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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effectiveness of Trastuzumab in First-Line HER2+ Metastatic Breast Cancer After Failure in Adjuvant Setting: A Controlled Cohort Study.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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The evidence supporting the use of trastuzumab (T) in a metastatic setting comes from studies that included (almost) only patients who never received prior T. We investigated the effectiveness of T as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer (mBC) in women previously treated with T in the adjuvant setting.
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"The Original Sound": a new non-pharmacological approach to the postnatal stress management of preterm infants.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Abstract> Objective: To evaluate the effect of the exposure to "The Original Sound" (TOS), an original track composed of different sounds such as fetal heartbeat, breathing, blood flow, and ambience sounds, specifically created for this study, on physiological stability of preterm infants during a 10-d hospitalization. Methods: Thirty-four preterm infants (32-37 weeks of gestation) were randomized to receive either TOS or environmental noise. TOS was provided for a 20-min period, three times a day, using two speakers and a MP3 player placed in the cradle. Cardiorespiratory and behavioral parameters were recorded. Results: Heart rate in the treated group was positively correlated with TOS exposure, showing a significant reduction on day 2 and lower values during the first day. A decrease in RR is also recorded on day two in the TOS group, although not significant. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence for short-term improvements in the physiological stability of preterm infants using TOS. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential of this non-pharmacological approach and its clinical relevance to postnatal stress management in neonatal intensive care units.
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MEDITERRANEAN WAY OF DRINKING AND LONGEVITY.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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ABSTRACT The relation between alcohol consumption and mortality is a J-shaped curve in most of the many studies published on this topic. The Copenhagen Prospective Population Studies demonstrated in the year 2000 that wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. Wine contains various poliphenolic substances which may be beneficial for health and in particular flavonols (such as myricetin and quercetin), catechin and epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, various phenolic acids and the stilbene resveratrol. In particular, resveratrol seems to play a positive effect on longevity because it increases the expression level of Sirt1, besides its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. Moderate wine drinking is part of the Mediterranean diet, together with abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat and a low intake of (red) meat. This healthy diet pattern involves a "Mediterranean way of drinking", that is a regular, moderate wine consumption mainly with food (up to two glasses a day for men and one glass for women). Moderate wine drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer.
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Etiologic heterogeneity among non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) comprises biologically and clinically heterogeneous subtypes. Previously, study size has limited the ability to compare and contrast the risk factor profiles among these heterogeneous subtypes.
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Smoking and body mass index and survival in pancreatic cancer patients.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The objective of this study was to provide further information on the role of personal characteristics and lifestyle factors, including obesity, diabetes, and tobacco smoking, on survival from pancreatic cancer.
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Thyroid cancer mortality and incidence: A global overview.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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In most areas of the world, thyroid cancer incidence has been appreciably increasing over the last few decades, whereas mortality has steadily declined. We updated global trends in thyroid cancer mortality and incidence using official mortality data from the World Health Organization (1970-2012) and incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1960-2007). Male mortality declined in all the major countries considered, with annual percent changes around -2/-3% over the last decades. Only in the United States mortality declined up to the mid 1980s and increased thereafter. Similarly, in women mortality declined in most countries considered, with APCs around -2/-5% over the last decades, with the exception of the UK, the United States and Australia, where mortality has been declining up to the late 1980s/late 1990s to level off (or increase) thereafter. In 2008-2012, most countries had mortality rates (age-standardized, world population) between 0.20 and 0.40/100,000 men and 0.20 and 0.60/100,000 women, the highest rates being in Latvia, Hungary, the Republic of Moldova and Israel (over 0.40/100,000) for men and in Ecuador, Colombia and Israel (over 0.60/100,000) for women. In most countries, a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer (mainly papillary carcinomas) was observed in both sexes. The declines in thyroid cancer mortality reflect both variations in risk factor exposure and changes in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, while the increases in the incidence are likely due to the increase in the detection of this neoplasm over the last few decades.
