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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Serum Adiponectin Relates to Shortened Overall Survival in Men with Squamous Cell Esophageal Cancer Treated with Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Pilot Study.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Background The convergence of nutritional, genetic, and inflammatory factors plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of squamous cell esophageal cancer (SCEC). The parameters of inflammation, indices of nutritional status, and adipocyte-derived hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin have been shown to be prognostic factors in some gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancers. Material and Methods Forty-two patients with SCEC were subjected to a multimodal regimen of concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery. We retrospectively analyzed the impact of pretreatment values of serum leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble leptin receptor, C-reactive protein, TNF alpha, leukocytes, and indices of nutritional status (BMI, plasma total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and triacylglycerols) on overall survival (OS). Results Univariate analysis revealed significant a negative correlation between OS and serum adiponectin (p=0.027), and a positive relationship was found between serum albumin (p=0.002), cholesterol (p=0.049) level, and OS. In multivariate analysis, only the trend (p=0.086) for negative serum adiponectin association with the OS was observed. Conclusions In men with SCEC treated by neoadjuvant concurrent CRT and esophagectomy, high pretreatment level of serum adiponectin was associated with shorter OS while the serum albumin and cholesterol were associated with longer OS.
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Potential Use of Caprylic Acid in Broiler Chickens: Effect on Salmonella Enteritidis.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Abstract The effect of dietary caprylic acid (CA) on Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as the surface treatment of chicken skin contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. To evaluate the dietary effect of CA on Salmonella Enteritidis, the individually housed broiler chickens (n=48) were divided into 4 groups (positive control, negative control, 2.5?g/kg of CA in the feed, and 5?g/kg of CA in the feed). The feed of all groups, except the negative control, was artificially contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 (10(7) colony-forming units/100?g of feed). Both concentrations of dietary CA significantly decreased counts of Salmonella Enteritidis in the crop and cecum of experimental chickens (p<0.05). The effect of CA in the crop contents was more pronounced than in the cecum. Surface treatment of chilled chicken halves with CA at 1.25 and 2.5?mg/mL significantly decreased Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation of the skin and meat showed that treatment of the skin with 1.25?mg/mL of CA worsened odor and appearance of the chicken skin, while sensory traits of chicken meat were not significantly affected. Taste and overall acceptability was not influenced by CA in both meat and skin. Treatment of the skin with 2.5?mg/mL of CA resulted in more pronounced changes of the skin odor and appearance. In conclusion, dietary CA reduced carriage of Salmonella Enteritidis in chickens, whereas surface-treatment reduced or eliminated Salmonella Enteritidis contamination in the processed bird.
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[Optic nerve decompression in treatment of neoplasms involving optic canal.]
Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Neoplasms extending to the optic canal is a diverse group of more than 15 histological types. Elimination of the optic nerve compression is crucial for favorable visual outcome. Material and method. We perform a prospective analysis of 97 patients with different neoplasms with involvement of the optic canal in whom surgery was performed in neurooncological department of Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute during the period from 2010 to 2012. Extent of resection and recurrence rates were determined by pre- and postoperative CT and MRI studies. Results. 97 patients (78 women and 19 men) were involved in the study. Mean age was 49,4 years. Patients were followed for mean of 15.9 months (1-36 month). Total resection was achieved in 54 (55.6%) patients, gross-total resection in 40 (41,2%), partial resection in 3 (3.2%). Underwent postoperative stereotactic radiation therapy 30 patients. There was no recurrence in a series of observations. 4 patients showed extension into both optic canals. Visual disturbances were the main presenting symptoms in 50 (51.5%) patients. 10 (10.3%) patients had normal visual status initially. Visual improvement after surgery was seen in (37%) of 87 patients with visual disturbances. Visual deterioration occurred in 17 (19%) patients. Transient visual deterioration occurred in 1 patient with recovery to the base level over time. The visual outcome was affected by the duration of the symptoms before surgery and the stage of visual disturbances according to the eyeground changes. Conclusions. Involvement of the optic canal is a common phenomenon in craniofacial tumors. Neoplasms extending to the optic canal is a diverse group of both the localization and histology. Decompression of the optic nerves is a crucial step in the surgical management of this neoplasms to optimize visual recovery and prevent tumor recurrence.
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Preventive sublingual immunotherapy in preschool children: first evidence for safety and pro-tolerogenic effects.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Prevention of new IgE-sensitizations has been described during allergen-specific immunotherapy. However, prospective data using a preventive approach in very young children who would benefit most is missing. We initiated a prospective pilot study investigating the safety, immunomodulatory and sensitization-preventive effect of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in mono/oligoclonally sensitized, clinically asymptomatic children 2-5 years of age.
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Interleukin-10 inhibits autonomous myelopoiesis in patients with myelofibrosis.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The spontaneous formation of colony-forming units granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) in semisolid cultures has been shown to be due to the endogenous release of cytokines and/or to the hypersensitivity of cells against growth factors. We have reported that increased autonomous CFU-GM growth is an in vitro characteristic of myelofibrosis (MF) which may reflect aberrant hematopoiesis in vivo. Because of its cytokine synthesis-inhibiting action we speculated that interleukin-10 (IL-10) may inhibit pathological overproduction of myeloid cells in MF by suppression of autonomous myelopoiesis. In the present study IL-10 significantly inhibited autonomous CFU-GM formation in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB MNC) in 10/11 MF patients tested. In all patients there was a mean inhibition of 69% ranging from 35 to 100%. Suppression of autonomous CFU-GM formation by IL-10 was dose dependent and reversible by the addition of anti-IL-10 antibodies. Our results indicate that IL-10 is a potentially useful molecule to affect aberrant myelopoiesis in patients with MF.
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Sex differences in cardiovascular outcome during progression of aortic valve stenosis.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Women with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) have better LV systolic function and more concentric LV geometry than their male counterparts. However, sex differences in cardiovascular (CV) outcome during progression of AS have not been reported from a longitudinal prospective study.
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Inhibition of cell expansion by rapid ABP1-mediated auxin effect on microtubules.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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The prominent and evolutionarily ancient role of the plant hormone auxin is the regulation of cell expansion. Cell expansion requires ordered arrangement of the cytoskeleton but molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation by signalling molecules including auxin are unknown. Here we show in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana that in elongating cells exogenous application of auxin or redistribution of endogenous auxin induces very rapid microtubule re-orientation from transverse to longitudinal, coherent with the inhibition of cell expansion. This fast auxin effect requires auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) and involves a contribution of downstream signalling components such as ROP6 GTPase, ROP-interactive protein RIC1 and the microtubule-severing protein katanin. These components are required for rapid auxin- and ABP1-mediated re-orientation of microtubules to regulate cell elongation in roots and dark-grown hypocotyls as well as asymmetric growth during gravitropic responses.
