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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Formononetin Attenuates Osteoclastogenesis via Suppressing the RANKL-Induced Activation of NF-?B, c-Fos, and Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells Cytoplasmic 1 Signaling Pathway.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Formononetin (1), a plant-derived phytoestrogen, possesses bone protective properties. To address the potential therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of 1, we investigated its antiosteoclastogenic activity and its effect on nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Compound 1 markedly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in the absence of cytotoxicity, by regulating the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL in BMMs and in cocultured osteoblasts. Compound 1 significantly inhibited RANKL-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in RANKL-induced activation of the NF-?B p65 subunit, degradation of inhibitor ?B? (I?B?), induction of NF-?B, and phosphorylation of AKT, extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). NF-?B siRNA suppressed AKT, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, 1 significantly suppressed c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), key transcription factors during osteoclastogenesis. SP600125, a specific inhibitor of JNK, reduced RANKL-induced expression of phospho-c-Jun, c-Fos, and NFATc1 and inhibited osteoclast formation. These results suggested that 1 acted as an antiresorption agent by blocking osteoclast activation.
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Effectiveness of a New Navigable Percutaneous Disc Decompression Device (L'DISQ) in Patients with Lumbar Discogenic Pain.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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This study is a pilot study to assess the clinical outcomes of percutaneous disc decompression using the L'DISQ in patients with lumbar discogenic pain.
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[Predictors of hospitalization for alcohol use disorder in korean men].
J Korean Acad Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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This study was done to identify the patterns and significant predictors influencing hospitalization of Korean men for alcohol use disorder.
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Clinical significance of intensive endoscopic screening for synchronous esophageal neoplasm in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Abstract Objectives. Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) often develop second primary tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract. Early detection of synchronous esophageal squamous cell neoplasm (ESCN) is important because the prognosis of HNSCC can be affected by the statuses of second primary tumors. Methods. In a prospective study, 308 patients with HNSCC were screened for synchronous ESCN between May 2010 and April 2012. All patients underwent conventional white-light endoscopic examination with Lugol chromoendoscopy and narrow band image. Results. The median age was 61 years (range, 26-87 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 4.2:1. Two hundred and thirty-four patients (76.0%) were current or ex-smokers, 207 patients (67.2%) had a history of alcohol consumption and 56 patients (18.2%) had previous history of cancer. Synchronous ESCN was detected in 22 patients (7.1%), and most patients were at an early stage. The locations of index HNSCC in these patients were as follows: hypopharynx (n = 12), larynx (n = 6), oropharynx (n = 2) and oral cavity (n = 2). Synchronous ESCN was detected in 25.5% (12/47) of hypopharyngeal cancer and in 27.8% (15/54) of HNSCC involving the pyriform sinus. Multivariate analysis showed that smoking (current smoker vs. never smoker, Odds Ratio [OR] 8.3, p = 0.028), a history of cancer (OR 5.0, p = 0.002) and pyriform sinus involvement (OR 9.2, p < 0.0001) increased the risk of developing synchronous ESCN. Conclusions. Patients with HNSCC, especially those who are current smokers, have a history of cancer and have pyriform sinus involvement, should undergo intensive endoscopic screening to detect synchronous ESCN.
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The natural clinical course of hemodynamically stable adult moyamoya disease.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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OBJECT Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease and its natural history is still unclear. The authors aimed to investigate the natural course of hemodynamically stable cases of adult MMD, with the analysis of stroke risk factors. METHODS Two hundred forty-one patients were included in this retrospective study. One hundred sixty-six (68.9%) were female, and mean age (± SD) at first visit was 41.3 ± 12.0 years (range 18-69 years). Unilateral involvement was identified in 33 patients, and 19 patients (7.9%) had a family history of MMD. According to the clinical presentations, patients were classified into hemorrhagic (n = 62, 25.7%), ischemic (n = 144, 59.8%), and asymptomatic (n = 35, 14.5%) groups. The mean duration of follow-up was 82.5 ± 62.9 months (range 7.3-347.0 months). RESULTS The annual stroke risk was 4.5%, and the annual risks of rebleeding in the hemorrhagic group and recurrent ischemic events in the ischemic group were 4.3% and 3.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in cumulative stroke risk between the 3 groups (p = 0.461). Risk factors included thyroid disease for overall strokes (HR 2.56, 95% CI 1.16-5.67), initial hemorrhagic presentation for hemorrhagic strokes (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17), and initial ischemic presentation for ischemic strokes (HR 2.69, 95% CI 1.15-6.27). Familial MMD was a common risk factor for all types of stroke. Among the 3 clinical groups, the hemorrhagic group showed the worst clinical status at discharge and at most recent follow-up. Twenty-three patients (9.5%) eventually underwent revascularization surgery. CONCLUSIONS There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of stroke in the different clinical groups; clinical status, however, was most severe in patients with hemorrhagic presentation. In patients who experienced stroke during the follow-up period, the stroke type tended to correspond to their initial presentation. Close follow-up is needed in patients with thyroid disease and a family history of MMD.
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The Safe Delivery of Fractional Ablative Carbon Dioxide Laser Treatment for Acne Scars in Asian Patients Receiving Oral Isotretinoin.
Dermatol Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Because acne scarring is associated with substantially reduced quality of life, early initiation of effective treatment is desirable. In previous reports, isotretinoin treatment was associated with increased scarring after cosmetic procedures, such as laser treatment, dermabrasion, and chemical peeling.
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Polyp Clearance via Operative and Endoscopic Polypectomy in Patients With Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome After Multiple Small Bowel Resections.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disease that manifests as a combination of mucocutaneous pigmentation and gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps that usually cause intussusception and intestinal hemorrhage. We report the case of a 40-year-old male patient who was diagnosed 20 years ago and had previously undergone 3 intestinal resection surgeries. This time, with the use of combined operative and endoscopic polypectomy, more than 100 polyps were removed. This technique is useful for providing a "clean" small intestine that allows the patient a long interval between laparotomies and reduces the complications associated with multiple laparotomies and resections.