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Intrauterine devices and endometrial cancer risk: A pooled analysis of the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Intrauterine devices (IUDs), long-acting and reversible contraceptives, induce a number of immunological and biochemical changes in the uterine environment that could affect endometrial cancer (EC) risk. We addressed this relationship through a pooled analysis of data collected in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium. We combined individual-level data from 4 cohort and 14 case-control studies, in total 8,801 EC cases and 15,357 controls. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated pooled odds ratios (pooled-ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EC risk associated with ever use, type of device, ages at first and last use, duration of use and time since last use, stratified by study and adjusted for confounders. Ever use of IUDs was inversely related to EC risk (pooled-OR?=?0.81, 95% CI?=?0.74-0.90). Compared with never use, reduced risk of EC was observed for inert IUDs (pooled-OR?=?0.69, 95% CI?=?0.58-0.82), older age at first use (?35 years pooled-OR?=?0.53, 95% CI?=?0.43-0.67), older age at last use (?45 years pooled-OR?=?0.60, 95% CI?=?0.50-0.72), longer duration of use (?10 years pooled-OR?=?0.61, 95% CI?=?0.52-0.71) and recent use (within 1 year of study entry pooled-OR?=?0.39, 95% CI?=?0.30-0.49). Future studies are needed to assess the respective roles of detection biases and biologic effects related to foreign body responses in the endometrium, heavier bleeding (and increased clearance of carcinogenic cells) and localized hormonal changes.
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Smoking, occupation, history of selected diseases and bladder cancer risk in Manisa, Turkey.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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The aim of the study was to identify and quantify the reasons for the high bladder cancer rates in Turkey. We conducted a case-control study in Manisa, Turkey, in 2011. The study included 173 patients with incident, histologically confirmed bladder cancer and 282 controls who were frequency matched by age, sex and geographic area, admitted to the main hospital of Manisa for a wide range of acute diseases. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from multiple logistic regression models. Compared with never smokers, the OR was 2.9 (95% CI 1.5-5.4) for moderate (<20 cigarettes/day) and 4.0 (95% CI 1.7-9.6) for heavy smokers. The association was stronger for unfiltered black tobacco (OR=5.4) and for longer duration of smoking (?40 years, OR=5.3). There was a strong inverse correlation with social class indicators, with ORs of 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.4) for more-educated compared with less-educated individuals. There was no significant association with a group of five occupations a priori defined as being of high risk (OR=1.3), nor with farming (OR=1.2). Bladder cancer risk was directly related to the history of urinary tract infections (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1) but not to diabetes (OR=0.7) or kidney (OR=0.7) and prostate (OR=1.3) diseases. Tobacco is the major risk factor for bladder cancer in Manisa, being responsible for 56% of cases; urinary tract infections account for 19% of cases, whereas the role of occupational exposure is limited in this, predominantly rural, population.
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A review of epidemiological data on epilepsy, phenobarbital, and risk of liver cancer.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Phenobarbital is not genotoxic, but has been related to promotion of liver cancer (as well as inhibition) in rodents. In October 2012, we carried out a systematic literature search in the Medline database and searched reference lists of retrieved publications. We identified 15 relevant papers. Epidemiological data on epileptics/anticonvulsant use and liver cancer were retrieved from eight reports from seven cohort (record linkage) studies of epileptics, and data on phenobarbital use from a pharmacy-based record linkage investigation of patients treated with phenobarbital (three reports), plus a case-control study nested in one of the cohort studies and including information on phenobarbital use. Of the studies of cancer in epileptics, two showed no excess risk of liver cancer. A long-term (1933-1984) Danish cohort study of epileptics found relative risks (RRs) of 4.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-6.8] of liver cancer and of 2.2 (95% CI 1.2-3.5) of biliary tract cancers. Such apparent excess risks could, however, be largely or completely attributed to thorotrast, a contrast medium used in the past in epileptic patients for cerebral angiography. A Finnish cohort study of epileptics obtained an RR of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.4). Such an apparent excess risk, however, was not related to phenobarbital or to any specific anticonvulsant drug. The long-term follow-up of two UK cohorts found some excess risk of liver cancer among severe, but not among mild, epileptics. Some excess risk of liver cancer was also found in cohort studies of patients hospitalized for epilepsy in Sweden and Taiwan, in the absence, however, of association with any specific drugs. A UK General Practice database, comparing epileptics treated with valproate with unexposed ones, found a very low incidence of liver cancer. Of the studies of cancer in patients treated with phenobarbital, a large US pharmacy-based cohort investigation showed no excess risk of liver cancer. In a case-control study, nested in the Danish cohort of epileptics, no association was observed between phenobarbital and liver cancer among patients who had not received thorotrast (RR=1.0 for liver and 0.8 for biliary tract cancers). Thus, some, although not all, studies reported excess risk of all cancers and liver cancer in severe, but not in milder epileptics. There is no evidence of a specific role of phenobarbital in human liver cancer risk, but data on the topic are limited.