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Design of an international multicentre RCT on group schema therapy for borderline personality disorder.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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BackgroundBorderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and highly prevalent mental disorder. Schema therapy (ST) has been found effective in the treatment of BPD and is commonly delivered through an individual format. A group format (group schema therapy, GST) has also been developed. GST has been found to speed up and amplify the treatment effects found for individual ST. Delivery in a group format may lead to improved cost-effectiveness. An important question is how GST compares to treatment as usual (TAU) and what format for delivery of schema therapy (format A; intensive group therapy only, or format B; a combination of group and individual therapy) produces the best outcomes.Methods/DesignAn international, multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted with a minimum of fourteen participating centres. Each centre will recruit multiple cohorts of at least sixteen patients. GST formats as well as the orders in which they are delivered to successive cohorts will be balanced. Within countries that contribute an uneven number of sites, the orders of GST formats will be balanced within a difference of one. The RCT is designed to include a minimum of 448 patients with BPD. The primary clinical outcome measure will be BPD severity. Secondary clinical outcome measures will include measures of BPD and general psychiatric symptoms, schemas and schema modes, social functioning and quality of life. Furthermore, an economic evaluation that consists of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be performed using a societal perspective. Lastly, additional investigations will be carried out that include an assessment of the integrity of GST, a qualitative study on patients¿ and therapists¿ experiences with GST, and studies on variables that might influence the effectiveness of GST.DiscussionThis trial will compare GST to TAU for patients with BPD as well as two different formats for the delivery of GST. By combining an evaluation of clinical effectiveness, an economic evaluation and additional investigations, it will contribute to an evidence-based understanding of which treatment should be offered to patients with BPD from clinical, economic, and stakeholders¿ perspectives.Trial registrationNetherlands Trial Register NTR2392. Registered 25 June 2010.
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Disease activity and left ventricular structure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness/internal diameter ratio (relative wall thickness) was recently reported in RA patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between LV relative wall thickness and RA disease activity.
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Validation of semaphorin 7A and ala-?-his-dipeptidase as biomarkers associated with the conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to multiple sclerosis.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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In a previous proteomics study using pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, we proposed apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein AIV, vitronectin, plasminogen, semaphorin 7A, and ala-?-his-dipeptidase as candidate biomarkers associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). Here, we aimed to validate these results in individual CSF samples using alternative techniques.
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Validation of semaphorin 7A and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase as biomarkers associated with the conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to multiple sclerosis.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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BackgroundIn a previous proteomics study using pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, we proposed apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein AIV, vitronectin, plasminogen, semaphorin 7A, and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase as candidate biomarkers associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). Here, we aimed to validate these results in individual CSF samples using alternative techniques.MethodsIn a first replication study, levels of apolipoproteins AI and AIV, vitronectin, and plasminogen were measured by ELISA in CSF and serum of 56 CIS patients (29 patients who converted to CDMS (MS converters) and 27 patients who remained with CIS during follow-up (MS non-converters)) and 26 controls with other neurological disorders. Semaphorin 7A and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase levels were determined by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in CSF of 36 patients (18 MS converters, 18 non-converters) and 20 controls. In a second replication study, apolipoprotein AI levels were measured by ELISA in CSF of 74 CIS patients (47 MS converters, 27 non-converters) and 50 individual controls, and levels of semaphorin 7A and ala-beta-his-dipeptidase were determined by SRM in 49 patients (24 MS converters, 25 non-converters) and 22 controls.ResultsCSF levels of apolipoprotein AI were increased (P =0.043) and levels of semaphorin 7A and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase decreased (P =4.4¿×¿10¿10 and P =0.033 respectively) in MS converters compared to non-converters. No significant differences were found in serum levels for apolipoproteins AI and AIV, vitronectin, and plasminogen. Findings with semaphorin 7A and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase were also validated in the second replication study, and CSF levels for these two proteins were again decreased in MS converters versus non-converters (P =1.2¿×¿10¿4 for semaphorin 7A; P =3.7¿×¿10¿8 for ala-ß-his-dipeptidase). Conversely, apolipoprotein AI findings were not replicated and CSF levels for this protein did not significantly differ between groups. Furthermore, CSF semaphorin 7A levels were negatively associated with the number of T2 lesions at baseline and one-year follow-up.ConclusionsThese results validate previous findings for semaphorin 7A and ala-ß-his-dipeptidase, and suggest that these proteins play a role as CSF biomarkers associated with the conversion to CDMS in CIS patients.
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Seroprevalence study of B. pertussis infection in health care workers in Catalonia, Spain.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Pertussis is a re-emerging infection in countries with high infant immunization coverage. Healthcare workers (HCW) are exposed and can transmit the infection to especially-vulnerable patients. Therefore, pertussis vaccination of HCW is recommended. Between June 2008 and December 2010, 460 HCW from hospital and primary healthcare centers were recruited to determine susceptibility to pertussis. IgG antibodies against pertussis (anti-pertussis ab) were measured, using a routine technique that detects antibodies against pertussis including pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA). Positive results were confirmed with a more-specific technique that only assesses anti-PT IgG antibodies. The median age was 42 years (range, 21-65), 77.3% were female. 172 were nurses, 133 physicians, 60 other clinical workers and 95 non-clinical workers. None had received pertussis vaccination since childhood. The overall prevalence of anti-pertussis antibodies was 51.7%, (95% CI 47.1-56.4). Anti-PT antibodies were determined in the 220 HCW with positive anti-pertussis antibodies: 4 (1.8%) were negative and 33 (15%) had a high titer (? 45 IU/mL). No significant differences between the prevalence of anti-pertussis antibodies or anti-TP antibodies were found according to age, type of occupation or type of center. Our study confirms the need for vaccination of HCW because at least half are susceptible to pertussis. High anti-PT titers found in 15% of seropositive HCW showed that they had had recent contact with B. pertussis.
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Changes in bacterial community metabolism and composition during the degradation of dissolved organic matter from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Spatial increases and temporal shifts in outbreaks of gelatinous plankton have been observed over the past several decades in many estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The effects of these blooms on marine ecosystem functioning and particularly on the dynamics of the heterotrophic bacteria are still unclear. The response of the bacterial community from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon to the addition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita, corresponding to an enrichment of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 1.4, was assessed for 22 days in microcosms (8 l). The high bioavailability of this material led to (i) a rapid mineralization of the DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen from the jellyfish and (ii) the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonium and orthophosphate in the water column. DOM from jellyfish greatly stimulated heterotrophic prokaryotic production and respiration rates during the first 2 days; then, these activities showed a continuous decay until reaching those measured in the control microcosms (lagoon water only) at the end of the experiment. Bacterial growth efficiency remained below 20 %, indicating that most of the DOM was respired and a minor part was channeled to biomass production. Changes in bacterial diversity were assessed by tag pyrosequencing of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, DNA fingerprints, and a cultivation approach. While bacterial diversity in control microcosms showed little changes during the experiment, the addition of DOM from the jellyfish induced a rapid growth of Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio species that were isolated. After 9 days, the bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes, which appeared more adapted to metabolize high-molecular-weight DOM. At the end of the experiment, the bacterial community shifted toward a higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria. Resilience of the bacterial community after the addition of DOM from the jellyfish was higher for metabolic functions than diversity, suggesting that jellyfish blooms can induce durable changes in the bacterial community structure in coastal lagoons.
