunoassay platforms.
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Growth Hormone-Releaser Diet Attenuates Cognitive Dysfunction in Klotho Mutant Mice via Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Activation in a Genetic Aging Model.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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It has been recognized that a defect in klotho gene expression accelerates the degeneration of multiple age-sensitive traits. Accumulating evidence indicates that aging is associated with declines in cognitive function and the activity of growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).
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Feasibility of anomaly detection and characterization using trans-admittance mammography with 60 × 60 electrode array.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Electrical impedance imaging has the potential to detect an early stage of breast cancer due to higher admittivity values compared with those of normal breast tissues. The tumor size and extent of axillary lymph node involvement are important parameters to evaluate the breast cancer survival rate. Additionally, the anomaly characterization is required to distinguish a malignant tumor from a benign tumor. In order to overcome the limitation of breast cancer detection using impedance measurement probes, we developed the high density trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system with 60 × 60 electrode array and produced trans-admittance maps obtained at several frequency pairs. We applied the anomaly detection algorithm to the high density TAM system for estimating the volume and position of breast tumor. We tested four different sizes of anomaly with three different conductivity contrasts at four different depths. From multifrequency trans-admittance maps, we can readily observe the transversal position and estimate its volume and depth. Specially, the depth estimated values were obtained accurately, which were independent to the size and conductivity contrast when applying the new formula using Laplacian of trans-admittance map. The volume estimation was dependent on the conductivity contrast between anomaly and background in the breast phantom. We characterized two testing anomalies using frequency difference trans-admittance data to eliminate the dependency of anomaly position and size. We confirmed the anomaly detection and characterization algorithm with the high density TAM system on bovine breast tissue. Both results showed the feasibility of detecting the size and position of anomaly and tissue characterization for screening the breast cancer.
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Liposomal melatonin rescues methamphetamine-elicited mitochondrial burdens, proapoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration through the inhibition PKC? gene.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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We have demonstrated that mitochondrial oxidative damage and PKC? overexpression contribute to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Although it is recognized that antioxidant melatonin is effective in preventing neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine, its precise mechanism remains elusive. C57BL/6J wild type mice exhibited a similar degree of dopaminergic deficit when methamphetamine was administered during light and dark phases. Furthermore, dopaminergic neuroprotection by genetic inhibition of PKC? during the light phase was comparable to that during the dark phase. Thus, we have focused on the light phase in order to examine whether melatonin modulates PKC?-mediated neurotoxic signaling after multiple high doses of methamphetamine. To enhance the bioavailability of melatonin, we applied liposomal melatonin. Treatment with methamphetamine resulted in hyperthermia, mitochondrial translocation of PKC?, oxidative damage (mitochondria > cytosol), mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-apoptotic changes, ultrastructural mitochondrial degeneration, dopaminergic degeneration, and behavioral impairment in wild type mice. Treatment with liposomal melatonin resulted in a dose-dependent attenuation against degenerative changes induced by methamphetamine in wild type mice. Attenuation by liposomal melatonin might be comparable to that by genetic inhibition (using PKC?((-/-)) mice or PKC? antisense oligonucleotide). However, liposomal melatonin did not show any additional protective effects on the attenuation by genetic inhibition of PKC?. Our results suggest that the circadian cycle cannot be a key factor in modulating methamphetamine toxicity under the current experimental condition, and that PKC? is one of the critical target genes for melatonin-mediated protective effects against mitochondrial burdens (dysfunction), oxidative stress, pro-apoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration induced by methamphetamine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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A case of generalized varicelliform eruption after herpes zoster oticus.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To report the case of a healthy man with a previously unreported combination of generalized varicelliform eruption and herpes zoster oticus.
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Salimicrobium jeotgali sp. nov., isolated from salted, fermented seafood.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, motile bacterium, designated strain MJ3(T), was isolated from myeolchi-jeot (anchovy jeotgal), a traditional fermented seafood in South Korea. Cells were non-endospore-forming cocci showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of strain MJ3(T) was observed at 15-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 1-24?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 10?% NaCl). Phylogenetic inference based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ3(T) formed a tight phyletic lineage with members of the genus Salimicrobium. Strain MJ3(T) was related most closely to Salimicrobium salexigens 29CMI(T), Salimicrobium album DSM 20748(T), Salimicrobium flavidum ISL-25(T), Salimicrobium luteum BY-5(T) and Salimicrobium halophilum DSM 4771(T), with similarities of 98.8?%, 98.7?%, 98.6?%, 98.4?% and 98.3?%, respectively. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain MJ3(T) (KF732837) and S. salexigens DSM 22782(T), S. album DSM 20748(T), S. flavidum DSM 23127(T), S. luteum KCTC 3989(T) and S. halophilum JCM 12305(T) were 60±5.4?%, 58.5±6.5?%, 43.6±5.5?%, 37.2±5.8?% and 16.7±0.2?%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic data (sole isoprenoid quinone, MK-7; major cell-wall type, meso-diaminopimelic acid; major cellular fatty acids, anteiso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C17?:?0 and iso-C15?:?0; major polar lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; DNA G+C content, 46.3 mol%) also supported the affiliation of strain MJ3(T) with the genus Salimicrobium. Therefore, strain MJ3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Salimicrobium, for which the name Salimicrobium jeotgali sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ3(T) (?=?KACC 16972(T)?=?JCM 19758(T)).
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Chronic cholesterol depletion by lovastatin suppresses MUC5AC gene expression in human airway epithelial cells.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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We recently showed that acute cholesterol depletion in the plasma membrane of NCI-H292 cells by methyl-?-cyclodextrin suppressed IL-1beta-induced MUC5AC gene expression. Because cholesterol depletion is clinically used as an antihypersecretory method, chronic cholesterol depletion by lovastatin is more rational and safe than acute depletion. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether chronic cholesterol depletion by lovastatin is feasible and, if so, suppresses the expression of GMUC5AC in NCI-H292 cells. We also considered whether this alteration of MUC5AC expression is related to IL-1 receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity.
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Implementation of a Two-dimensional Behavior Matrix to Distinguish Individuals with Differential Depression States in a Rodent Model of Depression.
Exp Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Animal models of depression are used to study pathophysiology of depression and to advance therapeutic strategies. Stress-induced depression models in rodents are widely used. However, amenable behavioral criteria and experimental procedures that are suitable for animal models have not been established. Given that depression is clinically diagnosed by multiple symptomatic criteria and stress effects are imposed to the brain non-specifically in stress-induced depression models, analyses of depression states in rodents using multiple symptomatic criteria may provide more power than any methods relying on a single symptomatic criterion. To address this, C57BL/6 inbred mice were restrained for 2 h daily for 14 d, and depression states of individual mice were assessed using the U-field test, behavioral assessment developed to measure animal's sociability, and the tail suspension test and/or forced swim test, which are the typical methods that measure psychomotor withdrawal states. Although the majority of these mice showed severe depressive behaviors in both tests, a significant proportion of them, which were all inbred mice and received the same amount of restraints, expressed differential depression states in the sociability test and psychomotor withdrawal tests. To easily read-out differential depression states of individuals in two different tests, a standard method and basic parameters required to construct two-way behavior matrix were introduced. The utility and features of this two-way behavior analysis method for studies of different depressive states of individuals were discussed.