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Alcohol drinking and risk of leukemia-a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dose-risk relation.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The association between alcohol and leukemia risk has been addressed in several studies in the past two decades, but results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the dose-risk relation. Through the literature search up to August 2013, we identified 18 studies, 10 case-control and 8 cohorts, carried out in a total of 7142 leukemia cases. We derived pooled meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and we performed a dose-risk analysis using a class of nonlinear random-effects meta-regression models. Stratified analyses were carried out on leukemia subtypes and groups, in order to identify possible etiologic differences. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risks (RRs) for all leukemia were 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.03], 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.81-1.02) for any, light (? 1 drink/day) and moderate to heavy (>1 drink/day) alcohol drinking, respectively. The summary RRs for any alcohol drinking were 1.47 (95% CI, 0.47-4.62) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 0.94 (95% CI 0.77-1.15) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.86-1.21) for acute myeloid leukemia and 0.93 (95% CI 0.75-1.14) for chronic myeloid leukemia. The subgroup analysis on geographical area for all leukemia combined showed RRs of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76-0.93), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.83-1.01) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.02-1.70) for studies conducted in America, Europe and Asia, respectively. We did not find an increased risk of leukemia among alcohol drinkers. If any, a modest favorable effect emerged for light alcohol drinking, with a model-based risk reduction of approximately 10% in regular drinkers.
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Long term survival of HER2-positive early breast cancer treated with trastuzumab-based adjuvant regimen: A large cohort study from clinical practice.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Trastuzumab-based regimens for the adjuvant treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) in large randomized trials, with sustained benefits at four-year follow-up. We assessed long-term survival estimates and predictors in a large cohort of Italian women with early breast cancer treated with trastuzumab in clinical practice. Through a record linkage between five regional healthcare databases, we identified women treated with trastuzumab for early breast cancer in Lombardy (2006-2009). DFS and OS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and independent predictors were assessed using proportional hazard models. 2046 women received trastuzumab in early breast cancer adjuvant setting. Overall, the proportion of patients surviving free of disease was 93.9% at one year, 85.8% at 2 years, 79.4% at 3 years, and 75.0% at 4 years. OS estimates were 98.7%, 95.4%, 91.5% and 89.4% at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Significant independent predictors of worse survival outcomes were age <40 or ?70 years compared to age 40-69 years, positive nodal status, radical breast surgery, combination therapy with paclitaxel, having at least one comorbidity (i.e. diabetes, cardiovascular disease), and a trastuzumab-based regimen lasting less than six months. Long term survival rates of women treated with trastuzumab for early breast cancer in clinical practice were consistent with estimates from clinical trials testing the drug in the adjuvant setting.
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Use of trastuzumab for breast cancer: the role of age.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Indication for the use of trastuzumab was given in Italy in 2000 for the treatment of HER-2 metastatic breast cancer and in 2006 for early stage breast cancer. Information on trastuzumab use and on its possible variation with age in Italy is however limited. Using health care administrative databases, we evaluated the prevalence of the use of trastuzumab, and the probability for administration since the first hospitalization for breast cancer in various age groups, in two series of Italian women diagnosed with breast cancer in the Lombardy region (2004-2009) and in the Palermo district. The ratio between trastuzumb users and patients with a hospitalization for breast cancer increased from 2.9% in 2004 up to 17.2% in 2009 in Lombardy. Patients aged <65 years were more frequent users (9.6%) compared to those aged ? 75 years (1.3%). Similarly, in the Palermo district the ratio increased from 10.6% in 2006 to 28.5% in 2008, with subjects aged <65 years more frequently using trastuzumab (19.1%), than subjects aged ? 75 years (6.2%). The age ratio between younger and older patients decreased over time in both settings (from 15 in 2004 to 10.2 in 2006, and 5.2 in 2009 in Lombardy, and from 4.0 in 2006 to 2.3 in 2009 in the Palermo district). The proportion of breast cancer patients using trastuzumab increased over time both in Lombardy and in Palermo district, though geographical differences persisted. Younger breast cancers patients were more likely to receive a trastuzumab treatment than elderly ones, but the difference declined over calendar period.