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Dynamic analysis of physiological properties of Torulaspora delbrueckii in wine fermentations and its incidence on wine quality.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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This work examines the physiology of a new commercial strain of Torulaspora delbrueckii in the production of red wine following different combined fermentation strategies. For a detailed comparison, several yeast metabolites and the strains implantation were measured over the entire fermentation period. In all fermentations in which T. delbrueckii was involved, the ethanol concentration was reduced; some malic acid was consumed; more pyruvic acid was released, and fewer amounts of higher alcohols were produced. The sensorial properties of final wines varied widely, emphasising the structure of wine in sequential fermentations with T. delbrueckii. These wines presented the maximum overall impression and were preferred by tasters. Semi-industrial assays were carried out confirming these differences at a higher scale. No important differences were observed in volatile aroma composition between fermentations. However, differences in mouthfeel properties were observed in semi-industrial fermentations, which were correlated with an increase in the mannoprotein content of red wines fermented sequentially with T. delbrueckii.
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Dynamics of DNA synthesis disturbance and recovery after fractionated irradiation of S phase cells.
Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Using the autoradiographic method we studied the kinetics of DNA synthesis during themitotic cycle of mouse corneal epithelial cells after ?-irradiation in a dose of 2 Gy at different S-phase points. Normally, S phase in corneal epitheliocytes includes S1 and S2 phases separated by an interval during which DNA is not synthesized. Double exposure modifies the pattern of DNA synthesis in the cell due to reparation of injuries. The reparative processes in the cell are realized during the interval between the S1 and S2 phases and at the expense of g1 period of the mitotic cycle. If the cell has no time for reparation, the injuries are transferred into the class of "latent" injuries.
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The speed of kill of fluralaner (Bravecto¿) against Ixodes ricinus ticks on dogs.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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BackgroundPathogens that are transmitted by ticks to dogs, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and Ehrlichia canis, are an increasing problem in the world. One method to prevent pathogen transmission to dogs is to kill the ticks before transmission occurs. Fluralaner (BravectoTM) is a novel isoxazoline insecticide and acaricide that provides long persistent antiparasitic activity following systemic administration. This study investigated the speed of kill of fluralaner against Ixodes ricinus ticks on dogs.MethodsA total of 48 dogs were randomized to 8 groups of 6 dogs and each dog was infested with 50 female and 10 male I. ricinus ticks. Two days later (day 0), 4 groups received a single treatment of 25 mg fluralaner/kg body weight as BravectoTM chewable tablets; the dogs in the other 4 groups were left untreated. Separate control and treatment groups were paired at each time point (4, 8, 12, or 24 hours after treatment) for assessment of tick-killing efficacy. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment, all dogs were re-infested with 50 female I. ricinus ticks and subsequently assessed for live or dead ticks at either 4, 8, 12, or 24 hours after re-infestation. Efficacy was calculated for each assessment time point by comparison of the treatment group with the respective control group.ResultsTick-killing efficacy was 89.6% at 4 hours, 97.9% at 8 hours, and 100% at 12 and 24 hours after treatment. Eight hours after re-infestation, efficacy was 96.8%, 83.5%, and 45.8% at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment, respectively. At least 98.1% tick-killing efficacy was demonstrated 12 and 24 hours after re-infestation over the entire 12 week study period.ConclusionsFluralaner kills ticks rapidly after treatment at 4 hours, and over its entire 12-week period of efficacy, it achieves an almost complete killing effect within 12 hours after tick infestation. The rapid tick-killing effect together with the long duration of efficacy enables fluralaner to aid in the prevention of tick borne diseases.
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Surface Roughness Evaluation Based on Acoustic Emission Signals in Robot Assisted Polishing.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The polishing process is the most common technology used in applications where a high level of surface quality is demanded. The automation of polishing processes is especially difficult due to the high level of skill and dexterity that is required. Much of this difficulty arises because of the lack of reliable data on the effect of the polishing parameters on the resulting surface roughness. An experimental study was developed to evaluate the surface roughness obtained during Robot Assisted Polishing processes by the analysis of acoustic emission signals in the frequency domain. The aim is to find out a trend of a feature or features calculated from the acoustic emission signals detected along the process. Such an evaluation was made with the objective of collecting valuable information for the establishment of the end point detection of polishing process. As a main conclusion, it can be affirmed that acoustic emission (AE) signals can be considered useful to monitor the polishing process state.
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The influence of ochratoxin A on DNA adduct formation by the carcinogen aristolochic acid in rats.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Exposure to the plant nephrotoxin and carcinogen aristolochic acid (AA) leads to the development of AA nephropathy, Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and upper urothelial carcinoma (UUC) in humans. Beside AA, exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) was linked to BEN. Although OTA was rejected as a factor for BEN/UUC, there is still no information whether the development of AA-induced BEN/UUC is influenced by OTA exposure. Therefore, we studied the influence of OTA on the genotoxicity of AA (AA-DNA adduct formation) in vivo. AA-DNA adducts were formed in liver and kidney of rats treated with AA or AA combined with OTA, but no OTA-related DNA adducts were detectable in rats treated with OTA alone or OTA combined with AA. Compared to rats treated with AA alone, AA-DNA adduct levels were 5.4- and 1.6-fold higher in liver and kidney, respectively, of rats treated with AA combined with OTA. Although AA and OTA induced NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) activating AA to DNA adducts, their combined treatment did not lead to either higher NQO1 enzyme activity or higher AA-DNA adduct levels in ex vivo incubations. Oxidation of AA I (8-methoxy-6-nitrophenanthro[3,4-d]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid) to its detoxification metabolite, 8-hydroxyaristolochic acid, was lower in microsomes from rats treated with AA and OTA, and this was paralleled by lower activities of cytochromes P450 1A1/2 and/or 2C11 in these microsomes. Our results indicate that a decrease in AA detoxification after combined exposure to AA and OTA leads to an increase in AA-DNA adduct formation in liver and kidney of rats.
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Incomplete penetrance and phenotypic variability of 6q16 deletions including SIM1.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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6q16 deletions have been described in patients with a Prader-Willi-like (PWS-like) phenotype. Recent studies have shown that certain rare single-minded 1 (SIM1) loss-of-function variants were associated with a high intra-familial risk for obesity with or without features of PWS-like syndrome. Although SIM1 seems to have a key role in the phenotype of patients carrying 6q16 deletions, some data support a contribution of other genes, such as GRIK2, to explain associated behavioural problems. We describe 15 new patients in whom de novo 6q16 deletions were characterised by comparative genomic hybridisation or single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis, including the first patient with fetopathological data. This fetus showed dysmorphic facial features, cerebellar and cerebral migration defects with neuronal heterotopias, and fusion of brain nuclei. The size of the deletion in the 14 living patients ranged from 1.73 to 7.84?Mb, and the fetus had the largest deletion (14?Mb). Genotype-phenotype correlations confirmed the major role for SIM1 haploinsufficiency in obesity and the PWS-like phenotype. Nevertheless, only 8 of 13 patients with SIM1 deletion exhibited obesity, in agreement with incomplete penetrance of SIM1 haploinsufficiency. This study in the largest series reported to date confirms that the PWS-like phenotype is strongly linked to 6q16.2q16.3 deletions and varies considerably in its clinical expression. The possible involvement of other genes in the 6q16.2q16.3-deletion phenotype is discussed.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 5 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.230.