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The Difference in Comorbidities and Behavioral Aspects between Internet Abuse and Internet Dependence in Korean Male Adolescents.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents.
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Saccadic Palsy after Cardiac Surgery: Serial Neuroimaging Findings during a 6-Year Follow-Up.
J Clin Neurol
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Patients who develop horizontal and vertical saccadic palsy after cardiac surgery have rarely been described. Although most such patients exhibit distinct neurological deficits, their brain MRI findings are almost normal. In addition, functional neuroimaging of such patients has never been reported.
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[Current issues on the treatment of chronic constipation].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Chronic constipation is a very common clinical problem with its prevalence of up to 14% in the general population. It is not a life-threatening disease, but since patient's satisfaction to the treatment is known to be as low as 50%, chronic constipation still remains a clinically challenging problem. Fortunately, many new treatments have been introduced or are to be introduced in the near future. This article will review the basic concepts and the results of recent studies on the new treatments for chronic constipation.
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Nutritional State of Children in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK): Based on the DPRK Final Report of the National Nutrition Survey 2012.
Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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A nationwide nutrition survey began when the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) requested assistance from international relief organizations in 1997 due to flooding in 1995-1996, followed by the worsening food shortage peak in 1997. According to reported data for the 15 years since the active intervention and assistance from international societies, the malnutrition and mortality rates of children in the DPRK have improved. However, the prevalence of the stunting reported in the latest 2012 report is 27.9%, which is still a moderate-severe level, and worrisome in terms of international standards. In particular, the prevalence in Ryangangdo, which is regarded as the worst region in the DPRK, is 39.6%, which is a very high level of stunting. To alleviate such regional deviation will be a major task for future assistance. In addition, one cannot emphasize too highly the importance of early nutritional assistance for pregnant women and infants, considering that the recovery from stunted growth is low after two years of age, and the aftereffects would continue for the rest of their lives.
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CPEB1 modulates differentiation of glioma stem cells via downregulation of HES1 and SIRT1 expression.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Glioma stemness has been recognized as the most important reason for glioma relapse and drug resistance. Differentiation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) has been implicated as a novel approach to target recurrent glioma. However, the detailed molecular mechanism involved in the differentiation of GSCs has not yet been elucidated. This study identified CPEB1 as the key modulator that induces the differentiation of GSCs at the post-transcriptional level. Gain and loss of function experiments showed that CPEB1 expression reduced sphere formation ability and the expression of stemness markers such as Nestin and Notch. To elucidate the detailed molecular mechanism underlying the action of CPEB1, we investigated the interacting ribonome of the CPEB1 complex using a Ribonomics approach. CPEB1 specifically suppressed the translation of HES1 and SIRT1 by interacting with a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element. The expression profile of CPEB1 negatively correlated with overall survival in glioma patients. Overexpression of CPEB1 decreased the number of GSCs in an orthotopically implanted glioma animal model. These results suggest that CPEB1-mediated translational control is essential for the differentiation of GSCs and provides novel therapeutic concepts for differentiation therapy.
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Clinical features and predictors of clinical outcomes in Korean patients with Crohn's disease: a Korean association for the study of intestinal diseases multicenter study.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Although differences in genetic susceptibility and the clinical features of Crohn's disease (CD) have been reported between Asian and Caucasian patients, the disease course and predictors of CD in Asians remains poorly defined. The study therefore aimed to investigate factors predictive of the clinical outcomes of patients with CD in a Korean population.
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Oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin versus fluorouracil and leucovorin as adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (ADORE): an open-label, multicentre, phase 2, randomised controlled trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer is controversial, especially when used after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy, including fluorouracil and leucovorin, has been widely used; however, the addition of oxaliplatin to fluorouracil and leucovorin (FOLFOX), a standard adjuvant regimen for colon cancer, has not been tested in rectal cancer. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of adjuvant fluorouracil and leucovorin with that of FOLFOX in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
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Gefitinib induces cytoplasmic translocation of the CDK inhibitor p27 and its binding to a cleaved intermediate of caspase 8 in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Cell Oncol (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represents one of the first rationally selected molecules for targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Gefitinib is a reversible and highly selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor that competitively blocks the binding of adenosine triphosphate to its binding site in the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR. It has been found that treatment with gefitinib induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in NSCLC cells harboring activating EGFR mutations. Despite its clinical relevance, however, the mechanism underlying gefitinib-induced apoptosis has remained largely unknown.
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Long-term outcomes after combined revascularization surgery in adult moyamoya disease.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The surgical outcomes of adult moyamoya disease are rarely reported. We aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of combined revascularization surgery in patients with adult moyamoya disease.
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[Differences in the prognosis according to the periods of diagnosis in ulcerative colitis].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Infliximab was approved for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) in 2006 and has recently been used as rescue therapy in steroid-refractory UC. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of medication use and prognosis in UC patients according to the periods of diagnosis.
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Clinicoepidemiological features of asymptomatic moyamoya disease in adult patients.
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The aim of this study was to document the natural course of asymptomatic adult moyamoya disease (MMD) and the factors related to disease progression to aid in treatment decisions.
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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and outcomes of patients treated with first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab for advanced colorectal cancer.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the efficacy of first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy plus bevacizumab and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of angiogenic genes in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC).
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Rubus coreanus Miquel ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairments in ICR mice.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The present study investigated the effect of Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) on scopolamine-induced memory impairments in ICR mice. Mice were orally administrated RCM for 4 weeks and scopolamine was intraperitoneally injected into mice to induce memory impairment. RCM improved the scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. The increase of acetylcholinesterase activity caused by scopolamine was significantly attenuated by RCM treatment. RCM increased the levels of acetylcholine in the brain and serum of mice. The expression of choline acetyltransferase, phospho-cyclic AMP response element-binding protein, and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase was significantly increased within the brain of mice treated with RCM. The brain antioxidant enzyme activity decreased by scopolamine was increased by RCM. These results demonstrate that RCM exerts a memory-enhancing effect via the improvement of cholinergic function and the potentiated antioxidant activity in memory-impaired mice. The results suggest that RCM may be a useful agent for improving memory impairment.