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The stomach cancer pooling (StoP) project: study design and presentation.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Gastric cancer affects about one million people per year worldwide, being the second leading cause of cancer mortality. The study of its etiology remains therefore a global issue as it may allow the identification of major targets, besides eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, for primary prevention. It has however received little attention, given its comparatively low incidence in most high-income countries. We introduce a consortium of epidemiological investigations named the 'Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project'. Twenty-two studies agreed to participate, for a total of over 9000 cases and 23 000 controls. Twenty studies have already shared the original data set. Of the patients, 40% are from Asia, 43% from Europe, and 17% from North America; 34% are women and 66% men; the median age is 61 years; 56% are from population-based case-control studies, 41% from hospital-based ones, and 3% from nested case-control studies derived from cohort investigations. Biological samples are available from 12 studies. The aim of the StoP Project is to analyze the role of lifestyle and genetic determinants in the etiology of gastric cancer through pooled analyses of individual-level data. The uniquely large data set will allow us to define and quantify the main effects of each risk factor of interest, including a number of infrequent habits, and to adequately address associations in subgroups of the population, as well as interaction within and between environmental and genetic factors. Further, we will carry out separate analyses according to different histotypes and subsites of gastric cancer, to identify potential different risk patterns and etiological characteristics.
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Alcohol drinking and multiple myeloma risk--a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dose-risk relationship.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The role of alcohol intake in the risk for multiple myeloma (MM) is unclear, although some recent findings suggest an inverse relationship. To summarize the information on the topic, we carried out a systematic review and a dose-risk meta-analysis of published data. Through the literature search until August 2013, we identified 18 studies, eight case-control and 10 cohort studies, carried out in a total of 5694 MM patients. We derived pooled meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and we carried out a dose-risk analysis using a class of nonlinear random-effects meta-regression models. The relative risk for alcohol drinkers versus non/occasional drinkers was 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.10] overall, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.74-1.24) among case-control studies, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89-1.13) among cohort studies. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled relative risks were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.81-1.13) for light (i.e. ? 1 drink/day) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.74-1.07) for moderate-to-heavy (i.e. >1 drink/day) alcohol drinkers. The dose-risk analysis revealed a model-based MM risk reduction of about 15% at two to four drinks/day (i.e. 25-50 g of ethanol). The present meta-analysis of published data found no strong association between alcohol drinking and MM risk, although a modest favorable effect emerged for moderate-to-heavy alcohol drinkers.
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Worldwide trends in gastric cancer mortality (1980-2011), with predictions to 2015, and incidence by subtype.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Gastric cancer incidence and mortality decreased substantially over the last decades in most countries worldwide, with differences in the trends and distribution of the main topographies across regions. To monitor recent mortality trends (1980-2011) and to compute short-term predictions (2015) of gastric cancer mortality in selected countries worldwide, we analysed mortality data provided by the World Health Organization. We also analysed incidence of cardia and non-cardia cancers using data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (2003-2007). The joinpoint regression over the most recent calendar periods gave estimated annual percent changes (EAPC) around -3% for the European Union (EU) and major European countries, as well as in Japan and Korea, and around -2% in North America and major Latin American countries. In the United States of America (USA), EU and other major countries worldwide, the EAPC, however, were lower than in previous years. The predictions for 2015 show that a levelling off of rates is expected in the USA and a few other countries. The relative contribution of cardia and non-cardia gastric cancers to the overall number of cases varies widely, with a generally higher proportion of cardia cancers in countries with lower gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates (e.g. the USA, Canada and Denmark). Despite the favourable mortality trends worldwide, in some countries the declines are becoming less marked. There still is the need to control Helicobacter pylori infection and other risk factors, as well as to improve diagnosis and management, to further reduce the burden of gastric cancer.
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Clinical utility of a plasma-based miRNA signature classifier within computed tomography lung cancer screening: a correlative MILD trial study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Recent screening trial results indicate that low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) reduces lung cancer mortality in high-risk patients. However, high false-positive rates, costs, and potential harms highlight the need for complementary biomarkers. The diagnostic performance of a noninvasive plasma microRNA signature classifier (MSC) was retrospectively evaluated in samples prospectively collected from smokers within the randomized Multicenter Italian Lung Detection (MILD) trial.