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Adjusting parameters of aortic valve stenosis severity by body size.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Adjustment of cardiac dimensions by measures of body size appears intuitively convincing and in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is commonly adjusted by body surface area (BSA). However, there is little evidence to support such an approach.
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Four-group classification of left ventricular hypertrophy based on ventricular concentricity and dilatation identifies a low-risk subset of eccentric hypertrophy in hypertensive patients.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH; high LV mass [LVM]) is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on LV relative wall thickness. We evaluated the prediction of subsequent adverse events in a new 4-group LVH classification based on LV dilatation (high LV end-diastolic volume [EDV] index) and concentricity (mass/end-diastolic volume [M/EDV](2/3)) in hypertensive patients.
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A randomized, blinded, controlled and multi-centered field study comparing the efficacy and safety of Bravecto (fluralaner) against Frontline (fipronil) in flea- and tick-infested dogs.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Fluralaner, a new molecular entity of the isoxazoline class, has potent insecticidal and acaricidal activity and can be safely administered orally to dogs.
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Impact of isolated systolic hypertension on normalization of left ventricular structure during antihypertensive treatment (the LIFE study).
Blood Press.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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We tested the impact of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) on normalization of left ventricular (LV) structure during antihypertensive treatment.
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Reparation as a Factor Contributing to Genetic Variability of the Biological System.
Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Kinetics of DNA synthesis in mitotic cycle of in mouse corneal epithelial cells after ?-irradiation in different S phase points was studied by the method of autoradiography. Normally, S phase of corneal epithelial cells consists of two phases (S1 and S2) separated by an interval without DNA synthesis. Each phase, in turn, includes two subphases with a pause in DNA synthesis. It was hypothesized that pauses in DNA synthesis, similar to that during presynthetic g1 phase, correspond to periods of cell preparation to the next stage of their development. After irradiation, reparation proceeds during pauses at different phases of the cell cycle. The mechanism of reparation induces cell genome rearrangement.
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Surface roughness model based on force sensors for the prediction of the tool wear.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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In this study, a methodology has been developed with the objective of evaluating the surface roughness obtained during turning processes by measuring the signals detected by a force sensor under the same cutting conditions. In this way, the surface quality achieved along the process is correlated to several parameters of the cutting forces (thrust forces, feed forces and cutting forces), so the effect that the tool wear causes on the surface roughness is evaluated. In a first step, the best cutting conditions (cutting parameters and radius of tool) for a certain quality surface requirement were found for pieces of UNS A97075. Next, with this selection a model of surface roughness based on the cutting forces was developed for different states of wear that simulate the behaviour of the tool throughout its life. The validation of this model reveals that it was effective for approximately 70% of the surface roughness values obtained.
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Fast and robust discrimination of almonds (Prunus amygdalus) with respect to their bitterness by using near infrared and partial least squares-discriminant analysis.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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In this study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) coupled to chemometrics is used to develop a fast, simple, non-destructive and robust method for discriminating sweet and bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) by the in situ measurement of the kernel surface without any sample pre-treatment. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were built to discriminate both types of almonds, obtaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity for both classes, with more than 95% of the samples correctly classified and discriminated. Moreover, the almonds were also analysed by Raman spectroscopy, the reference technique for this type of analysis, to validate and confirm the results obtained by NIR.
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Dynamic infrared imaging analysis of apical hook development in Arabidopsis: the case of brassinosteroids.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Germination of Arabidopsis seeds in darkness induces apical hook development, based on a tightly regulated differential growth coordinated by a multiple hormone cross-talk. Here, we endeavoured to clarify the function of brassinosteroids (BRs) and cross-talk with ethylene in hook development. An automated infrared imaging system was developed to study the kinetics of hook development in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. To ascertain the photomorphogenic control of hook opening, the system was equipped with an automatic light dimmer. We demonstrate that ethylene and BRs are indispensable for hook formation and maintenance. Ethylene regulation of hook formation functions partly through BRs, with BR feedback inhibition of ethylene action. Conversely, BR-mediated extension of hook maintenance functions partly through ethylene. Furthermore, we revealed that a short light pulse is sufficient to induce rapid hook opening. Our dynamic infrared imaging system allows high-resolution, kinetic imaging of up to 112 seedlings in a single experimental run. At this high throughput, it is ideally suited to rapidly gain insight in pathway networks. We demonstrate that BRs and ethylene cooperatively regulate apical hook development in a phase-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that light is a predominant regulator of hook opening, inhibiting ethylene- and BR-mediated postponement of hook opening.
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Impact of obesity and nonobesity on grading the severity of aortic valve stenosis.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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We tested the hypothesis that the disproportionate increase of body surface area in obesity may lead to the overestimation of aortic stenosis (AS) severity when the aortic valve area (AVA) is indexed (AVAI) for body surface area in 1,524 patients enrolled in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in AS study. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of ?30 kg/m(2). Peak aortic jet velocity, mean aortic gradient, AVA, and energy loss (EL) did not differ, although AVAI and EL indexed (ELI) for body surface area were significantly smaller in the obese group (n = 321) compared with the nonobese (n = 1,203) group (both p <0.05). Severe AS by AVAI (<0.6 cm(2)/m(2)) but nonsevere by AVA (>1.0 cm(2); AVAI/AVA discordance) was found in 15% of the patients, whereas severe AS by ELI (<0.6 cm(2)/m(2)) but nonsevere by EL (>1.0 cm(2); ELI/EL discordance) was found in 9% of the patients. Obesity was associated with a 2.4-fold higher prevalence of AVAI/AVA discordance and a 1.6-fold higher prevalence of ELI/EL discordance. Discordant grading was also associated with male gender, larger body size, higher mean aortic gradient, and stroke volume (all p <0.05). During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 419 patients were referred for aortic valve replacement and 177 patients died or were hospitalized because of heart failure. In the Cox regression analyses, AVAI/AVA discordance was associated with a 28% higher rate of aortic valve replacement (p <0.05) but did not predict the rate of combined death and hospitalization for heart failure. In conclusion, using AVAI and ELI for the grading of stenosis in patients with obesity may lead to overestimation of true AS severity.
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Cytokinin controls polarity of PIN1-dependent auxin transport during lateral root organogenesis.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The plant hormones auxin and cytokinin mutually coordinate their activities to control various aspects of development [1-9], and their crosstalk occurs at multiple levels [10, 11]. Cytokinin-mediated modulation of auxin transport provides an efficient means to regulate auxin distribution in plant organs. Here, we demonstrate that cytokinin does not merely control the overall auxin flow capacity, but might also act as a polarizing cue and control the auxin stream directionality during plant organogenesis. Cytokinin enhances the PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin transporter depletion at specific polar domains, thus rearranging the cellular PIN polarities and directly regulating the auxin flow direction. This selective cytokinin sensitivity correlates with the PIN protein phosphorylation degree. PIN1 phosphomimicking mutations, as well as enhanced phosphorylation in plants with modulated activities of PIN-specific kinases and phosphatases, desensitize PIN1 to cytokinin. Our results reveal conceptually novel, cytokinin-driven polarization mechanism that operates in developmental processes involving rapid auxin stream redirection, such as lateral root organogenesis, in which a gradual PIN polarity switch defines the growth axis of the newly formed organ.