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Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.
J Agromedicine
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides.
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A solitary malignant schwannoma in the choana and nasal septum.
Case Rep Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Malignant schwannoma is an extremely rare tumor and the risk of malignant schwannoma increases in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease. Recently, we encountered a case of solitary malignant schwannoma in the choana and posterior nasal septum. Malignant schwannoma has not been previously reported in these locations. A 53-year-old man, who was immunologically healthy and showed no abnormal dermatological lesions, presented with a polypoid mass in the right nasal cavity and underwent endoscopic mass excision. The mass originated from the choana and the posterior portion of the right nasal septum. This mass was confirmed as a malignant schwannoma on histological examination and immunohistochemical staining. After endoscopic excision, postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was administered, and there was no recurrence at 1 year after treatment. This case suggests that a solitary malignant schwannoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a mass in the posterior nasal cavity.
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Studies on distribution of ?1-antitrypsin, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and mast cell enzymes in diseased middle ear mucosa.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Antimicrobial agents (AMAs) and mast cells in chronic otitis media (COM) may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of COM. Among them, our results indicated that lysozyme may be the most important parameter of the mucosa infectivity in COM.
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Lipofibromatous hamartoma of a cranial nerve.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Lipofibromatous hamartomas (LFHs) are rare benign tumors that typically present as slow-growing firm masses in the subcutaneous soft tissue of the extremities. These often develop in young adults on the volar aspects of the hands, wrists, and forearms along major nerves and their branches. Only a single case of LFH growth along a cranial nerve has been reported. A 41-year-old man presented with a subcutaneous soft mass of the cheek. Histologically, the mass consisted of a proliferating fibrofatty tissue that surrounded and infiltrated the nerve structure and it was confirmed to be an LFH. After surgical excision, the patient experienced mild facial numbness and motor disturbance on the side ipsilateral to the resection. Because complete excision of the mass can cause sensory or motor disturbances, an accurate diagnosis and proper subsequent treatment, such as partial decompression, are necessary.
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The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea: study design and baseline results.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea.
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5-Nitro-5'hydroxy-indirubin-3'oxime Is a Novel Inducer of Somatic Cell Transdifferentiation.
Arch. Pharm. (Weinheim)
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Patient-derived cell transplantation is an attractive therapy for regenerative medicine. However, this requires effective strategies to reliably differentiate patient cells into clinically useful cell types. Herein, we report the discovery that 5-nitro-5'hydroxy-indirubin-3'oxime (5'-HNIO) is a novel inducer of cell transdifferentiation. 5'-HNIO induced muscle transdifferentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic cells. 5'-HNIO was shown to inhibit aurora kinase A, which is a known cell fate regulator. 5'-HNIO produced a favorable level of transdifferentiation compared to other aurora kinase inhibitors and induced transdifferentiation across cell lineage boundaries. Significantly, 5'-HNIO treatment produced direct transdifferentiation without up-regulating potentially oncogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming factors. Thus, our results demonstrate that 5'-HNIO is an attractive molecular tool for cell transdifferentiation and cell fate research.
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Treatment and Outcomes for Gangliogliomas: A Single-Center Review of 16 Patients.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Ganglioglioma is a rare and slowly growing benign tumor. We investigated the outcomes of patients who underwent different combination treatments.
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Potent antitumor activity of cabozantinib, a c-MET and VEGFR2 inhibitor, in a colorectal cancer patient-derived tumor explant model.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Antiangiogenic therapy is commonly used for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although patients derive some clinical benefit, treatment resistance inevitably occurs. The MET signaling pathway has been proposed to be a major contributor of resistance to antiangiogenic therapy. MET is upregulated in response to vascular endothelial growth factor pathway inhibition and plays an essential role in tumorigenesis and progression of tumors. In this study, we set out to determine the efficacy of cabozantinib in a preclinical CRC patient-derived tumor xenograft model. We demonstrate potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth in 80% of tumors treated. The greatest antitumor effects were observed in tumors that possess a mutation in the PIK3CA gene. The underlying antitumor mechanisms of cabozantinib consisted of inhibition of angiogenesis and Akt activation and significantly decreased expression of genes involved in the PI3K pathway. These findings support further evaluation of cabozantinib in patients with CRC. PIK3CA mutation as a predictive biomarker of sensitivity is intriguing and warrants further elucidation. A clinical trial of cabozantinib in refractory metastatic CRC is being activated.
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Simultaneous determination of flurbiprofen and its hydroxy metabolite in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for clinical application.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Flurbiprofen (FLB) is one of the phenylalkanoic acid derivatives of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used for the management of pain and inflammation in patients with arthritis. We developed and validated a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method utilizing tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of FLB and its major metabolite, 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen (4'-OH-FLB), in human plasma. Probenecid was used as an internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction with methyl t-butyl ether, chromatographic separation of the two analytes was achieved using a reversed-phase Luna C18 column (2.0mm×50mm, 5?m particles) with a mobile phase of 10mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5)-methanol (15:85, v/v) and quantified by MS/MS detection in ESI negative ion mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 250?l/min and the retention times of FLB, 4'-OH-FLB, and IS were 1.1, 0.8, and 0.9min, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over a range of 0.01-10?g/ml for FLB and 0.01-1?g/ml for 4'-OH-FLB. The lower limit of quantifications using 100?l of human plasma was 0.01?g/ml for both analytes. The mean accuracy and precision for intra- and inter-run validation of FLB and 4'-OH-FLB were all within acceptable limits. The present HPLC-MS/MS method showed improved sensitivity for quantification of the FLB and its major metabolite in human plasma compared with previously described analytical methods. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in humans.
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Attributable fraction of tobacco smoking on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in Korea.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population.
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Childhood leukemia mortality and farming exposure in South Korea: A national population-based birth cohort study.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between leukemia mortality and exposure to farming among children in South Korea.
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A Suggestion of Modified Classification of Trigeminal Schwannomas According to Location, Shape, and Extension.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Comprehensive knowledge of the anatomical features of trigeminal schwannomas (TSs) is essential in planning surgery to achieve complete tumor resection. In the current report, we propose a modified classification of TSs according to their location of origin, shape, and extension into the adjacent compartment, and discuss appropriate surgical strategies with this classification.