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A pilot study of a novel dual - pulsed 1064 nm Q-switched Nd: YAG laser to treat Riehl's melanosis.
J Cosmet Laser Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Abstract The treatment of Riehl's melanosis is difficult and challenging. Recently, a low-fluence 1064-nm quality (Q)-switched neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd: YAG) laser method, referred to as 'laser toning', has been used in the treatment of melasma in Asian countries. We present here a series of cases of Riehl's melanosis that were treated effectively with a novel Q-switched Nd: YAG laser that was operated as a dual-pulse at half-fluence and 140-?s intervals.
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Human fetal brain-derived neural stem/progenitor cells grafted into the adult epileptic brain restrain seizures in rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Cell transplantation has been suggested as an alternative therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) because this can suppress spontaneous recurrent seizures in animal models. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs) for treating TLE, we transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. In vitro, huNSPCs not only produced all three central nervous system neural cell types, but also differentiated into ganglionic eminences-derived ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and released GABA in response to the depolarization induced by a high K+ medium. NSPC grafting reduced behavioral seizure duration, afterdischarge duration on electroencephalograms, and seizure stage in the kindling model, as well as the frequency and the duration of spontaneous recurrent motor seizures in pilocarpine-induced animals. However, NSPC grafting neither improved spatial learning or memory function in pilocarpine-treated animals. Following transplantation, grafted cells showed extensive migration around the injection site, robust engraftment, and long-term survival, along with differentiation into ?-tubulin III+ neurons (?34%), APC-CC1+ oligodendrocytes (?28%), and GFAP+ astrocytes (?8%). Furthermore, among donor-derived cells, ?24% produced GABA. Additionally, to explain the effect of seizure suppression after NSPC grafting, we examined the anticonvulsant glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels in host hippocampal astrocytes and mossy fiber sprouting into the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the epileptic brain. Grafted cells restored the expression of GDNF in host astrocytes but did not reverse the mossy fiber sprouting, eliminating the latter as potential mechanism. These results suggest that human fetal brain-derived NSPCs possess some therapeutic effect for TLE treatments although further studies to both increase the yield of NSPC grafts-derived functionally integrated GABAergic neurons and improve cognitive deficits are still needed.
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Objective evaluation of the clinical efficacy of fractional radiofrequency treatment for acne scars and enlarged pores in Asian skin.
Dermatol Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Ablative fractional lasers can effectively treat acne scars and enlarged pores, but cause considerable pain and downtime for patients, as well as potentially causing postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), especially in Asian skin.
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[Implementation of ontology-based clinical decision support system for management of interactions between antihypertensive drugs and diet].
J Korean Acad Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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The influence of dietary composition on blood pressure is an important subject in healthcare. Interactions between antihypertensive drugs and diet (IBADD) is the most important factor in the management of hypertension. It is therefore essential to support healthcare providers' decision making role in active and continuous interaction control in hypertension management. The aim of this study was to implement an ontology-based clinical decision support system (CDSS) for IBADD management (IBADDM). We considered the concepts of antihypertensive drugs and foods, and focused on the interchangeability between the database and the CDSS when providing tailored information.
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Suicide in cancer patients within the first year of diagnosis.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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A diagnosis of cancer is associated with an increased suicide risk, and this risk is the highest within the first year of diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine risk factors of suicide occurring within the first year of cancer diagnosis (early suicide).
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TRP14 inhibits osteoclast differentiation via its catalytic activity.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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We previously reported the inhibitory role of thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa (TRP14), a novel disulfide reductase, in nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation, but its biological function has remained to be explored. Here, we evaluated the role of TRP14 in the differentiation and function of osteoclasts (OCs), for which NF-?B and cellular redox regulation have been known to be crucial, using RAW 264.7 macrophage cells expressing wild-type TRP14 or a catalytically inactive mutant, as well as its small interfering RNA. TRP14 depletion enhanced OC differentiation, actin ring formation, and bone resorption, as well as the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). TRP14 depletion promoted the activation of NF-?B, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and p38, the expression of c-Fos, and the consequent induction of nuclear factor of activated T cell, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a key determinant of osteoclastogenesis. However, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine or diphenylene iodonium significantly reduced the OC differentiation, as well as the ROS accumulation and NF-?B activation, that were enhanced by TRP14 depletion. Furthermore, receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced ROS accumulation, NF-?B activation, and OC differentiation were inhibited by the ectopic expression of wild-type TRP14 but not by its catalytically inactive mutant. These results suggest that TRP14 regulates OC differentiation and bone resorption through its catalytic activity and that enhancing TRP14 may present a new strategy for preventing bone resorption diseases.
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Mangiferin reduces the inhibition of chondrogenic differentiation by IL-1? in mesenchymal stem cells from subchondral bone and targets multiple aspects of the Smad and SOX9 pathways.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Mangiferin is a natural immunomodulator found in plants including mango trees. The effects of mangiferin on chondrogenesis and cartilage repair have not yet been reported. This study was designed to determine the effect of mangiferin on chondrogenic differentiation in IL-1?-stimulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from subchondral bone and to explore the mechanisms underlying these effects. MSCs were isolated from the subchondral bone of rabbit and treated with mangiferin alone and/or interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Mangiferin induced chondrogenic differentiation in MSCs by upregulating transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and BMP-4 and several key markers of chondrogenesis, including sex-determining region Y-box (SRY-box) containing gene 9 (SOX9), type 2?1 collagen (Col2?1), cartilage link protein, and aggrecan. In IL-1?-stimulated MSCs, mangiferin significantly reversed the production of TGF-?, BMP-2, BMP-4, SOX9, Col2?1, cartilage link protein, and aggrecan, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-13, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS5). Mangiferin upregulated the phosphorylation of Smad 2, Smad 3, Smad 1/5/8, and SOX9 in IL-1?-stimulated MSCs. In the presence of mangiferin, SOX9 siRNA suppressed the activation of Smad 2, Smad 3, Smad 1/5/8, aggrecan, and Col2?1 expression. In conclusion, mangiferin exhibits both chondrogenic and chondroprotective effects on damaged MSCs and mediates these effects by targeting multiple aspects of the Smad and SOX9 signaling pathways.