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Evaluation of treatment responses and colony-forming progenitor cells in 50 patients with aplastic anemia after immunosuppressive therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-center experience.
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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We analyzed the clinical course and outcome in 50 patients (27 males, 23 females) suffering from aplastic anemia (AA), treated in our department between 1987 and 2007. The median age was 37 years (range: 14-70 years). A total of 42 patients received antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine A (CSA). Seven patients were transplanted using a matched sibling donor upfront, and one patient was treated with CSA and growth factors only. A total of 34 patients (68?%) achieved a complete remission, and 7 (14?%), a partial remission. Eight patients (16?%) did not respond to treatment, and one died shortly after transplantation. Relapses of AA occurred in eight patients (20?%). No obvious correlations between clinical parameters, including age, karyotype, existence of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones, pretreatment blood counts, progenitor cell counts, and the response to immunosuppressive therapy (IST), were found. We also examined the numbers of colony-forming progenitor cells (CFUs) before and after therapy. In most responding patients, CFU numbers increased substantially after successful therapy. However, even in patients without a substantial increase in CFU, stable remissions were observed. Together, both IST and stem cell transplantation are reasonable treatment options for patients with AA.
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The influence of heat stress on auxin distribution in transgenic B. napus microspores and microspore-derived embryos.
Protoplasma
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Plant embryogenesis is regulated by differential distribution of the plant hormone auxin. However, the cells establishing these gradients during microspore embryogenesis remain to be identified. For the first time, we describe, using the DR5 or DR5rev reporter gene systems, the GFP- and GUS-based auxin biosensors to monitor auxin during Brassica napus androgenesis at cellular resolution in the initial stages. Our study provides evidence that the distribution of auxin changes during embryo development and depends on the temperature-inducible in vitro culture conditions. For this, microspores (mcs) were induced to embryogenesis by heat treatment and then subjected to genetic modification via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The duration of high temperature treatment had a significant influence on auxin distribution in isolated and in vitro-cultured microspores and on microspore-derived embryo development. In the "mild" heat-treated (1 day at 32 °C) mcs, auxin localized in a polar way already at the uni-nucleate microspore, which was critical for the initiation of embryos with suspensor-like structure. Assuming a mean mcs radius of 20 ?m, endogenous auxin content in a single cell corresponded to concentration of 1.01 ?M. In mcs subjected to a prolonged heat (5 days at 32 °C), although auxin concentration increased dozen times, auxin polarization was set up at a few-celled pro-embryos without suspensor. Those embryos were enclosed in the outer wall called the exine. The exine rupture was accompanied by the auxin gradient polarization. Relative quantitative estimation of auxin, using time-lapse imaging, revealed that primordia possess up to 1.3-fold higher amounts than those found in the root apices of transgenic MDEs in the presence of exogenous auxin. Our results show, for the first time, which concentration of endogenous auxin coincides with the first cell division and how the high temperature interplays with auxin, by what affects delay early establishing microspore polarity. Moreover, we present how the local auxin accumulation demonstrates the apical-basal axis formation of the androgenic embryo and directs the axiality of the adult haploid plant.
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Characterization of a novel cell penetrating peptide derived from human Oct4.
Cell Regen (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Oct4 is a transcription factor that plays a major role for the preservation of the pluripotent state in embryonic stem cells as well as for efficient reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) or other progenitors. Protein-based reprogramming methods mainly rely on the addition of a fused cell penetrating peptide. This study describes that Oct4 inherently carries a protein transduction domain, which can translocate into human and mouse cells.
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Chromatin features of plant telomeric sequences at terminal vs. internal positions.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in regulation of crucial cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Data on the epigenetic features of plant telomeres and their epigenetic regulation were published mostly for Arabidopsis thaliana, in which the presence of interstitial telomeric repeats (ITRs) may interfere with genuine telomeres in most analyses. Here, we studied the epigenetic landscape and transcription of telomeres and ITRs in Nicotiana tabacum with long telomeres and no detectable ITRs, and in Ballantinia antipoda with large blocks of pericentromeric ITRs and relatively short telomeres. Chromatin of genuine telomeres displayed heterochromatic as well as euchromatic marks, while ITRs were just heterochromatic. Methylated cytosines were present at telomeres and ITRs, but showed a bias with more methylation toward distal telomere positions and different blocks of B. antipoda ITRs methylated to different levels. Telomeric transcripts TERRA (G-rich) and ARRET (C-rich) were identified in both plants and their levels varied among tissues with a maximum in blossoms. Plants with substantially different proportions of internally and terminally located telomeric repeats are instrumental in clarifying the chromatin status of telomeric repeats at distinct chromosome locations.
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Early Vascular Aging in Young and Middle-Aged Ischemic Stroke Patients: The Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ischemic stroke survivors have high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality even at young age, suggesting that early arterial aging is common among such patients.
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Are healthcare workers immune to rubella?
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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Healthcare workers (HCW) have high exposure to infectious diseases, some of which, such as rubella, are vaccine-preventable. The aim of this study was to determine the immunity of HCW against rubella. We performed a seroprevalence study using a self-administered survey and obtained blood samples to determine rubella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels in HCW during preventive examinations by five Primary Care Basic Prevention Units and six tertiary hospitals in Catalonia. Informed consent was obtained. IgG was determined using an antibody capture microparticle direct chemiluminometric technique. The odss ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Logistic regression was made to calculate adjusted OR.   Of 642 HCW who participated (29.9% physician, 38.8% nurses, 13.3% other health workers and 18% non-health workers), 46.6% were primary care workers and 53.4% hospital workers. Of total, 97.2% had rubella antibodies. HCW aged 30-44 years had a higher prevalence of antibodies (98.4%) compared with HCW aged<30 years (adjusted OR 3.92; 95% CI 1.04-14.85). The prevalence was higher in nurses than in other HCW (adjusted OR: 5.57, 95% CI 1.21-25.59). Antibody prevalence did not differ between females and males (97.4 vs. 97.1%, p 0.89), type of center (9.7 vs. 96.8%, p 0.51) or according to history of vaccination (97.3 vs. 96.8%, p 0.82). Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies is high in HCW, but workers aged<30 years have a higher susceptibility (5.5%). Vaccination should be reinforced in HCW in this age group, due to the risk of nosocomial transmission and congenital rubella.
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Determinants of systolic blood pressure response during exercise in overweight subjects.
Blood Press.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Aim. Higher systolic exercise blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in hypertension. We aimed at identifying covariates of systolic exercise BP in overweight subjects. Methods. 77 subjects with body mass index (BMI) > 27 kg/m(2) and without known heart disease were tested. BP was measured by sphygmomanometry before and at all exercise stages during maximal exercise capacity testing on a treadmill. High peak systolic exercise BP was defined as ? 200 mmHg. Results. The study population was 48 ± 10 years and included 60% women and 42% with known hypertension. Average BMI was 32.6 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) and clinic BP 132/82 ± 17/8 mmHg. High systolic exercise BP was found in 32%. Subjects with high systolic exercise BP had higher systolic clinic and 24-h ambulatory BP (ABP), as well as lower peak oxygen uptake, compared with subjects with normal systolic exercise BP (all p < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis known hypertension (? = 0.33), higher systolic ABP (? = 0.22) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level (? = 0.23, all p < 0.05) predicted higher systolic exercise BP independent of sex and peak oxygen uptake (multiple R(2) = 0.32, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Among overweight subjects, known hypertension, higher systolic ABP and HDL-cholesterol level were the most important factors predicting higher systolic exercise BP.