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Risk Factors for Falls in Older Korean Adults: The 2011 Community Health Survey.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Falls are a major health problem for elderly populations worldwide. We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey to identify potential risk factors for falls in a representative population-based sample of community-dwelling older Korean adults. Risk factors for falls were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. The prevalence of falls was 36.5% in males and 63.5% in females. Age and female sex were associated with a higher risk of falls. Similarly, living alone, living in an urban area, poor self-rated health, and high stress were associated with a high risk of falls. Subjects with diabetes mellitus, stroke, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, cataracts, or depression had a high risk of falls. However, subjects with hypertension were at low risk for falls. In conclusion, age, female sex, marital status, residence location, self-rated health, stress, and several chronic conditions were significantly associated with the risk for falls in the older Korean adults. Our findings suggest that these risk factors should be addressed in public health policies for preventing falls.
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Design of a microscopic electrical impedance tomography system for 3D continuous non-destructive monitoring of tissue culture.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Non-destructive continuous monitoring of regenerative tissue is required throughout the entire period of in vitro tissue culture. Microscopic electrical impedance tomography (micro-EIT) has the potential to monitor the physiological state of tissues by forming three-dimensional images of impedance changes in a non-destructive and label-free manner. We developed a new micro-EIT system and report on simulation and experimental results of its macroscopic model.
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Photo- and pH-tunable multicolor fluorescent nanoparticle-based spiropyran- and BODIPY-conjugated polymer with graphene oxide.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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We report a stimuli-responsive fluorescent nanomaterial, based on graphene oxide coupled with a polymer conjugated with photochromic spiropyran (SP) dye and hydrophobic boron dipyrromethane (BODIPY) dye, for application in triggered target multicolor bioimaging. Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced by catechol-conjugated polymers under mildly alkaline conditions, which enabled to formation of functionalized multicolor graphene nanoparticles that can be induced by irradiation with UV light and by changing the pH from acidic to neutral. Investigation of these nanoparticles by using AFM, fluorescence emission, and in vitro cell and in vivo imaging revealed that they show different tunable colors in bioimaging applications and, more specifically, in cancer-cell detection. The stability, biocompatibility, and quenching efficacy of this nanocomposite open a different perspective for cell imaging in different independent colors, sequentially and simultaneously.
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Robot-assisted neck dissection via a transaxillary and retroauricular approach versus a conventional transcervical approach in papillary thyroid cancer with cervical lymph node metastases.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Recently, robot-assisted neck dissection (ND) using a transaxillary approach in thyroid cancer patients with lateral neck metastases (LNM) was demonstrated to be feasible. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of a modified transaxillary and retroauricular (TARA) versus a conventional transcervical approach in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients with LNM.
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Suicide from carbon monoxide poisoning in South Korea: 2006-2012.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Suicide from carbon monoxide poisoning by burning coal briquette or barbecue charcoal increased rapidly in some East Asian countries in the recent decade. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in suicides from carbon monoxide poisoning in South Korea and their epidemiologic characteristics.
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Proteinticle/gold core/shell nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy without nanotoxicity.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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PGCS-NPs (40 nm) with excellent photo-thermal activity are developed, on the surface of which affibody peptides with specific affinity for EGFR and many small gold dots (1-3 nm) are densely presented. The IV-injected PGCS-NPs into EGFR-expressing tumor-bearing mice successfully perform targeted and photothermal therapy of cancer. It seems that the small gold dots released from disassembled PGCS-NPs are easily removed and never cause in vivo toxicity problems.
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Global and time-resolved monitoring of crop photosynthesis with chlorophyll fluorescence.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 50-75% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle.
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Efficacy of ginseng adventitious root extract on hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Ginseng has various bioactive effects on human health including its potential activity of improving the glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.
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Engineered protein nanoparticles for in vivo tumor detection.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Two different protein nanoparticles that are totally different in shape and surface structure, i.e. Escherichia coli DNA-binding protein (eDPS) (spherical, 10 nm) and Thermoplasma acidophilum proteasome (tPTS) (cylindrical, 12 × 15 nm) were engineered for in vivo optical tumor detection: arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide (CDCRGDCFC) was genetically inserted to the surface of each protein nanoparticle, and also near-infrared fluorescence dye was chemically linked to the surface lysine residues. The specific affinity of RGD for integrin (?v?3) facilitated the uptake of RGD-presenting protein nanoparticles by integrin-expressing tumor cells, and also the protein nanoparticles neither adversely affected cell viability nor induced cell damage. After intravenously injected to tumor-bearing mice, all the protein nanoparticles successfully reached tumor with negligible renal clearance, and then the surface RGD peptides caused more prolonged retention of protein nanoparticles in tumor and accordingly higher fluorescence intensity of tumor image. In particular, the fluorescence of tumor image was more intensive with tPTS than eDPS, which is due presumably to longer in vivo half-life and circulation of tPTS that originates from thermophilic and acidophilic bacterium. Although eDPS and tPTS were used as proof-of-concept in this study, it seems that other protein nanoparticles with different size, shape, and surface structure can be applied to effective in vivo tumor detection.
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Thanatophoric dysplasia in a dichorionic twin confirmed by genetic analysis at the early second trimester: A case report and literature review.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is caused by mutation of the gene that encodes fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGFR3). Owing to the poor prognosis for TD, prenatal diagnosis is critical to optimal perinatal management. We report here a case of TD in twin pregnancy, which was prenatally diagnosed by DNA analysis following amniocentesis at 15 weeks, and was managed by selective fetal termination. Prenatal ultrasonography and molecular analysis to detect TD-specific mutations enable accurate diagnosis of FGFR3-related TD in utero and appropriate obstetrical management at early gestation during twin pregnancy.
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Incidentally detected middle ear osteoma: two cases reports and literature review.
Am J Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Osteomas of the middle ear are rare benign neoplasms. To date, only a few cases have been reported. Osteomas of the middle ear are small, single, usually unilateral, peduncular growths, off-white in color, with a smooth or multilobular surface, asymptomatic or causing functional disorders. The most common symptom is conductive hearing loss because of impingement of the ossicular chain. Some cases are asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally. We present two cases of incidentally detected middle ear osteoma. Based on a review of the main articles in the literature and analysis of two cases managed in our department, we describe the clinical spectrum, etiology, and management of middle ear osteomas.
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Regulation of retinal axon growth by secreted Vax1 homeodomain protein.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons of binocular animals cross the midline at the optic chiasm (OC) to grow toward their synaptic targets in the contralateral brain. Ventral anterior homeobox 1 (Vax1) plays an essential role in the development of the OC by regulating RGC axon growth in a non-cell autonomous manner. In this study, we identify an unexpected function of Vax1 that is secreted from ventral hypothalamic cells and diffuses to RGC axons, where it promotes axonal growth independent of its transcription factor activity. We demonstrate that Vax1 binds to extracellular sugar groups of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) located in RGC axons. Both Vax1 binding to HSPGs and subsequent penetration into the axoplasm, where Vax1 activates local protein synthesis, are required for RGC axonal growth. Together, our findings demonstrate that Vax1 possesses a novel RGC axon growth factor activity that is critical for the development of the mammalian binocular visual system.