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Clinical Significance of Early Detection of Esophageal Cancer in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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The efficacy of surveillance for esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains controversial. Our study aimed to provide clinical data concerning the necessity of surveillance for detecting early ESCN in patients with HNSCC.
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Arginine enhances osteoblastogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis through the regulation of Wnt and NFATc signaling in human mesenchymal stem cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Arginine, an ?-amino acid, has been reported to exert beneficial effects that ameliorate health problems and prevent excessive fat deposition. In this study, we investigated whether the activation of cell signaling by arginine can induce osteogenic differentiation and modulate excessive adipogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Arginine potently induced the expression of type I?1 collagen, osteocalcin, and ALP in a dose-dependent manner without causing cytotoxicity. Arginine significantly increased the mRNA expression of the osteogenic transcription factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), DIx5, and osterix. Furthermore, arginine demonstrated its antiadipogenicity by decreasing adipocyte formation and triglyceride (TG) content in MSCs and inhibiting the mRNA expression of the adipogenic transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4). This effect was associated with increased expression of Wnt5a, and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc), and was abrogated by antagonists of Wnt and NFATc, which indicated a role of Wnt and NFATc signaling in the switch from adipogenesis to osteoblastogenesis induced by arginine. In conclusion, this is the first report of the dual action of arginine in promoting osteogenesis and inhibiting adipocyte formation through involving Wnt5a and NFATc signaling pathway.
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The Standardized BHH10 Extract, a Combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, Reverses Bone Mass and Metabolism in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Jasin-hwan-gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin-hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17?-estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX-induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy. In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide type 1 collagen, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10-treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN-treated or E2-treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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The Combination of irreversible EGFR TKIs and SAHA induces apoptosis and autophagy-mediated cell death to overcome acquired resistance in EGFR T790M-mutated lung cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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To overcome T790M-mediated acquired resistance of lung cancer cells to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs), second generation TKIs such as BIBW2992 (afatinib) and third generation TKIs including WZ4002 have been developed. However, clinical data on their efficacy in treating T790M mutant tumors are lacking. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been reported to arrest cell growth and to lead to differentiation and apoptosis of various cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we assessed whether the combination of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat), a potent HDAC inhibitor, and BIBW2992 or WZ4002 could overcome EGFR TKI resistance associated with T790M mutation in lung cancer cells. While treatment with BIBW2992 or WZ4002 alone slightly reduced the viability of PC-9G and H1975 cells, which possess T790M mutation, combining them with SAHA resulted in significantly decreased cell viability through the activation of the apoptotic pathway. This combination also enhanced autophagy occurrence and inhibition of autophagy significantly reduced the apoptosis induced by the combination treatment, showing that autophagy is required for the enhanced apoptosis. Caspase-independent autophagic cell death was also induced by the combination treatment with SAHA and either BIBW2992 or WZ4002. Finally, the combined treatment with SAHA and either BIBW2992 or WZ4002 showed an enhanced anti-tumor effect on xenografts of H1975 cells in vivo. In conclusion, the combination of new generation EGFR TKIs and SAHA may be a new strategy to overcome the acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs in T790M mutant lung cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Cerebral infarction presenting with unilateral isolated foot drop.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Weakness of the dorsiflexor muscles of the ankle or toe, referred to as foot drop, is a relatively common presentation. In most cases, foot drop is caused by a lower motor neuron disease such as peroneal peripheral neuropathy, L4-5 radiculopathic sciatic neuropathy, or polyneuropathy. Although upper motor neuron lesions can present as foot drop, the incidence is very rare. Here, we report an extremely rare case in which foot drop was the only presenting symptom of cerebral infarction.
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Combined use of a McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope and Frova Intubating Introducer in a patient with Pierre Robin syndrome: a case report.
Korean J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Patients with Pierre Robin syndrome are characterized by micrognathia, retrognathia, glossoptosis, and respiratory obstruction and are prone to have a difficult-to-intubate airway. The McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope provides a better view of the glottis than a Macintosh laryngoscope, but it is not easy to insert an endotracheal tube through the vocal cords because a video laryngoscope has a much greater curvature than that of a conventional direct laryngoscope and an endotracheal tube has a different curvature. The Frova Intubating Introducer is used as a railroad for an endotracheal tube in cases of a difficult airway. We thought that a combination of these two devices would make it easy to insert an endotracheal tube through the vocal cords, as a McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope provides a better glottic view and the Frova Intubating Introducer is a useful device for placing an endotracheal tube through the glottis. We report a successful endotracheal intubation with use of the McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope and Frova Intubating Introducer in a patient with Pierre Robin syndrome.
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Regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 protein stability by gp78-associated endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Triacylglycerol (TG) is the major form of stored energy in eukaryotic organisms and is synthesized by diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). DGAT2, one of the two DGAT enzymes, is barely detectable in cells, even though its mRNA transcripts are maintained at considerable levels. However, little is known about how DGAT2 expression is altered by protein stability. DGAT2 was highly unstable in cells and was rapidly degraded by proteasomes in an ubiquitin-dependent manner. Deletion mutation analysis identified transmembrane domain 1 (TMD1) as a protein degradation signal. TMD1 is also important for ER localization of DGAT2. Moreover, DGAT2 interacted with p97/VCP, a crucial component of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, and polyubiquitinated DGAT2 accumulated following treatment with an ERAD inhibitor. Furthermore, gp78, an E3 ligase involved in ERAD, regulates the degradation of DGAT2 through direct interactions and ubiquitination. Consequently, the stabilization of DGAT2 increased the number of lipid droplets in hepatic cells. Therefore, DGAT2 is regulated by gp78-associated ERAD at the post-translational level.