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Risk assessment for the Italian population of acetaldehyde in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Acetaldehyde is a naturally-occurring carcinogenic compound, present in different food items, especially in alcoholic beverages. The aims of this study were to measure acetaldehyde concentration in different beverages consumed in Italy and to estimate the potential cancer risk. The analytical procedure was based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using the isotopic dilution method. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was used for risk characterisation. The highest concentrations (median, min-max) were detected in grappa samples (499, 23.4-1850mg/l), followed by fruit-based liqueurs and spirits (62.0, 5.23-483mg/l) and wine (68.0, 18.1-477mg/l); the lowest were detected in gin (0.91, 0.78-1.90mg/l). The lowest MOE was estimated for high wine consumers (69). These results suggest that regulatory measures and consumer guidance may be necessary for acetaldehyde in beverages.
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Family history and the risk of cancer: genetic factors influencing multiple cancer sites.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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A number of co-aggregations of cancers at different sites has been reported, including recognized syndromes (e.g., Li-Fraumeni), and aggregations between cancers at breast, stomach and ovary, between cancers at prostate, urinary tract and other sites, as well as between several tobacco-related neoplasms. In a network of case-control studies from Italy and Switzerland, including more than 12,000 cases of 13 different cancers, after controlling for multiple testing, significant associations emerged between oral and pharyngeal cancer and family history of laryngeal cancer (relative risk (RR): 3.3); esophageal cancer and family history of oral and pharyngeal cancer RR: 4.1; breast cancer and family history of colorectal cancer (RR: 1.5) and of hemolymphopoietic cancers (RR: 1.7); ovarian cancer and family history of breast cancer (RR: 2.3); and prostate cancer and family history of bladder cancer (RR: 3.4). Shared exposures to environmental factors within families account for some of the observed aggregations, together with heritable, and hence, genetic factors.
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Fiber intake and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Some studies examined the inverse relation between nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk and dietary fibers in endemic populations. By means of a hospital-based case-control study, we verified whether this association was also present in Italy in connection with various types of dietary fibers. Cases were 198 patients with incident, histologically confirmed, NPC admitted to major teaching and general hospitals during 1992-2008. Controls were 594 patients admitted for acute, nonneoplastic conditions to the same hospital network of cases. Information was elicited using a validated food frequency questionnaire including 78 foods, food groups, or dishes. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for quartiles of intake of different types of fiber after allowance for energy intake and other potential confounding factors. Total fiber intake was inversely related to risk of NPC (OR = 0.58 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of intake; 95% CI: 0.34-0.96). We found an inverse association for total soluble (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.96) and total insoluble fiber (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.33-0.95), in particular cellulose (OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.33-0.96), and lignin (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.85). In conclusion, this study suggests that dietary intake of soluble and insoluble fibers is inversely related to NPC risk in a nonendemic southern population.
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Cancer prevention in Europe: the Mediterranean diet as a protective choice.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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In the coming years, European death rates because of cancer will further decline, but the overall number of cases will increase, mostly as a consequence of the ageing of the population. The target for cancer prevention in Europe will remain a healthy diet and control of obesity in addition to a decrease in smoking. A healthy diet model in European countries is the traditional Mediterranean diet, which is based on abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat, low intake of (red) meat and moderate consumption of wine. The Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The biological mechanisms for cancer prevention associated with the Mediterranean diet have been related to the favourable effect of a balanced ratio of omega 6 and omega 3 essential fatty acids and high amounts of fibre, antioxidants and polyphenols found in fruit, vegetables, olive oil and wine. The Mediterranean diet also involves a Mediterranean way of drinking, that is, regular, moderate consumption of wine mainly with food. This pattern of drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer. However, heavy alcohol drinking is associated with digestive, upper respiratory tract, liver and breast cancers; therefore, avoidance or restriction of alcohol consumption to two drinks/day in men and one drink/day in women is a global public health priority.
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Trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity in early breast cancer: a cohort study.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Concerns have been raised about the cardiac safety profile of trastuzumab for the adjuvant treatment of early stage breast cancer in clinical practice. We assessed trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity and its predictors in a large cohort of Italian women.
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Consumption of fruit, vegetables, and other food groups and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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The role of dietary habits in the etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been extensively investigated in high-incidence areas, but evidence is scanty in low-incidence populations. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between NPC risk and a wide range of food groups in the Italian population.