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18F-FDG PET/CT in a case of multifocal skeletal tuberculosis without pulmonary disease and potential role for monitoring treatment response.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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A 39-year-old man presented with left shoulder and interscapular pain. 99mTc-MDP bone scan demonstrated multiple active bone lesions including scapula, spines, ribs, and pelvis. Chest X-ray showed no active lung lesion, and MRI demonstrated infiltrative enhancing lesions in the T-spines and ribs, indicating skeletal metastasis. 18F-FDG PET/CT performed to search for hidden malignancy revealed multiple osteolytic lesions with intense FDG uptake, supporting metastasis. Tissue obtained from the T1 lesion showed no malignant cells but was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. After 18 months of antituberculosis medication, follow-up 18F-FDG PET/CT showed complete normalization of FDG uptake in the skeletal lesions.
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Exposure to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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This study extended and updated a meta-analysis of the association between exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and the risk of breast cancer.
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A Rat Model of Striatonigral Degeneration Generated by Simultaneous Injection of 6-Hydroxydopamine into the Medial Forebrain Bundle and Quinolinic Acid into the Striatum.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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A double toxin-double lesion strategy is well-known to generate a rat model of striatonigral degeneration (SND) such as multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type. However, with this model it is difficult to distinguish SND from Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we propose a new rat model of SND, which is generated by simultaneous injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle and quinolinic acid into the striatum. Stepping tests performed 30 min after intraperitoneal L-dopa administration at 6 weeks post-surgery revealed an L-dopa response in the PD group but not the SND group. Apomorphine-induced rotation tests revealed no rotational bias in the SND group, which persisted for 2 months, but contralateral rotations in the PD group. MicroPET scans revealed glucose hypometabolism and dopamine transporter impairment on the lesioned striatum in the SND group. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining in the SND group revealed that 74.7% of nigral cells on the lesioned side were lost after lesion surgery. These results suggest that the proposed simultaneous double toxin-double lesion method successfully created a rat model of SND that had behavioral outcomes, multitracer microPET evaluation, and histological aspects consistent with SND pathology. This model will be useful for future study of SND.
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Thymidine phosphorylase influences [(18)F]fluorothymidine uptake in cancer cells and patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleoside salvage pathway, catalyses the reversible phosphorylation of thymidine, thereby generating thymine and 2-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate. By regulating the levels of endogenous thymidine, TP may influence [(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) uptake. We investigated the effect of TP activity on [(18)F]FLT uptake by tumours.
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An unusual prenatal manifestation of a huge congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation with favorable perinatal outcome.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a rare condition which is easily detectable by prenatal ultrasonography. Fetuses with large CCAMs associating with hydrops are predisposed to perinatal mortality, therefore prenatal intervention is required. While macrocystic CCAM is treated prenatally by thoracentesis or thoraco-amniotic shunt, microcystic or mixed CCAM is difficult to manage in the fetus. In these latter lesions, fetal lobectomy, sclerotherapy, or laser ablation was used to treat lesions directly. We present an unusual prenatal case of mixed CCAM associating with hydrops and marked ascites, which was conservatively managed with prenatal abdomino-amniotic shunting and successfully treated by postnatal surgery.
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Role of dopamine D2 receptors in optimizing choice strategy in a dynamic and uncertain environment.
Front Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In order to investigate roles of dopamine receptor subtypes in reward-based learning, we examined choice behavior of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-knockout (D1R-KO and D2R-KO, respectively) mice in an instrumental learning task with progressively increasing reversal frequency and a dynamic two-armed bandit task. Performance of D2R-KO mice was progressively impaired in the former as the frequency of reversal increased and profoundly impaired in the latter even with prolonged training, whereas D1R-KO mice showed relatively minor performance deficits. Choice behavior in the dynamic two-armed bandit task was well explained by a hybrid model including win-stay-lose-switch and reinforcement learning terms. A model-based analysis revealed increased win-stay, but impaired value updating and decreased value-dependent action selection in D2R-KO mice, which were detrimental to maximizing rewards in the dynamic two-armed bandit task. These results suggest an important role of dopamine D2 receptors in learning from past choice outcomes for rapid adjustment of choice behavior in a dynamic and uncertain environment.
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Mortality from and incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea: findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9%) and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea.
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Proteinticle Engineering for Accurate 3D Diagnosis.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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In nature certain proteins are self-assembled inside cells to form nanoscale particles (named "proteinticles") with constant structure and surface topology. Unlike chemically synthesized nanomaterials (e.g., various metal, carbon, and polymer nanoparticles), a variety of functional proteinticles can be easily created through genetic modification of the proteinticle surface, i.e., by adding or inserting specified proteins/peptides to the N- or C-terminus or the internal region of the protein constituent. Here we present proteins/peptides that recognize disease-specific antibodies on the surface of human ferritin based proteinticles for accurate 3D diagnosis of human autoimmune and infectious diseases. The surface display of the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) with native conformation successfully discriminated between autoantibodies to native or denatured MOG, leading to the reliable diagnosis of multiple sclerosis with enhanced accuracy. Also we simultaneously displayed different antigenic peptides from hepatitis C virus (HCV) on the same proteinticle surface with modulating the composition of each peptide. The proteinticles with the heterogeneous peptide surface detected anti-HCV antibodies in patient sera with 100% accuracy. The proposed method of proteinticle engineering can be applied in general to the sensitive and specific diagnosis of many other human diseases.
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Depressor muscle division through a subbrow excision for the improvement of brow ptosis.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The aim of this study was to introduce a technique of dividing forehead depressor muscles with a subbrow excision for improvement of brow ptosis or redundant upper eyelid skin and glabella wrinkles. Upper incisions were designed at the lower limit of the eyebrow with a lateral extension along the eyebrow curvature. After measuring the redundant upper eyelid skin, the excess skin was excised. The orbital part of the orbicularis oculi muscle was identified and split longitudinally. The forehead depressor muscles (depressor supercilii, oblique and transverse head of corrugator, and medial part of orbicularis oculi) in the brow fat pad were identified and avulsed. In the patients who have a lowered brow, the brow was elevated and fixed to the underlying periosteum about 1 cm above the superior orbital rim after subgaleal dissection. During the dissection, the supraorbital nerve was preserved. Preaponeurotic fat was transferred and sutured between the cut stumps of the corrugator and procerus. The 78 patients (19 men, 60 women; age range, 41-72 years [mean, 52.0 ± 7.1 years]) were operated on. The follow-up periods ranged from 3 to 48 months. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were taken, and the following evaluations were conducted by 1 surgeon via a Likert scale (1 = not improved, 2 = slightly improved, 3 = somewhat improved, 4 = much improved, 5 = markedly improved). The mean score for improvement of the glabella frowns in contraction was 3.7 ± 1.6. The mean score for the improvement of the glabella frowns in relaxation was 4.1 ± 1.3. The mean score for improvement of drooping eyelids was 4.7 ± 0.5. The mean score for the improvement of forehead wrinkles was 4.8 ± 0.7. We improved brow ptosis, redundant upper eyelid skin, and glabella wrinkles simultaneously using a subbrow excision and depressor muscle division while preserving the superficial branch of the supraorbital nerve.