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Clinical practice guidelines for the medical and surgical management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage in Korea.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The purpose of this clinical practice guideline (CPG) is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the medical and surgical management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Since the release of the first Korean CPGs for stroke, evidence has been accumulated in the management of ICH, such as intracranial pressure control and minimally invasive surgery, and it needs to be reflected in the updated version. The Quality Control Committee at the Korean Society of cerebrovascular Surgeons and the Writing Group at the Clinical Research Center for Stroke (CRCS) systematically reviewed relevant literature and major published guidelines between June 2007 and June 2013. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence and the grade of the recommendation were determined using the methods adapted from CRCS. A draft guideline was scrutinized by expert peer reviewers and also discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. CPGs based on scientific evidence are presented for the medical and surgical management of patients presenting with primary ICH. This CPG describes the current pertinent recommendations and suggests Korean recommendations for the medical and surgical management of a patient with primary ICH.
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Modified protection using far proximal portion of self-expandable closed-cell stents for embolization of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Stent-assisted embolization is sometimes limited in wide-necked aneurysms involving the acute-angled origins of tortuous branching arteries, and occasionally, Y-shaped stenting is required to remedy the sweeping effects of a broad aneurysmal neck on arterial branches. Described herein is a modified stent-assisted coil embolization technique entailing strategic placement of far proximal stent ("distal stenting") as an alternate approach in such scenarios.
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Surgical recanalization of distal middle cerebral artery occlusion due to a coil migration during endovascular coil embolization: a case report.
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Coil migration into the parent artery during endovascular coil embolization is a rare, but life-threatening complication, which can induce thromboembolism and result in poor outcome. A 63-year-old man was referred to Chonbuk National University Hospital emergency center due to migration of a coil for a left middle cerebral artery bifurcation unruptured aneurysm. We performed an emergency craniectomy to remove the coil migrated to the distal M2 branch and thrombus, and aneurysmal neck clipping for his aneurysm. Fortunately, at the six month follow-up, the patient did not show any noticeable neurological sequela. In case of parent artery occlusion due to coil migration an immediate recanalization should be performed by a neurovascular specialist who can provide both surgical treatment and endovascular management in order to prevent severe sequela or even death.
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Rosiglitazone inhibits chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis via modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in SH-SY5Y cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Oxidative stress can lead to expression of inflammatory transcription factors, which are important regulatory elements in the induction of inflammatory responses. One of the transcription factors, nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-?B) plays a significant role in the inflammation regulatory process. Inflammatory cell death has been implicated in neuronal cell death in some neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis initiated by chlorpyrifos (CPF)-mediated oxidative stress. Based on the cytotoxic mechanism of CPF, we examined the neuroprotective effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?) agonist, against CPF-induced neuronal cell death. The treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CPF induced oxidative stress. In addition, CPF activated the p38, JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and induced increases in the inflammatory genes such as COX-2 and TNF-?. CPF also induced nuclear translocation of NF-?B and inhibitors of NF-?B abolished the CPF-induced COX-2 expression. Pretreatment with RGZ significantly reduced ROS generation and enhanced HO-1 expression in CPF-exposed cells. RGZ blocked the activation of both p38 and JNK signaling, while ERK activation was strengthened. RGZ also attenuated CPF-induced cell death through the reduction of NF-?B-mediated proinflammatory factors. Results from this study suggest that RGZ may exert an anti-apoptotic effect against CPF-induced cytotoxicity by attenuation of oxidative stress as well as inhibition of the inflammatory cascade via inactivation of signaling by p38 and JNK, and NF-?B.
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Nuclear NF-?B contributes to chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis through p53 signaling in human neural precursor cells.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides with several harmful effects, including neurotoxicity. Although many studies have addressed the neurotoxicity induced by CPF, most data on neurodevelopmental damage was obtained from animal models. We are the first group to use human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a developing neuron model to evaluate the mechanisms involved in CPF-induced neurotoxicity. CPF was cytotoxic to these cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as shown by decreased cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase release. Furthermore, CPF reduced the expression of AKT and ERK proteins which are involved in intracellular survival pathways. Exposure of hNPCs to CPF led to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the antioxidant N-acetyl-cystein (NAC) attenuated ROS production induced by CPF. In addition, CPF increased cytochrome c release into the cytosol and activated caspase-9 and -3, indicating that cell death induced by CPF was due to apoptosis in hNPCs. Consistent with these findings, CPF treatment reduced the level of Bcl-2 protein and increased the level of Bax protein. Especially, CPF increased the translocation of BAX into the mitochondria. CPF also induced nuclear accumulation of NF-?B and p53 proteins in a concentration-dependent manner, and their inhibitors attenuated CPF-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, an inhibitor of NF-?B nuclear translocation blocked the increase of p53 in CPF-treated hNPCs. These findings show that CPF induced hNPCs death in part through NF-?B activation via ROS generation, enabling the interaction of p53 with Bcl-2 and Bax and subsequent release of cytochrome c. Collectively, these results represent a unique molecular characterization of CPF-induced cytotoxicity in hNPCs. These data suggest that CPF may affect neurodevelopment in a manner similar to that of several known and suspected neurotoxicants.
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Meta-analysis of first-line triple therapy for helicobacter pylori eradication in Korea: is it time to change?
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy consisting of PPI, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, is the recommended first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the eradication rate of triple therapy has declined over the past few decades. We analyzed the eradication rate and adverse events of triple therapy to evaluate current practices in Korea. A comprehensive literature search was performed up to August 2013 of 104 relevant studies comprising 42,124 patients. The overall eradication rate was 74.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.1%-77.2%) by intention-to-treat analysis and 82.0% (95% CI, 80.8%-83.2%) by per-protocol analysis. The eradication rate decreased significantly from 1998 to 2013 (P < 0.001 for both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses). Adverse events were reported in 41 studies with 8,018 subjects with an overall incidence rate of 20.4% (95% CI, 19.6%-21.3%). The available data suggest that the effectiveness of standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication has decreased to an unacceptable level. A novel therapeutic strategy is warranted to improve the effectiveness of first-line treatment for H. pylori infection in Korea.