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Compromised telomere maintenance in hypomethylated Arabidopsis thaliana plants.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Telomeres, nucleoprotein structures at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, are important for the maintenance of genomic stability. Telomeres were considered as typical heterochromatic regions, but in light of recent results, this view should be reconsidered. Asymmetrically located cytosines in plant telomeric DNA repeats may be substrates for a DNA methyltransferase enzyme and indeed, it was shown that these repeats are methylated. Here, we analyse the methylation of telomeric cytosines and the length of telomeres in Arabidopsis thaliana methylation mutants (met 1-3 and ddm 1-8), and in their wild-type siblings that were germinated in the presence of hypomethylation drugs. Our results show that cytosine methylation in telomeric repeats depends on the activity of MET1 and DDM1 enzymes. Significantly shortened telomeres occur in later generations of methylation mutants as well as in plants germinated in the presence of hypomethylation drugs, and this phenotype is stably transmitted to the next plant generation. A possible role of compromised in vivo telomerase action in the observed telomere shortening is hypothesized based on telomere analysis of hypomethylated telomerase knockout plants. Results are discussed in connection with previous data in this field obtained using different model systems.
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Comparative Analysis of the Kinetics of DNA Synthesis after Exposure during Different Phases of the Cell Cycle S Period.
Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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The kinetics of DNA synthesis in the mitotic cycle of mouse corneal epithelial cells was studied after a single ?-irradiation of cells in a dose of 4 Gy at different S-phase points. Normally, corneal epitheliocyte S phase consists of S1 and S2 phases separated by an interval during which no DNA is synthesized. The duration of each phase was lengthened after single irradiation due to reparation of injuries in the cells at the expense of the time normally occupied by g1 period of the mitotic cycle. The first event during reparation is excision of damaged complex from the DNA molecule; this complex consists of labeled daughter fragment and matrix site of DNA chain that was used for the synthesis of the daughter fragment. Presumably, the entire reparation process in the cell consists of two stages: "reparative" synthesis and "additional" synthesis. The reparative synthesis, in turn, includes two stages: de novo synthesis of matrix fragment in the DNA chain at the site of the gap formation and de novo synthesis of the daughter fragment after the synthesis of the new matrix fragment is over.
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Natural history of mild and of moderate aortic stenosis-new insights from a large prospective European study.
Curr Probl Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Increased life expectancy has led to a higher prevalence of calcific aortic valve disease. Both ends of the disease spectrum-sclerosis of the aortic valve without hemodynamic obstruction and the late stage of aortic valve stenosis (AS)-have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This raises the question of the prognostic contribution of atherosclerotic diseases and other comorbidities as opposed to the hemodynamic effect of obstructive AS. Hence, the evaluation of asymptomatic patients with mild or moderate AS without comorbidities is of major interest. In the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study, with the exception of hypertension, comorbidities were excluded, thus allowing an analysis of the effect of pure AS as well as the effect of hypertension on the progression and outcome of AS. We discuss the results that emerged from this large European prospective study and relate these to the published literature.
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Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are <1.0 cm(2) for AVA and <0.6 cm(2)/m(2) for AVAindex.
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High spontaneous granulocyte/macrophage-colony formation in patients with myelofibrosis.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Unstimulated methylcellulose cultures in 25 myelofibrosis (MF) patients were performed to better understand the role of cytokines in the proliferation of MF cells. Compared to controls MF patients show a variable but highly increased spontaneous CFU-GM formation (66 vs 4.8/10(5) PBMNC). There was a marked reduction of autonomous CFU-GM growth by the cytokine-synthesis-inhibiting molecule IL-10 as well as by antibodies against GM-CSF whereas antibodies against IL-3, G-CSF, M-CSF and IL-1? showed heterogeneous effects. Spontaneous CFU-GM growth >100/10(5) PBMNC predicted shorter survival. Constitutive release of GM-CSF seems to contribute to proliferation of MF cells in vitro and possibly in vivo.
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Prevalence of measles antibodies among health care workers in Catalonia (Spain) in the elimination era.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Interruption of measles transmission was achieved in Catalonia (Spain) in 2000. Six years later, a measles outbreak occurred between August 2006 and June 2007 with 381 cases, 11 of whom were health care workers (HCW).The objective was to estimate susceptibility to measles in HCW and related demographic and occupational characteristics.
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Hypertensive target organ damage predicts incident diabetes mellitus.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Whether patients with hypertensive preclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at higher risk of incident diabetes has never been studied.
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[Breast carcinoma metastasis to the optic nerve: case report and review of literature].
Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Metastatic tumours of the optic nerve are extremely rare. The review of literature revealed only 12 cases of breast carcinoma metastasis to the optic nerve. All patients survived less then 6 month after surgical treatment. We describe a case of metastatic breast carcinoma to the optic nerve that occurred 8 years after radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy. The metastasis manifested with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the right eye during 3 month. CT and MRI demostrated enhancing lesion in the muscle cone apex of the right orbit with an extension to the optic canal. The presumable diagnosis was optic nerve sheath meningioma, and surgical resection was performed. The tumour involved the optic nerve and has been resected togeher with the nerve. Histology report confirmed metastatic tumour. Postoperatively, the patient received additional stereotactic radiotherapy. Patient died of tumour dissemination 2,5 years after surgery. Breast carcinoma metastases to the optic nerve usually have unfavorable prognosis both for survival and for visual acuity. Isolated metastatic tumors of the optic nerve remain a diagnostic challenge because of their clinical and radiological similarities to more common primary tumors of the optic nerve.
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Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV)] in hypertensive patients.
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Prevalence and covariates of abnormal left ventricular geometry in never-treated hypertensive patients in Tanzania.
Blood Press.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Aim. To assess prevalence, type and covariates of abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry in untreated native Tanzanian patients with hypertension in relation to normotensive controls. Methods. Echocardiography was performed in 161 untreated hypertensive outpatients and 80 normotensive controls at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. Hypertensive heart disease was defined as presence of increased LV mass or relative wall thickness (RWT). Results. The prevalence of hypertensive heart disease increased with the severity of hypertension and was on average 62.1% among patients and 12.5% in controls. In multivariate analyses, higher LV mass index was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (? = 0.28), body mass index (? = 0.20), peak early transmitral to medial mitral annulus velocity ratio (? = 0.16), and with lower stress-corrected midwall shortening (scMWS) (? = - 0.44) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (? = - 0.16), all p < 0.05. Higher RWT was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (? = 0.16), longer E-wave deceleration time (? = 0.23) and lower scMWS (? = - 0.66), irrespective of LV mass (all p < 0.05). Conclusion. Subclinical hypertensive heart disease is highly prevalent in untreated native hypertensive Tanzanians and associated with both systolic and diastolic LV dysfunction. Management of hypertension in Africans should include high focus on subclinical hypertensive heart disease.