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Graded Otx2 activities demonstrate dose-sensitive eye and retina phenotypes.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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In the human, mutations of OTX2 (Orthodenticle homeobox 2 transcription factor) translate into eye malformations of variable expressivity (even between the two eyes of the same individual) and incomplete penetrance, suggesting the existence of subtle thresholds in OTX2 activity. We have addressed this issue by analyzing retinal structure and function in six mutant mice with graded Otx2 activity: Otx2(+/+), Otx2(+/AA), Otx2(+/GFP), Otx2(AA/AA), Otx2(AA/GFP) and Otx2(GFP/GFP). Null mice (Otx2(GFP/GFP)) fail to develop the head and are embryonic lethal, and compound heterozygous Otx2(AA/GFP) mice show a truncated head and die at birth. All other genotypes develop until adulthood. We analyzed eye structure and visual physiology in the genotypes that develop until adulthood and report that phenotype severity parallels Otx2 activity. Otx2(+/AA) are only mildly affected whereas Otx2(+/GFP) are more affected than Otx2(+/AA) but less than Otx2(AA/AA) mice. Otx2(AA/AA) mice later manifest the most severe defects, with variable expressivity. Electrophysiological and histological analyses of the mouse retina revealed progressive death of bipolar cells and cone photoreceptors that is both Otx2 activity- and age-dependent with the same ranking of phenotypic severity. This study demonstrates the importance of gene dosage in the development of age-dependent pathologies and underscores the fact that small gene dosage differences can cause significant pathological states.
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Photoresponsive fluorescent reduced graphene oxide by spiropyran conjugated hyaluronic acid for in vivo imaging and target delivery.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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This present article demonstrates the strategy to prepare photoresponsive reduced graphene oxide with mussel inspired adhesive material dopamine (DN) and photochromic dye spiropyran (SP) conjugated to the backbone of the targeting ligand hyaluronic acid (HA; HA-SP). Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced by prepared HA-SP accepting the advantages of catechol chemistry under mildly alkaline condition enabling to achieve functionalized graphene (rGO/HA-SP) as fluorescent nanoparticles. Due to containing HA, rGO/HA-SP can bind to the CD44 cell receptors. The prepared rGO/HA-SP is able to retain its photochromic features and can be converted to merocyanine (MC) form upon irradiation with UV light (wavelength: 365 nm) displaying purple color. Photochromic behavior of rGO/HA-SP was monitored by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. In vitro fluorescence behavior, examined by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), of rGO/HA-SP in cancerous A549 cell lines assured that efficient delivery of rGO/HA-SP was gained due to HA as targeting ligand. In this work, we have shown that in vivo fluorescence image of spiropyran is possible by administrating MC form solution of rGO/HA-SP using Balb/C mice as in vivo modal. Accumulation of rGO/HA-SP in tumor tissue from biodistribution analysis strongly supports the specific delivery of prepared graphene to the target destination. The well tuned drug release manner from the surface of rGO/HA-SP strongly recommends the developed material not only as fluorescent probe for diagnosis but also as a drug carrier in drug delivery system.
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A Case of Myocarditis Following Neonatal Meningitis Caused by Coxsackievirus B1 in Spite of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Enteroviral infection is one of the most common neonatal infections, and most patients recover without complications. This report describes a neonate who experienced meningitis followed by myocarditis. A 4-day-old boy was admitted with fever, diagnosed with enteroviral meningitis and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). However, myocarditis was subsequently diagnosed in spite of IVIG treatment, and coxsackievirus B1 (CXB1) was revealed as a cause. A left ventricular aneurysm persisted even though the patient recovered with repeated high-dose IVIG treatment and cardiac supportive care. This report describes a rare case where myocarditis developed several days after a diagnosis of CXB1 meningitis in spite of IVIG treatment. It is important to pay attention to the patients clinical condition until the end of the second viremia of enterovirus and to consider high-dose IVIG treatment when treating enteroviral infections for neonates.
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Target delivery and cell imaging using hyaluronic acid-functionalized graphene quantum dots.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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This work demonstrates the way to achieve efficient and target specific delivery of a graphene quantum dot (GQD) using hyaluronic acid (HA) (GQD-HA) as a targeting agent. HA has been anchored to a GQD that accepts the fascinating adhesive properties of the catechol moiety, dopamine hydrochloride, conjugated to HA, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a particle size of ?20 nm, and the fluorescence spectra revealed significant fluorescence intensity even after the anchoring of HA. The prepared GQD-HA was applied to CD44 receptor overexpressed tumor-bearing balb/c female mice, and the in vivo biodistribution investigation demonstrated more bright fluorescence from the tumor tissue. In vitro cellular imaging, via a confocal laser scanning microscope, exhibited strong fluorescence from CD44 overexpressed A549 cells. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed the effectiveness of using HA as targeting molecule. The loading and release kinetics of the hydrophobic drug doxorubicin from a GQD under mildly acidic conditions showed that a GQD can be considered as a novel drug carrier, while the nontoxic behavior from the MTT assay strongly supports the identification of GQD-HA as a biocompatible material.
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Assessing the scale of resource recovery for centralized and satellite wastewater treatment.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Wastewater treatment to recover water, energy, and other resources is largely carried out at centralized treatment facilities. An alternative is local treatment at satellite facilities where wastewater is removed from a collection system, resources are recovered locally, and the residuals are returned to the collection system. Satellite systems decrease the pipe and energy required for delivery of treated water and may decrease cost. But decisions regarding the geographic scale of resource recovery require consideration of many criteria. In this study, we rank water and energy recovery options for a simplified test case at three scale configurations: a centralized configuration and two hybrid configurations. We first choose criteria for decision-making. Quantitative performance metrics are defined for each criterion, weighted, and computed for each configuration. We then rank configurations. Rankings depend upon the decision-making strategy. For our test case, though, several strategies yield the same top-ranked configuration: a hybrid where communities close to the centralized facility use centralized resource recovery; communities far from the centralized facility use satellite resource recovery. Our ranking is sensitive to initial investment cost for satellite treatment. The results underscore the importance of cost-effective treatment systems and of an accurate and comprehensive analysis of design components.