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Roles of Long Non-Coding RNAs on Tumorigenesis and Glioma Development.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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More than 98% of eukaryotic tanscriptomes are composed of non-coding RNAs with no functional protein-coding capacity. Those transcripts also include tens of thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are emerging as key elements of cellular homeostasis, essentially tumorigenesis steps. However, we are only beginning to understand the nature and extent of the involvement of lncRNAs on tumorigeneis. Here, we highlight recent progresses that have identified a myriad of molecular functions on tumorigenesis for several lncRNAs including metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), prostate cancer associated non-coding RNA 1 (PRNCR1), prostate cancer gene expression marker 1 (PCGEM1), H19, and homeobox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), and several new lncRNAs for glioma development. Potential therapeutic approaches for the lncRNAs in various human diseases are also discussed.
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Predictors of Urgent Findings on Abdominopelvic CT in Patients with Crohn's Disease Presenting to the Emergency Department.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are frequently exposed to diagnostic radiation, mainly as a result of abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) examinations. However, there are limited data on the impact of APCT on clinical management in this population.
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Long-term clinical outcomes of korean patient with Crohn's disease following early use of infliximab.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Several recent studies have reported that the early use of infliximab (IFX) improves the prognosis of Crohn's disease (CD). However, no data are available from Asian populations, as the forementioned studies have all been conducted in Western countries. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of early use of IFX on the prognosis of Korean patients with CD.
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Noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B viral infection using magnetic resonance elastography.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
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The effect of infliximab on patients with ulcerative colitis in Korea.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Infliximab was introduced recently as a rescue therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC) patients refractory to conventional treatments such as therapy with 5-amiono salicylic acids (5-ASA), immune modulators, and corticosteroids. However, there is insufficient data about its efficacy and safety in Korea.
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Constipation misperception is associated with gender, marital status, treatment utilization and constipation symptoms experienced.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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It is essential that clinicians have an understanding of patients' perceptions of constipation as well as constipation mis-perception (CM), which can be defined as failure to recognize the six constipation symptoms (infrequency, straining, hard stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction or manual maneuver). The aims of our study were to identify the prevalence of CM and its association with demographics and clinical features.
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Proactive approaches to successful aging: one clear path through the forest.
Gerontology
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The importance of successful aging is increasingly acknowledged in the field of gerontology. In this paper we contribute to ongoing efforts to clarify and operationalize this concept by presenting our revised Comprehensive Preventive Corrective Proactive (PCP) model that builds on relevant research traditions, our prior formulations and accumulating research evidence based on testing this model. Recognizing biopsychosocial challenges and contextual stressors that are normative for older individuals, we emphasize the critical role of proactive behavioral adaptations in ameliorating the adverse effects of stressors. We argue that competent actions to address age-related changes and stressors are necessary to achieve positive quality-of-life outcomes. We propose that future research may benefit from employing more complex methodological approaches and data analytic tools.
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Update on the evidence regarding maintenance therapy.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Maintenance therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic paradigm for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Maintenance therapy that aims to sustain a clinically favorable state after first-line chemotherapy has two strategies. Switch maintenance therapy entails switching to a new and non-cross-resistant agent in an alternating or sequential manner, on completion of first-line chemotherapy. Continuous maintenance therapy keeps ongoing administration of a component of the current regimen after four to six cycles of chemotherapy, if there is a stable disease, or better response. Both maintenance therapies can be continued, until disease progression. The potential evidence regarding maintenance therapy includes providing the opportunity to receive additional treatment, through sustaining tumor shrinkage, and delayed emergence of tumor-related symptom. Thus far, debates over the parameters used to predict the effectiveness of maintenance therapy, financial burden, and uncertainty of improving the quality of life exist. Despite many debates, maintenance therapy, which is currently recommended, has been disclosed to be beneficial.
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PET/CT planning during chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer.
Radiat Oncol J
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To evaluate the usefulness of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for field modification during radiotherapy in esophageal cancer.
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An arteriovenous malformation in the jejunum mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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A 51-year-old man visited the tertiary-care hospital with a 2-week history of dizziness and dyspnea on exertion. The initial hemoglobin level was 5.8 g/dL, without any history of hematochezia or melena. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was normal. During colonoscopic preparation, the patient experienced hematochezia and became hypotensive. On angiography, no extravasation of contrast media was observed. A CT scan with angiography showed a small high-density area in the jejunal lumen, suggesting extravasation of the contrast media. Capsule endoscopy was performed, and oozing bleeding was suspected in the proximal to mid jejunum. The patient was referred to our hospital. Repeated EGD and CT enterography did not reveal any significant bleeding. An antegrade double balloon endoscopy was performed, and an approximately 2-cm-sized submucosal tumor with ulceration and a non-bleeding exposed vessel was observed in the mid jejunum. The presumed diagnosis was jejunal gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The mass was surgically resected, and the final histopathological diagnosis was arterio-venous malformation.
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[Usefulness of polyp and adenoma detection rate in the proximal and distal colon].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The polyp detection rate (PDR) has been suggested as a surrogate for adenoma detection rate (ADR). The purpose of this study was to determine the level of agreement between PDR and ADR in the proximal and distal colon.
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Pneumonia after endoscopic resection for gastric neoplasm.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Pneumonia following endoscopic procedures may affect the clinical course and prolong hospital stay.
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The spot sign predicts hematoma expansion, outcome, and mortality in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) medically treated at our institution to determine if the CT angiography (CTA) 'spot sign' predicts in-hospital mortality and clinical outcome at 3 months in patients with spontaneous ICH.
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Sodium Picosulfate with Magnesium Citrate (SPMC) Plus Laxative Is a Good Alternative to Conventional Large Volume Polyethylene Glycol in Bowel Preparation: A Multicenter Randomized Single-Blinded Trial.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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We investigated whether sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate (SPMC) plus bisacodyl compares favorably with conventional polyethylene glycol (PEG) with respect to bowel cleansing adequacy, compliance, and safety.