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Nutritional factors, physical activity, and breast cancer by hormonal receptor status.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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To investigate the association between food and nutrient intake, occupational and leisure-time physical activity, and body mass index and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status.
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Dietary total antioxidant capacity and colorectal cancer: a large case-control study in Italy.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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A favorable role of fruit and vegetables on colorectal cancer risk has been related to the antioxidant properties of their components. We used data from an Italian case-control study including 1,953 patients with incident, histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (1,225 colon and 728 rectal cancers). Controls were 4,154 patients admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. A reproducible and valid food frequency questionnaire was used to assess subjects usual diet. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using Italian food composition tables in terms of ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) through multiple logistic regression models, including terms for potential confounding factors, and energy intake. TAC was inversely related with colorectal cancer risk: the OR for the highest versus the lowest quintile was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.57-0.82) for FRAP, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TEAC and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TRAP. Corresponding values, excluding TAC deriving from coffee, were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for FRAP, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for TEAC and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) for TRAP. The inverse association was apparently-though not significantly-stronger for rectal than for colon cancer. This is the first case-control study indicating consistent inverse relations between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer risk.
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Nutrient-based dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Few data are available on the role of combinations of foods and/or nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk. To add further information on dietary patterns potentially associated to pancreatic cancer, we applied an exploratory principal component factor analysis on 28 major nutrients derived from an Italian case-control study.
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Lung cancer mortality in European men: trends and predictions.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Lung cancer mortality in men from the European Union (EU) peaked in the late 1980s at an age-standardised (world standard population) rate over 53/100,000 and declined subsequently to reach 44/100,000 in the early 2000s. To provide a comprehensive picture of recent trends in male lung cancer mortality in Europe, we analyzed available data from the World Health Organization up to 2009 and predicted future rates to 2015. Lung cancer mortality rates in EU men continued to fall over recent years, to reach a value of 41.1/100,000 in 2005-2009. The fall was similar at all-ages and in middle-aged men (less than 2% per year over most recent years), but was appreciably larger in young men (aged 20-44 years, over 5% per year). A favourable trend is thus likely to be maintained in the foreseeable future, although the predicted overall EU rate in 2015 is still over 35/100,000, i.e., higher than the US rate in 2007 (33.7/100,000). Over most recent calendar years, overall male lung cancer rates were around 35-40/100,000 in western Europe, as compared to over 50/100,000 in central and eastern Europe. Within western Europe, lung cancer rates were lower in northern countries such as Sweden, but also Finland and the UK (below 30/100,000), where the tobacco-related epidemic started earlier and rates have long been declining, whereas mortality was high in Belgium (51.6), France (42.3), the Netherlands and Spain (around 43.0), where the epidemic started later but is persisting. Widespread measures for smoking control and cessation in middle-aged European men, i.e., in the generations where smoking prevalence used to be high, would lead to appreciable reductions in male lung cancer mortality in the near future. This is particularly urgent in central and eastern European countries.
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Risk factors for falls in older people in nursing homes and hospitals. A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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This is a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at providing a comprehensive and quantitative review of risk factors for falls in older people in nursing homes and hospitals. Using MEDLINE, we searched for prospective studies investigating risk factors for falls in nursing home residents (NHR) and older hospital inpatients (HI). When there were at least 3 studies investigating a factor in a comparable way in a specific setting, we computed the pooled odds ratio (OR) using random effect models. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Eighteen risk factors for NHR and six for HI were considered, including socio-demographic, mobility, sensory, medical factors, and medication use. For NHR, the strongest associations were with history of falls (OR=3.06), walking aid use (OR=2.08) and moderate disability (OR=2.08). For HI, the strongest association was found for history of falls (OR=2.85). No association emerged with age in NHR (OR=1.00), while the OR for a 5years increase in age of HI was 1.04. Female sex was, if anything, associated with a decreased risk. A few other medical conditions and medications were also associated with a moderately increased risk. For some important factors (e.g. balance and muscle weakness), a summary estimate was not computed because the measures used in various studies were not comparable. Falls in older people in nursing homes and hospitals have multifactorial etiology. History of falls, use of walking aids and disability are strong predictors of future falls.