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An integrative model of the control of ovule primordia formation.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Upon hormonal signaling, ovules develop as lateral organs from the placenta. Ovule numbers ultimately determine the number of seeds that develop, and thereby contribute to the final seed yield in crop plants. We demonstrate here that CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 (CUC1), CUC2 and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) have additive effects on ovule primordia formation. We show that expression of the CUC1 and CUC2 genes is required to redundantly regulate expression of PINFORMED1 (PIN1), which in turn is required for ovule primordia formation. Furthermore, our results suggest that the auxin response factor MONOPTEROS (MP/ARF5) may directly bind ANT, CUC1 and CUC2 and promote their transcription. Based on our findings, we propose an integrative model to describe the molecular mechanisms of the early stages of ovule development.
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Integrative quantitation enables a comprehensive proteome comparison of two Mycoplasma pneumoniae genetic perturbations.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Quantitative proteomics is an essential tool in proteome research since it enables measuring changes in protein abundance in response to biological perturbations. During the last few years, different quantitative strategies have been developed in proteomics to compare different experimental conditions, including label-free and isobaric chemical labeling approaches. Here we show that different quantitation techniques have an important influence on detected sample variability, and we use the combination of six different quantitation strategies to perform a proteome comparison of three different Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains (ldh knockdown, ?prkc, and wild-type). The integration of the different datasets indicates that the ldh knockdown strongly affects the abundance of ribosomal proteins and enzymes involved in the regulation of the cellular redox state, whereas the prkc deletion affects key cellular physiological processes such as protein and DNA synthesis, and cytoadherence.
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Left atrial volume as predictor of valve replacement and cardiovascular events in patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic stenosis.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Left atrial (LA) size is known to increase with chronically increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. We hypothesized that LA volume was predictive of aortic valve replacement (AVR) and cardiovascular events in a large cohort of patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic valve stenosis.
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Effect of overweight and obesity on cardiovascular events in asymptomatic aortic stenosis: a SEAS substudy (Simvastatin Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis).
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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This study investigated whether overweight and obesity impacted outcome in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS).
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Sequential induction of auxin efflux and influx carriers regulates lateral root emergence.
Mol. Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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In Arabidopsis, lateral roots originate from pericycle cells deep within the primary root. New lateral root primordia (LRP) have to emerge through several overlaying tissues. Here, we report that auxin produced in new LRP is transported towards the outer tissues where it triggers cell separation by inducing both the auxin influx carrier LAX3 and cell-wall enzymes. LAX3 is expressed in just two cell files overlaying new LRP. To understand how this striking pattern of LAX3 expression is regulated, we developed a mathematical model that captures the network regulating its expression and auxin transport within realistic three-dimensional cell and tissue geometries. Our model revealed that, for the LAX3 spatial expression to be robust to natural variations in root tissue geometry, an efflux carrier is required--later identified to be PIN3. To prevent LAX3 from being transiently expressed in multiple cell files, PIN3 and LAX3 must be induced consecutively, which we later demonstrated to be the case. Our study exemplifies how mathematical models can be used to direct experiments to elucidate complex developmental processes.
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An auxin transport mechanism restricts positive orthogravitropism in lateral roots.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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As soon as a seed germinates, plant growth relates to gravity to ensure that the root penetrates the soil and the shoot expands aerially. Whereas mechanisms of positive and negative orthogravitropism of primary roots and shoots are relatively well understood, lateral organs often show more complex growth behavior. Lateral roots (LRs) seemingly suppress positive gravitropic growth and show a defined gravitropic set-point angle (GSA) that allows radial expansion of the root system (plagiotropism). Despite its eminent importance for root architecture, it so far remains completely unknown how lateral organs partially suppress positive orthogravitropism. Here we show that the phytohormone auxin steers GSA formation and limits positive orthogravitropism in LR. Low and high auxin levels/signaling lead to radial or axial root systems, respectively. At a cellular level, it is the auxin transport-dependent regulation of asymmetric growth in the elongation zone that determines GSA. Our data suggest that strong repression of PIN4/PIN7 and transient PIN3 expression limit auxin redistribution in young LR columella cells. We conclude that PIN activity, by temporally limiting the asymmetric auxin fluxes in the tip of LRs, induces transient, differential growth responses in the elongation zone and, consequently, controls root architecture.
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Altered activities of antioxidant enzymes in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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In the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), an increase of oxidative stress could play an important role which is closely linked with insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. The aim of our study was to assess several parameters of the antioxidant status in MetS.
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The Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study (NOR-SYS): rationale and design.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Ischemic stroke in young adults is a major health problem being associated with a higher vascular morbidity and mortality compared to controls, and a stroke recurrence rate of 25% during the first decade. The assumed cause of infarction and the detected risk factors determine the early- and long-term treatment. However, for many patients the cause of stroke remains unknown. Risk factor profile and etiology differ in young and elderly ischemic stroke patients, and atherosclerosis is the determined underlying condition in 10 to 15%. However, subclinical atherosclerosis is probably more prevalent and may go unrecognized.Ultrasound imaging is a sensitive method for the detection of arterial disease and for measurement of adipose tissue. The relationship between intima-media thickness (IMT), plaques, cardiovascular risk factors including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and ischemic events has repeatedly been shown.We have established The Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study (NOR-SYS) as a three-generation research program with the goal to increase our knowledge on heredity and the development of arterial disease and ischemic stroke. Extended standardized ultrasound examinations are done in order to find subclinical vessel disease for early and better prophylaxis.Methods/design: NOR-SYS is a prospective long-term research program. Standardized methods are used for anamnestic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and ultrasound data collection in ischemic stroke patients aged <=60 years, their partners and joint adult offspring. The ultrasound protocol includes the assessment of intracranial, carotid and femoral arteries, abdominal aorta, and the estimation of VAT. To date, the study is a single centre study with approximately 400 patients, 250 partners and 350 adult offspring expected to be recruited at our site.
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First-in-human phase 0 trial of oral 5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2-deoxyribose in patients with advanced malignancies.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd), a halogenated nucleoside analog, produced clinical responses when administered as a radiosensitizer via continuous intravenous (c.i.v.) infusion over the course of radiotherapy. We conducted a phase 0 trial of 5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2-deoxyribose (IPdR), an oral prodrug of IdUrd, in patients with advanced malignancies to assess whether the oral route was a feasible alternative to c.i.v. infusion before embarking on large-scale clinical trials. Plasma concentrations of IPdR, IdUrd, and other metabolites were measured after a single oral dose of IPdR.