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Increased risk of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children with atopic sensitization and asthma.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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A nationwide outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MP) refractory to macrolide antibiotics occurred in Korea during 2011. Steroid therapy has been reported to be both efficacious and well tolerated in pediatric patients with refractory MP. We compared clinical features and laboratory characteristics between children with refractory MP requiring steroid treatment and those with macrolide-responsive MP and evaluated the risk factors associated with refractory MP.
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Expression of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein-I (CRABP-I) in the cerebrospinal fluid of adult onset moyamoya disease and its association with clinical presentation and postoperative haemodynamic change.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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The elevation of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein-I (CRABP-I) has been suggested as a candidate in the pathogenesis of paediatric moyamoya disease (MMD). However, few studies have addressed CRABP-I in adult onset MMD. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of CRABP-I in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adult onset MMD, and to evaluate its association with clinical presentation and postoperative haemodynamic change.
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Smooth-muscle progenitor cells isolated from patients with moyamoya disease: novel experimental cell model.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Object Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease affecting bilateral internal carotid termini. Smooth-muscle cells are one of the major cell types involved in this disease process. The characteristics of circulating smooth-muscle progenitor cells (SPCs) in MMD are poorly understood. The authors purified SPCs from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD and sought to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SPCs from these patients. Methods The authors cultured and isolated SPCs from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD (n = 25) and healthy control volunteers (n = 22). After confirmation of the cellular phenotype, RNA was extracted from the cells and DEGs were identified using a commercially available gene chip. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the putative pathogenetic DEGs. Results The SPC-type outgrowth cells in patients with MMD invariably showed a hill-and-valley appearance under microscopic examination, and demonstrated high ?-smooth muscle actin, myosin heavy chain, and calponin expression (96.5% ± 2.1%, 42.8% ± 18.6%, and 87.1% ± 8.2%, respectively), and minimal CD31 expression (less than 1%) on fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. The SPCs in the MMD group tended to make more irregularly arranged and thickened tubules on the tube formation assay. In the SPCs from patients with MMD, 286 genes (124 upregulated and 162 downregulated) were differentially expressed; they were related to cell adhesion, cell migration, immune response, and vascular development. Conclusions With adequate culture conditions, SPCs could be established from the peripheral blood of patients with MMD. These cells showed specific DEGs compared with healthy control volunteers. This study provides a novel experimental cell model for further research of MMD.
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Clinical characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer patients who experienced acquired resistance during gefitinib treatment.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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The NSCLC patients who experienced good clinical responses to an EGFR-TKI will inevitably develop acquired resistance. A great deal of research is being carried out to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance. In comparison, few studies have been conducted to find out about the clinical characteristics of acquired resistance in the patients who had responded to an EGFR-TKI. Herein we investigated clinical characteristics of NSCLC patients who experienced acquired resistance during gefitinib therapy.
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Contralateral progression and its risk factor in surgically treated unilateral adult moyamoya disease with a review of pertinent literature.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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The fate of the contralateral unaffected side of the surgically treated unilateral moyamoya disease (MMD) in adults has not been well described due to the limited number of cases and the heterogeneous ages and treatment methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contralateral angiographic progression rate and its risk factors in homogeneous adult MMD patients who underwent surgical revascularization, with a review of pertinent literature.
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Multi-center study regarding the risk factors for bleeding in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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In spite of several case reports about gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) complicated with hemorrhage, study regarding the risk factors of bleeding in this tumor is scanty. Therefore, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of bled GISTs and tried to find risk factors of bleeding by comparing with non-bled cases.
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Genetic Variations of ? -Methylacyl-CoA Racemase Are Associated with Sporadic Prostate Cancer Risk in Ethnically Homogenous Koreans.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Background. To assess if the variants of (R)-alpha-methyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) gene would be associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer in ethnically homogenous Koreans. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 194 patients with prostate cancer and 169 healthy controls. A total of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the AMACR gene were selected. The distribution of each genotype and haplotype was analyzed and their association with the incidence of prostate cancer was evaluated. Further, we detected AMACR expression in tumor with immunohistochemistry and analyzed its association with genotype regarding prostate cancer risk. Results. AG or GG genotype of rs2278008 (E277K) tended to lower prostate cancer risk. The minor G allele was found to be a significant allele that decreased the risk of prostate cancer (adjusted OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.93, P value = 0.025). In patients expression AMACR, AG or GG genotype was also significant genotype in terms of prostate cancer risk (adjusted OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26-0.87, P value = 0.017). Further, [GGCGG] haplotype consisted of five coding SNPs of rs2278008, rs34677, rs2287939, rs10941112, and rs3195676 which decreased the risk of prostate cancer (P value = 0.047). Conclusions. Genetic variations of AMACR are associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer that underwent radical prostatectomy in Koreans.
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Potential autophagy enhancers protect against fipronil-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Oxidative stress created by environmental toxicants activates several signaling pathways. Autophagy is one of the first lines of defense against oxidative stress damage. The autophagy pathway can be induced and up-regulated in response to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, we reported that fipronil (FPN)-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is mediated through ROS in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, we explored the role of autophagy to prevent FPN neurotoxicity. We investigated the modulation of FPN-induced apoptosis according to autophagy regulation. FPN activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and induced nuclear fragmentation and condensation, all of which indicate that FPN-induced cell death was due to apoptosis. In addition, we observed FPN-induced autophagic cell death by monitoring the expression of LC3-II and Beclin-1. Exposure to FPN in SH-SY5Y cells led to the production of ROS. Treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) effectively blocked both apoptosis and autophagy. Interestingly, pretreatment with rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, significantly enhanced the viability of FPN-exposed cells; the enhancement of cell viability was partially due to alleviation of FPN-induced apoptosis via a decrease in levels of cleaved caspase-3. However, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3MA) a specific inhibitor for autophagy, remarkably strengthened FPN toxicity and further induced activation of caspase-3 in these cells. Our studies suggest that FPN-induced cytotoxicity is modified by autophagy regulation and that rapamycin is neuroprotective against FPN-induced apoptosis through enhancing autophagy.