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Hodgkins lymphoma mortality in the Americas, 1997-2008: achievements and persistent inadequacies.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Although therapeutic advancements have made Hodgkins lymphoma (HL) a largely curable disease, trends in HL mortality have been variable across countries. To provide updated information on HL mortality in the Americas, overall and 20-44 years age-standardized (world population) mortality rates from HL were derived for the 12 Latin American countries providing valid data to the World Health Organization database and with more than two million of inhabitants. For comparative purpose, data for the United States and Canada were also presented. Trends in mortality over the 1997 to 2008 period are based on joinpoint regression analysis. Declines in HL mortality were registered in all Latin American countries except in Venezuela. In most recent years, HL mortality had fallen to about 0.3/100,000 men and 0.2/100,000 women in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Guatemala, that is, to values similar to North America. Despite some declines, rates remained high in Cuba (1/100,000 men and 0.7/100,000 women), Costa Rica and Mexico as well as in Venezuela (between 0.5 and 0.6/100,000 men and between 0.3 and 0.5/100,000 women). In young adults, trends were more favorable in all Latin American countries except Cuba, whose rates remained exceedingly high (0.8/100,000 men and 0.6/100,000 women). Thus, appreciable declines in HL mortality were observed in most Latin America over the last decade, and several major countries reached values comparable to North America. Substantial excess mortality was still observed in Cuba, Costa Rica, Mexico and Venezuela, calling for urgent interventions to improve HL management in these countries.
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Bevacizumab in clinical practice: prescribing appropriateness relative to national indications and safety.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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The aim of this study was to describe the clinical use of bevacizumab in Lombardy (9.5 million inhabitants), Italy, during 2006-2007 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) to evaluate compliance with the Italian Medicine Agency (AIFA) indications, the incidence of adverse events, and the survival rate. We performed computerized record linkage among three different Lombardy health care databases: File F registry, Regional discharge database, and Registry Office records. Patients were classified into approved and off-label uses according to the AIFA indications. Treatment with bevacizumab was administered to 780 patients, of whom 81.7% (n = 637) had mCRC. Among these, 37.8% (n = 241) of patients received the drug in observance of AIFA indications. Overall, ?10% of patients had serious treatment-related toxicities (fistula, 3.5%; venous thromboembolism, 2.8%; hemorrhage, 1.9%; intestinal perforation and arterial thromboembolism, <1%). The 1-year survival rate was 74.3% and the 2-year survival rate was 39.2%. The median survival time was 20.5 months, and there were no meaningful differences between gender and age groups. There was a gap between the bevacizumab approved indication and clinical practice pattern: overall, less than one half of the patients received bevacizumab in observance with the regulatory indication. The main reason for nonadherence to the indication was use as a second-line or advanced line of therapy. The incidence of serious adverse events and the survival rates of mCRC patients were similar to those reported in clinical trials.
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Alcohol consumption and cancer risk.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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This review focuses on selected aspects of the relation between alcohol consumption and cancer risk. Heavy alcohol consumption (i.e., ?4 drinks/day) is significantly associated with an increased risk of about 5-fold for oral and pharyngeal cancer and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 2.5-fold for laryngeal cancer, 50% for colorectal and breast cancers, and 30% for pancreatic cancer. These estimates are based on a large number of epidemiological studies and are generally consistent across strata of several covariates. The evidence suggests that at low doses of alcohol consumption (i.e., ?1 drink/day) the risk is also increased by about 20% for oral and pharyngeal cancer and 30% for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Thus, for these sites there is little evidence of a threshold effect. While consumption of fewer than 3 alcoholic drinks/wk is not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, an intake of 3 to 6 drinks/wk might already yield a (small) increase in risk. On the other hand, intakes up to 1 drink/day are not associated to the risk of laryngeal, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer. The positive association between alcohol consumption and the risk of head and neck cancers is independent from tobacco exposure.
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The decline in breast cancer mortality in Europe: an update (to 2009).
Breast
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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We updated trends in breast cancer mortality in Europe up to the late 2000s. In the EU, age-adjusted (world standard population) breast cancer mortality rates declined by 6.9% between 2002 and 2006, from 17.9 to 16.7/100,000. The largest falls were in northern European countries, but more recent declines were also observed in central and eastern Europe. In 2007, all major European countries had overall breast cancer rates between 15 and 19/100,000. In relative terms, the declines in mortality were larger at younger age (-11.6% at age 20-49 years between 2002 and 2007 in the EU), and became smaller with advancing age (-6.6% at age 50-69, -5.0% at age 70-79 years). The present report confirms and further quantifies the persisting steady fall in breast cancer mortality in Europe over the last 25-30 years, which is mainly due to advancements in the therapy.