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Mitral annular calcification and incident ischemic stroke in treated hypertensive patients: the LIFE study.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Background Fibro-calcification of the mitral annulus (MAC) has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in general populations. This study was performed to assess whether MAC predicts incidence of ischemic stroke in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Methods Baseline and follow-up clinical and echocardiographic parameters were assessed in 939 hypertensive patients with electrocardiogram (ECG) LVH participating in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiography substudy (66±7 years; 42% women; 11% with diabetes) who did not have aortic or mitral valve stenosis or prosthesis. Results MAC was found in 458 patients (49%). Patients with MAC were older (68±7 vs. 65±7 years); were more often women (47% vs. 37%); had higher baseline systolic blood pressure (BP) (175±14 vs. 172±15mm Hg), left atrial diameter (4.0±0.5 vs. 3.8±0.6cm), and left ventricular mass index (58±13 vs. 55±12g/m(2.7)) and included more patients with proteinuria (30% vs. 21%; all P < 0.01). During a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 58 participants had an ischemic stroke. Risk of incident ischemic stroke was significantly related to presence of MAC (log rank = 9; P < 0.01). In multivariable Cox regression analysis models, MAC was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio = 1.78-2.35), independent of age, baseline or time-varying systolic BP, prevalence or incidence of atrial fibrillation, history of previous cerebrovascular disease, and other well-recognized confounders, such as sex, time-varying left ventricular mass, left atrial diameter, and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (all P < 0.05). Conclusions MAC is common in treated hypertensive patients with ECG LVH and is an independent predictor of incident ischemic stroke.
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Prognostic value of energy loss index in asymptomatic aortic stenosis.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Aortic valve area index adjusted for pressure recovery (energy loss index [ELI]) has been suggested as a more accurate measure of aortic stenosis (AS) severity, but its prognostic value has not been determined in a prospective study.
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Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9-15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (?)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ?-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ?-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD.
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Cytokinin cross-talking during biotic and abiotic stress responses.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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As sessile organisms, plants have to be able to adapt to a continuously changing environment. Plants that perceive some of these changes as stress signals activate signaling pathways to modulate their development and to enable them to survive. The complex responses to environmental cues are to a large extent mediated by plant hormones that together orchestrate the final plant response. The phytohormone cytokinin is involved in many plant developmental processes. Recently, it has been established that cytokinin plays an important role in stress responses, but does not act alone. Indeed, the hormonal control of plant development and stress adaptation is the outcome of a complex network of multiple synergistic and antagonistic interactions between various hormones. Here, we review the recent findings on the cytokinin function as part of this hormonal network. We focus on the importance of the crosstalk between cytokinin and other hormones, such as abscisic acid, jasmonate, salicylic acid, ethylene, and auxin in the modulation of plant development and stress adaptation. Finally, the impact of the current research in the biotechnological industry will be discussed.
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Role of the Arabidopsis PIN6 auxin transporter in auxin homeostasis and auxin-mediated development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Plant-specific PIN-formed (PIN) efflux transporters for the plant hormone auxin are required for tissue-specific directional auxin transport and cellular auxin homeostasis. The Arabidopsis PIN protein family has been shown to play important roles in developmental processes such as embryogenesis, organogenesis, vascular tissue differentiation, root meristem patterning and tropic growth. Here we analyzed roles of the less characterised Arabidopsis PIN6 auxin transporter. PIN6 is auxin-inducible and is expressed during multiple auxin-regulated developmental processes. Loss of pin6 function interfered with primary root growth and lateral root development. Misexpression of PIN6 affected auxin transport and interfered with auxin homeostasis in other growth processes such as shoot apical dominance, lateral root primordia development, adventitious root formation, root hair outgrowth and root waving. These changes in auxin-regulated growth correlated with a reduction in total auxin transport as well as with an altered activity of DR5-GUS auxin response reporter. Overall, the data indicate that PIN6 regulates auxin homeostasis during plant development.
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A risk score for predicting mortality in patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic stenosis.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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Prognostic information for asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS) from prospective studies is scarce and there is no risk score available to assess mortality.
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[Intraosseous cranioorbital hemangiomas].
Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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The authors describe 2 cases of primary intraosseous cavernous hemangioma (PICH). PICH are extremely rare tumors that represent less than 1% of all tumors of the bone. Only 20% of them involve skull. In both cases clinical findings were presented by proptosis, oculomotor disorders and chronic daily headaches. Surgery is the most recommended method of treatment. The best surgical management is gross total resection within intact tissue. In both cases tumor was removed completely.
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[Assessing the effectiveness of vaccination programs].
Gac Sanit
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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Vaccines have contributed enormously to reducing the incidence of many communicable diseases. The protective efficacy of a vaccine refers to the health effects of the vaccine applied in optimal, ideal conditions, whereas the effectiveness of a vaccination program refers to the health effects of vaccination in the vaccinated individuals in clinical practice or within public health programs, which may differ widely from optimal conditions. Vaccine efficacy is estimated by randomized clinical trials. In contrast, effectiveness can be measured by various types of epidemiological studies: randomized community trials, in which the target vaccine is randomly assigned to a group and disease incidence in this group is compared with that of an unvaccinated group; cohort studies, which are observational epidemiological studies in which the vaccination status is known in healthy vaccinated (vaccinated cohort) and unvaccinated (unvaccinated cohort) people and the occurrence of the disease in the two groups is studied; and observational case-control studies, in which two groups are selected; one with the disease under investigation (cases) and the other without (controls), and vaccination histories are investigated in the two groups. Vaccine effectiveness may also be estimated by comparing attack rates in epidemic outbreaks or secondary attack rates in the home, or by screening.
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[Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the clinical medicine].
Cas. Lek. Cesk.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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Vast knowledge has accumulated recently on the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in clinical medicine. Strong evidence was disclosed on their important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Free radicals have unpaired electron and this is the reason for extreme reactivity causing propagation reactions that lead to the multiple damage to cells. Oxidizing agents belong to the family of reactive species. Reactive oxygen species are produced during biochemical processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, phagocytosis and metabolism of purins. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species can cause the tissue damage. Reactive nitrogen species are produced by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by the action of asymmetric dimethylarginine. Peroxisomal oxidases, NAD(P) oxidase, xanthinoxidase, nitric oxide synthase, myeloperoxidase and lipooxygenase catalyze biochemical reactions producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Biochemical and molecular processes in cells are negatively influenced by chemical modification of DNA, proteins and lipids caused by the action of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Antioxidant metabolites and enzymes work together to stop and to prevent oxidative modification of biomolecules. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and neurodegenerative diseases.
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Fatty acids as biocompounds: their role in human metabolism, health and disease: a review. part 2: fatty acid physiological roles and applications in human health and disease.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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This is the second of two review parts aiming at describing the major physiological roles of fatty acids, as well as their applications in specific conditions related to human health.
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CD34(+)/CD38(-) stem cells in chronic myeloid leukemia express Siglec-3 (CD33) and are responsive to the CD33-targeting drug gemtuzumab/ozogamicin.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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CD33 is a well-known stem cell target in acute myeloid leukemia. So far, however, little is known about expression of CD33 on leukemic stem cells in chronic leukemias.
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Contrast stress echocardiography in hypertensive heart disease.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Hypertension is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiac and vascular structural and functional changes. Myocardial ischemia may arise in hypertension independent of coronary artery disease through an interaction between several pathophysiological mechanisms, including left ventricular hypertrophy, increased arterial stiffness and reduced coronary flow reserve associated with microvascular disease and endothelial dysfunction. The present case report demonstrates how contrast stress echocardiography can be used to diagnose myocardial ischemia in a hypertensive patient with angina pectoris but without significant obstructive coronary artery disease. The myocardial ischemia was due to severe resistant hypertension complicated with concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and increased arterial stiffness.
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Left atrial size in hypertension and stroke.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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An enlarged left atrium is associated with increased risk for stroke. However, there are controversies regarding how left atrial size should be measured.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.