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Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Children in South Korea: Findings from National Health Insurance Claims Data, 2006-2009.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of acute pesticide poisoning among children in South Korea and describe the related epidemiologic characteristics.Methods: We evaluated the age-standardized rates of incidence of pesticide poisoning among children in South Korea from 2006 through 2009 using National Health Insurance claims data.Results: A total of 1232 children aged 0-14 years were identified from the acute pesticide poisoning cases reported across South Korea during the study period. The annual average age-standardized rate of incidence from acute pesticide poisoning was 3.6 per 100 000. The majority of the cases were identified in the categories of the 1-4-year-old age-group (56.5%), outpatients (80.0%), single-day visit to a hospital (70.4%) and summer occurrence (43.3%).Conclusions: Acute pesticide poisoning is prevalent among children in South Korea; therefore, intervention efforts are needed to reduce the cases of pesticide poisoning among children.
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A protein nanofiber hydrogel for sensitive immunoassays.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Amyloid-like protein nanofibers were assembled in vitro using a recombinant protein fusion, with yeast Sup35 and human SSB/La proteins as assembly units, where the length of the nanofibers was mostly between 100 and 400 nm. The protein nanofibers, hereafter referred to as Sup35-based protein nanofiber probes (SuPNPs), were used to sensitively detect anti-SSB/La antibodies [Sjögrens syndrome (SS)-specific marker]. After, the SuPNPs were vinylated and subsequently linked to acrylamide. The polymerization reaction with acrylamide formed a SuPNP-hydrogel with uniform porosity, where the SuPNPs were directly cross-linked to polyacrylamide. Alternatively, biotinylated SuPNPs (bt-SuPNP) were attached to a streptavidin-hydrogel, resulting in the formation of a bt-SuPNP-hydrogel. When both the SuPNP-hydrogel and bt-SuPNP-hydrogel were used as 3D assay platforms for the detection of anti-SSB/La antibodies in a buffer solution, the LODs (limit of detection) were found to be 10 pM for both, showing 100-fold enhancement in sensitivity compared to conventional 2D polystyrene (PS) plate-based assays. It seems that the exposed surface and uniform distribution of the SuPNPs within the 3D space of the porous hydrogel matrix interacted more effectively with the anti-SSB/La antibodies, leading to more sensitive detection. The equal sensitivity demonstrated by the SuPNP- and bt-SuPNP-hydrogels above indicates that the target binding activity of the SuPNPs remains unchanged when either directly cross-linked to the hydrogel or indirectly immobilized to the hydrogel via streptavidin. When used to detect anti-SSB/La antibodies in human serum, the SuPNP-hydrogel is 1000 times more sensitive than a 2D PS plate. It seems that non-specific adsorption of the serum proteins occurs heavily on the 2D PS plate. While diagnostic assays for Sjögrens syndrome were demonstrated as proof-of-concept in this study, the SuPNP-hydrogel can be generally applied for the sensitive and specific detection of many other disease markers.
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Origin of new broad Raman D and G peaks in annealed graphene.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Since graphene, a single sheet of graphite, has all of its carbon atoms on the surface, its property is very sensitive to materials contacting the surface. Herein, we report novel Raman peaks observed in annealed graphene and elucidate their chemical origins by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Graphene annealed in oxygen-free atmosphere revealed very broad additional Raman peaks overlapping the D, G and 2D peaks of graphene itself. Based on the topographic confirmation by AFM, the new Raman peaks were attributed to amorphous carbon formed on the surface of graphene by carbonization of environmental hydrocarbons. While the carbonaceous layers were formed for a wide range of annealing temperature and time, they could be effectively removed by prolonged annealing in vacuum. This study underlines that spectral features of graphene and presumably other 2-dimensional materials are highly vulnerable to interference by foreign materials of molecular thickness.
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A postoperative thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a cardiac surgery patient: a case report.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Although thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disease, when it develops in a post-cardiac surgery patient, it may have a fatal outcome. Since the frequency of early-onset thrombocytopenia in post-cardiac surgery patients is high, platelet concentrates are commonly transfused during postoperative management. However, when TTP is the likely diagnosis, platelet transfusion is not recommended. We experienced a postoperative TTP in a cardiac surgery patient and discovered the importance of identifying the etiology of postoperative thrombocytopenia. Here, we report the case with a brief review of the literature.
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An update of animal models of Alzheimer disease with a reevaluation of plaque depositions.
Exp Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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Animal models of Alzheimer disease (AD) are used to study the mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis, genetic interactions with genes of interest, and environmental risk factors that cause sporadic AD as well as to test the therapeutic effects of AD drug-candidates on neuropathology and cognitive function. To attain a comparative view on the AD models developed, representative AD lines were selected and summarized with respect to transgenic constructs and AD-related pathology. In addition, age-dependent plaque deposition data available in the literature for six representative AD models such as Tg2576, PDAPP, TgAPP23, Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9, 3xTg-AD, and 5XFAD mice were reevaluated using a photographic plaque reference scale method that was introduced recently. Tg2576, PDAPP, and TgAPP23 mice, which carry the amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgene, produced initially slow, but progressively accelerated plaque deposition as they aged, resulting in logistic plaque deposition. In contrast, Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 and 3xTg-AD mice, which carry both APP and PS1 transgenes, developed abruptly accelerated plaque formation from the beginning, resulting in logarithmic plaque deposition. 5XFAD mice, which also carry both the APP and PS1 transgenes, developed a logarithmic deposition beginning at 2 months. This comparative analysis suggests that AD models may be classified into two distinct plaque deposition groups, and that early plaque models such as APPswe/PS1dE9, 3xTg-AD and 5XFAD might be useful to study the biochemical aspects of APP metabolism, whereas late plaque models such as Tg2576, PDAPP, and TgAPP23 might be useful to study more physiological and environmental aspects of AD pathogenesis, which occur on a longer time scale.
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Roseovarius lutimaris sp. nov., isolated from a marine tidal flat.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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A novel Gram-staining-negative, moderately halophilic and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain 112(T), was isolated from a tidal flat at Taean, Korea. Cells were catalase- and oxidase-positive ovoids to rods and did not produce bacteriochlorophyll a. Optimum growth of strain 112(T) was observed at 30 °C, at pH 6.5-7.5 and in the presence of 2-4?% (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18?:?1?7c and/or C18?:?1?6c) and C16?:?0 and Q-10 was detected as the predominant ubiquinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, an unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 112(T) was 58.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 112(T) formed a phyletic lineage within the genus Roseovarius of the class Alphaproteobacteria. Strain 112(T) was most closely related to Roseovarius mucosus DFL-24(T), with 96.52?% similarity. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular properties, strain 112(T) represents a novel species of the genus Roseovarius, for which the name Roseovarius lutimaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 112(T) (?=?KACC 16185(T)?=?JCM 17743(T)).