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Quantifying exposure to diagnostic radiation and factors associated with exposure to high levels of radiation in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Several recent studies have revealed that diagnostic imaging can result in exposure to potentially harmful levels of ionizing radiation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, these studies have been conducted exclusively in Western countries, and no data are available in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic radiation exposure in Korean patients with IBD and to determine the factors associated with high radiation exposure.
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Attachment of alginate microcapsules onto plasma-treated PDMS sheet for retrieval after transplantation.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Although transplantation of microencapsulated islets has been proposed as a therapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, limited retrievability of the cells has impeded its medical usage. To achieve retrieval of microencapsulated islets, capsules were attached to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a biocompatible adhesive. Because the hydrophobic nature of the PDMS surface prevents attachment, surface modification is essential. Alginate microcapsules were attached to modified PDMS sheets, and the mechanical stability of the resulting constructs was determined. Acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AM) mixtures were grafted on the surfaces of PDMS sheets using a two-step oxygen plasma treatment (TSPT). TSPT-PDMS was characterized according to water contact angle and zeta-potential measurements. The contact angle was altered by changing the ratio of AM to AA to generate hydrophilic surface. Evaluation of the surface charge at pH 2, 7, and 12 confirmed the presence of polar groups on the modified surface. Microcapsules were attached to TSPT-PDMS using Histoacryl® and shown to be in a monolayered and half-exposed state. The shear stress resistance of alginate capsules attached to the PDMS sheet indicates the possibility of transplantation of encapsulated cells without scattering in vivo. This method is applicable to retrieve microencapsulated porcine islets when required.
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Endovascular management for retreatment of postsurgical intracranial aneurysms.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Incomplete surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms and recurrent postsurgical aneurysms are associated with a risk of rebleeding, and additional treatment is generally recommended. Surgical retreatment may carry a risk of procedural complications due to technical difficulty. We present here our experience with the endovascular approach for the retreatment of intracranial aneurysms that were initially treated with open surgery.
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Prognostic significance of tumor response as assessed by sequential 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography during concurrent chemoradiation therapy for cervical cancer.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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To investigate the prognostic role of metabolic response by the use of serial sets of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with cervical cancer who were treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT).
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Cartilage Protective and Chondrogenic Capacity of WIN-34B, a New Herbal Agent, in the Collagenase-Induced Osteoarthritis Rabbit Model and in Progenitor Cells from Subchondral Bone.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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We sought to determine the cartilage repair capacity of WIN-34B in the collagenase-induced osteoarthritis rabbit model and in progenitor cells from subchondral bone. The cartilage protective effect of WIN-34B was measured by clinical and histological scores, cartilage area, and proteoglycan and collagen contents in the collagenase-induced osteoarthritis rabbit model. The efficacy of chondrogenic differentiation of WIN-34B was assessed by expression of CD105, CD73, type II collagen, and aggrecan in vivo and was analyzed by the surface markers of progenitor cells, the mRNA levels of chondrogenic marker genes, and the level of proteoglycan, GAG, and type II collagen in vitro. Oral administration of WIN-34B significantly increased cartilage area, and this was associated with the recovery of proteoglycan and collagen content. Moreover, WIN-34B at 200?mg/kg significantly increased the expression of CD105, CD73, type II collagen, and aggrecan compared to the vehicle group. WIN-34B markedly enhanced the chondrogenic differentiation of CD105 and type II collagen in the progenitor cells from subchondral bone. Also, we confirmed that treatment with WIN-34B strongly increased the number of SH-2(CD105) cells and expression type II collagen in subchondral progenitor cells. Moreover, WIN-34B significantly increased proteoglycan, as measured by alcian blue staining; the mRNA level of type II ? 1 collagen, cartilage link protein, and aggrecan; and the inhibition of cartilage matrix molecules, such as GAG and type II collagen, in IL-1 ? -treated progenitor cells. These findings suggest that WIN-34B could be a potential candidate for effective anti-osteoarthritic therapy with cartilage repair as well as cartilage protection via enhancement of chondrogenic differentiation in the collagenase-induced osteoarthritis rabbit model and progenitor cells from subchondral bone.
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Effect of Gambisan on the Inhibition of Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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This study was conducted to explore the antiadipogenic effect and possible mechanism of Gambisan on 3T3-L1 cells. For quality control, Gambisan was standardized by HPLC and the standard compounds ephedrine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and caffeine were screened. Cultured 3T3-L1 cells that had been induced to differentiate were treated with various concentrations of Gambisan or its major component extracts (Ephedra intermedia Schrenk, Atractylodes lancea DC., and Thea sinensis L.) for 72 hours for MTT assay to determine cell viability or 10 days for LDH assay, triglyceride assay, DNA content measurement, Oil red O staining, RT-PCR, and western blot. Gambisan significantly inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by reducing triglyceride contents and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner without obvious cytotoxicity. Viability and DNA content in 3T3-L1 cells treated with Gambisan were significantly higher than cells treated with the major component extracts at every concentration. The anti-adipogenic effects of Gambisan appeared to be mediated by a significant downregulation of the expression of lipoprotein lipase mRNA and PPAR ? , C/EBP ? , and SREBP-1 protein apart from the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase. Gambisan could act as a possible therapeutic agent for obesity. However, further studies including in vivo assays and clinical trials are needed to confirm the efficacy, safety and mechanisms of the antiobesity effects of Gambisan.
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Autophagy Inhibition with Monensin Enhances Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Induced by mTOR or Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors in Lung Cancer Cells.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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In cancer cells, autophagy is generally induced as a pro-survival mechanism in response to treatment-associated genotoxic and metabolic stress. Thus, concurrent autophagy inhibition can be expected to have a synergistic effect with chemotherapy on cancer cell death. Monensin, a polyether antibiotic, is known as an autophagy inhibitor, which interferes with the fusion of autophagosome and lysosome. There have been a few reports of its effect in combination with anticancer drugs. We performed this study to investigate whether erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, or rapamycin, an mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, is effective in combination therapy with monensin in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.