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Endoscopic submucosal dissection for nonpedunculated submucosal invasive colorectal cancer: is it feasible?
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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There have been no definite indications for additional surgical resection after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of submucosal invasive colorectal cancer (SICC). The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of ESD for nonpedunculated SICC and to determine the need for subsequent surgery after ESD.
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Lymphocyte-mediated macrophage apoptosis during IL-12 stimulation.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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In contrast to the well known immunostimulatory roles of IL-12, little has been known about its immunosuppressive roles. In the present study, IL-12-activated lymphocyte-mediated macrophage apoptosis was investigated by employing murine lymphocyte/macrophage cocultures. IL-12-activated lymphocytes and their culture supernatants induced an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in macrophages. The NO synthesis was markedly inhibited by blocking antibodies to IFN-? and TNF-?, suggesting the key role of these lymphocyte cytokines in mediating the NO synthesis. The endogenously produced NO inhibited macrophage proliferation, and induced apoptosis in concordance with the accumulation of p53, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and DR5, and the activation of caspase-3, processes that were inhibited by N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine, aminoguanidine (NO synthase inhibitors) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (an NO scavenger). These results were further supported by the findings obtained from the experiments employing IFN-?-knockout and iNOS-knockout mice. Our study demonstrated a novel, non-contact-dependent mechanism of macrophage suppression by IL-12-activated lymphocytes: induction of growth inhibition and apoptosis of macrophages due to endogenous NO synthesis induced by cytokines secreted from IL-12-activated lymphocytes.
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Glutamine protects mice from acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD).
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Despite current immunosuppressive therapies, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In the present study, therapeutic effects of intraperitoneal glutamine (Gln) administration (1g/kg/day) in a mouse aGVHD model were evaluated. Gln administration significantly inhibited the GVHD-induced inflammation and tissue injury in the intestine, liver, skin and spleen. Gln therapy improved the score of clinical evidence of aGVHD and prolonged the median survival of aGVHD mice. Gln administration in aGVHD mice increased the fraction of Foxp3+/CD4+/CD25+ cells in the blood measured on day 7, and decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? measured on days 7, 14 and 21 after aGVHD induction. These results demonstrated that Gln administration may be useful in protecting the host from aGVHD.
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Brevibacterium jeotgali sp. nov., isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, non-motile bacterium, designated strain SJ5-8(T), was isolated from seau-jeot (shrimp jeotgal), a traditional fermented seafood in South Korea. Cells were non-spore-forming rods showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of strain SJ5-8(T) was observed at 10-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5-8.5) and in the presence of 0-14% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 5%). Phylogenetic inference based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain formed a tight phyletic lineage with members of the genus Brevibacterium. Strain SJ5-8(T) was most closely related to Brevibacterium yomogidense MN-6-a(T), Brevibacterium daeguense 2C6-41(T) and Brevibacterium salitolerans TRM 415(T) with similarities of 98.9, 97.5 and 97.4%, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain SJ5-8(T) and the type strains of B. yomogidense, B. daeguense and B. salitolerans were 51.7 ± 1.9%, 22.2 ± 4.0% and 52.4 ± 3.8%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic data (major sole isoprenoid quinone, MK-8(H?); major diagnostic diamino acid, meso-diaminopimelic acid; major polyamines, putrescine and cadaverine; major cellular fatty acids, anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(17:0); major polar lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; DNA G+C content, 69.3 mol%) also supported the affiliation of strain SJ5-8(T) to the genus Brevibacterium. Therefore, strain SJ5-8(T) represents a novel species of the genus Brevibacterium, for which the name Brevibacterium jeotgali sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SJ5-8(T) (?=KACC 16911(T)?=JCM 18571(T)).
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Balanced plication of Müller muscle tendon through conjunctiva for blepharoptosis correction.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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We developed a method for plication of the Müller muscle tendon through the conjunctiva for the correction of blepharoptosis.The locations of 5 skin slits were marked according to the double-fold shape requested by patients. The skin at points marked on the eyelid was penetrated for creation of slits measuring 2 to 3 mm in length. After turning the upper eyelid inside out, a 5-0 nylon suture was applied at the upper margin of the central part of the tarsal plate and pulled in the anterioresuperior direction for exposure of the vascular arcades of the superior conjunctiva. A 7-0 white nylon suture was introduced from the most medial slit (first slit) of the upper eyelid to the conjunctiva of the upper tarsal border, then back to the original slit, and tied. The needle was moved to the second slit through the intramuscular plane tunnel and pierced to the conjunctiva of the upper tarsal border. From the upper tarsal border, the needle was inserted into the same opening, involving the Müller muscle, and extracted from the conjunctiva. From here, the needle was inserted in the reverse direction via the upper tarsal border to the second skin slit. Again, the needle was moved to the third slit and the forth slit through the subcutaneous tunnel, and the same procedures were repeated. The needle was then extracted at the fifth slit (the most lateral slit). From here, the needle pierced the conjunctiva of the upper tarsal border, then back to the original slit, like at the first slit. Thereafter, the needle was moved to the forth slit through the subcutaneous tunnel, plicating the Müller muscle, as before. The same procedures were performed at the third and second slit, and the needle finally appeared at the first slit. Thereafter, the 6-0 nylon was tightened.From March 2011 to March 2012, 147 patients underwent an operation (14 males, 133 females; age range, 15-68 years). The mean (SD) width of the palpebral fissure showed an increase from 1.7 (0.5) mm (range, 1.0-2.5 mm). The mean (SD) amount of plication was 8.1 (2.8) mm (range, 4.0-14.0 mm). No significant correlation was observed between the amount of plication and increasing amount of width of the palpebral fissure (P = 0.496, Pearson correlation). Among the 147 patients who underwent an operation, 50 patients (34%) were very satisfied, 61 (41%) were satisfied, 26 (18%) found the results acceptable, and 10 were dissatisfied with the results.We think that our method is a simple and minimally invasive method for the correction of blepharoptosis.
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A rare case of interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma in the nasal cavity.
Case Rep Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is an extremely rare neoplasm that mainly arises from the lymphoid tissues of the immune system. Although this neoplasm typically occurs anywhere along the lymph nodes, it can also be found at extranodal sites, especially in the head and neck. We experienced a rare case of extranodal IDCS in the nasal cavity, a location that has not been previously reported. A 73-year-old woman presented with a polyp-like mass in the nasal cavity and underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. A histologic study confirmed the mass as IDCS by immunohistochemistry with S-100 antibody, and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was administered. Although the incidence is extremely rare, this case suggests that extranodal IDCS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal cavity masses.
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Multicenter phase II study of weekly docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1 (TPS) induction chemotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of weekly docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1 (weekly TPS) as induction chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
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Robot-assisted selective neck dissection of levels II to V via a modified facelift or retroauricular approach.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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We performed robot-assisted selective neck dissection via a modified facelift or retroauricular approach without creating an apparent scar around the neck to remove neck node of levels II to V after transoral robotic surgery of a primary lesion in patients with laryngopharyngeal carcinoma. Patient data were prospectively analyzed to verify the feasibility and efficacy of robot-assisted neck dissection in the treatment of cN0 laryngopharyngeal carcinoma.
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Work-related risk factors by severity for acute pesticide poisoning among male farmers in South Korea.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The objective of this study was to explore work-related risk factors of acute occupational pesticide poisoning among male farmers according to the severity of the poisoning. A nationwide sampling survey of male farmers was conducted in South Korea in 2011. A total of 1,958 male farmers were interviewed. Severity of occupational pesticide poisoning in 2010 was evaluated according to symptoms, types of treatment, and number of pesticide poisoning incidents per individual. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals for risk factors of acute occupational pesticide poisoning. We found that the risk of acute occupational pesticide poisoning increased with lifetime days of pesticide application (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.32-2.29), working a farm of three or more acres in size (OR = 1.49), not wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves (OR = 1.29) or masks (OR = 1.39). Those who engaged in inappropriate work behaviors such as not following pesticide label instructions (OR = 1.61), applying the pesticide in full sun (OR = 1.48), and applying the pesticide upwind (OR = 1.54) had a significantly increased risk of pesticide poisoning. There was no significant risk difference by type of farming. In addition, the magnitude of these risk factors did not differ significantly by severity of acute pesticide poisoning. In fact, our findings suggest that work-related risk factors contributed to the development of acute occupational pesticide poisoning without relation to its severity. Therefore, prevention strategies for reducing occupational pesticide poisoning, regardless of severity, should be recommended to all types of farming and the level of poisoning severity.
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Microbial succession and metabolite changes during long-term storage of Kimchi.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Kimchi is often stored for a long period of time for a diet during the winter season because it is an essential side dish for Korean meals. In this study pH, abundance of bacteria and yeasts, bacterial communities, and metabolites were monitored periodically to investigate the fermentation process of kimchi for 120 d. Bacterial abundance increased quickly with a pH decrease after an initial pH increase during the early fermentation period. After 20 d, pH values became relatively stable and free sugars were maintained at relatively constant levels, indicating that kimchi fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was almost completed. After that time, a decrease in bacterial abundance and a growth in Saccharomyces occurred concurrently with increased free sugar consumption and production of glycerol and ethanol. Finally, after 100 d, the growth of Candida was observed. Community analysis using pyrosequencing revealed that diverse LAB including Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc holzapfelii, Lactococcus lactis, and Weissella soli were present during the early fermentation period, but the LAB community was quickly replaced with Lactobacillus sakei, Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, and Weissella koreensis as the fermentation progressed. Metabolite analysis using (1) H-NMR showed that organic acids (lactate, acetate, and succinate) as well as bioactive substances (mannitol and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)) were produced during the kimchi fermentation, and Leuconostoc strains and Lactobacillus sakei were identified as the producers of mannitol and GABA, respectively.
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Isolation of a BTEX-degrading bacterium, Janibacter sp. SB2, from a sea-tidal flat and optimization of biodegradation conditions.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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An enrichment culture was established using seawater containing BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) compounds to isolate a BTEX-degrading bacterium from contaminated sea-tidal flat. The enriched microbial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA-based DGGE profiling, which indicated that a Janibacter species was dominant during the enrichment. Strain SB2, corresponding to the major band and able to degrade all BTEX compounds, was isolated and characterized. NH4Cl, NaH2PO4, cell mass and BTEX concentrations were used as independent variables to optimize the degradation of BTEX by strain SB2 in a tidal flat and a statistically significant (R(2)=0.8933, p<0.0001) quadratic polynomial mathematical model was suggested. For the initial concentration of 240 mg/L BTEX in a slurry system containing 3.0×10(7) cells/L, 45.5% BTEX removal was observed under the optimum condition of NH4Cl and NaH2PO4, while 32.2% BTEX removal was observed under the untreated condition of NH4Cl and NaH2PO4.
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5-OH-5-nitro-Indirubin oxime (AGM130), an Indirubin derivative, induces apoptosis of Imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Imatinib is a highly effective drug for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) that targets the BCR-ABL kinase. However, a number of patients have CML that is resistant to Imatinib treatment. In this report, we developed AGM130 as a potential therapeutic drug for Imatinib-resistant CML treatment. The AGM130 compound is derived from Indirubin, which is an ingredient of Danggui Longhui Wan and known as a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. The water solubility of AGM130 is more enhanced than that of the original form of Indirubin, which has very poor water solubility. Our data showed that the AGM130 compound efficiently decreased the viability of CML-derived K562 cells. Moreover, this compound also efficiently decreased the viability of Imatinib-resistant K562 cells in in vitro and in vivo systems. In addition, like Indirubin, AGM130 also inhibited phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb), which is a major substrate of CDK. Conclusively, our data suggest that AGM130 is a strong candidate for treating Imatinib-resistant CML.
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20-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, a metabolite of ginseng, inhibits colon cancer growth by targeting TRPC channel-mediated calcium influx.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Abnormal regulation of Ca(2+) mediates tumorigenesis and Ca(2+) channels are reportedly deregulated in cancers, indicating that regulating Ca(2+) signaling in cancer cells is considered as a promising strategy to treat cancer. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which Ca(2+) affects cancer cell death. Here, we show that 20-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (20-GPPD), a metabolite of ginseng saponin, causes apoptosis of colon cancer cells through the induction of cytoplasmic Ca(2+). 20-GPPD decreased cell viability, increased annexin V-positive early apoptosis and induced sub-G1 accumulation and nuclear condensation of CT-26 murine colon cancer cells. Although 20-GPPD-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) played a key role in the apoptotic death of CT-26 cells, LKB1, a well-known upstream kinase of AMPK, was not involved in this activation. To identify the upstream target of 20-GPPD for activating AMPK, we examined the effect of Ca(2+) on apoptosis of CT-26 cells. A calcium chelator recovered 20-GPPD-induced AMPK phosphorylation and CT-26 cell death. Confocal microscopy showed that 20-GPPD increased Ca(2+) entry into CT-26 cells, whereas a transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) blocker suppressed Ca(2+) entry. When cells were treated with a TRPC blocker plus an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium blocker, 20-GPPD-induced calcium influx was completely inhibited, suggesting that the ER calcium store, as well as TRPC, was involved. In vivo mouse CT-26 allografts showed that 20-GPPD significantly suppressed tumor growth, volume and weight in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, 20-GPPD exerts potent anticarcinogenic effects on colon carcinogenesis by increasing Ca(2+) influx, mainly through TRPC channels, and by targeting AMPK.
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