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Dietary transfatty acids and cancer risk.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2011
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This study assesses the association between dietary transfatty acid (TFA) intake and the risk of selected cancers. Mailed questionnaires were completed between 1994 and 1997 in eight Canadian provinces by 1182 incident, histologically confirmed cases of the stomach, 1727 of the colon, 1447 of the rectum, 628 of the pancreas, 3341 of the lung, 2362 of the breast, 442 of the ovary, 1799 of the prostate, 686 of the testis, 1345 of the kidney, 1029 of the bladder, 1009 of the brain, 1666 non-Hodgkins lymphomas, 1069 leukemias, and 5039 population controls. Information on dietary habits and nutrition intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire, which provided data on eating habits 2 years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidenc530e intervals (CI) were derived by unconditional logistic regression to adjust for total energy intake and other potential confounding factors. Dietary TFA were positively associated with the risk of cancers of the colon (OR: 1.38 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile), breast in premenopause (OR: 1.60), and prostate (OR: 1.42). There were a borderline association for pancreas cancer (OR: 1.38; P=0.06). No significant association was observed for cancers of the stomach, rectum, lung, ovary, testis, kidney, bladder, brain, non-Hodgkins lymphomas, and leukemia, although the ORs for the highest quartile were above unity for all neoplasms considered, except testis. Our findings add evidence that high TFA is associated with an increased risk of various cancers. Thus, a diet low in transfat may play a role in the prevention of several cancers.
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Salt, processed meat and the risk of cancer.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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This study assesses the association between salt added at the table, processed meat and the risk of various cancers. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 19 732 patients with histologically confirmed incident cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, brain, non-Hodgkins lymphoma or leukaemia, and 5039 population controls,between 1994 and 1997. Measurement included information on socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 years before the study. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived through unconditional logistic regression. Compared with never adding salt at the table, always or often adding salt at the table was associated with an increased risk of stomach, lung, testicular and bladder cancer. Processed meat was significantly related to the risk of the stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, prostate, testis, kidney and bladder cancer and leukaemia; the odds ratios for the highest quartile ranged from 1.3 to 1.7. The findings add to the evidence that high consumption of salt and processed meat may play a role in the aetiology of several cancers.
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Coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease mortality in young adults: recent trends in Europe.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Over the last two decades, mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) declined by about 30% in the European Union (EU).
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Cancer mortality trend analysis in Italy, 1970-2007.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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To provide an updated review of cancer mortality trends in Italy, cancer mortality and census data, from 1970 to 2007, were extracted from the WHO mortality database and analyzed using age-specific and standardized rates, and joinpoint regression. Total cancer mortality rates in men have been declining by 1.8% yearly since 1994, reaching a rate of 147 per 100 000 residents (world standard) in 2007. In women, total cancer mortality rates have been decreasing by 1.1% yearly since 1991, resulting in a standardized mortality rate of 85 per 100 000 residents in 2007. Avoided deaths, compared with rates of 1988, from lung, intestinal, stomach, and breast cancers amount to 30 646. In men, trends were driven by cancers of the lung and other tobacco-related sites, intestines, and stomach. Favorable trends for cancers of the breast, intestines, stomach, and uterus contributed to falls in mortality rate in women. Downward trends were seen in both sexes for Hodgkins lymphoma, bone cancer, and leukemias. Lung cancer in women showed an upward trend, with mortality rates increasing by 2.6% yearly since 1997, becoming the second cause of cancer mortality in middle-aged women. Rising trends were seen in women for oral and pancreatic cancers, as well. The favorable trends in cancer mortality are related to reduced tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption in men, advancements in treatment and management for colorectal cancer, breast cancer, leukemias, and a few other rare treatable cancers, and improved diagnosis of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. The greater role of tobacco-related deaths in women suggests the need for targeted strategies.
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[Metabolic syndrome and the risk of breast cancer].
Recenti Prog Med
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of various cancers. A multicenter study conducted in Italy and Switzerland on 3,869 cases of breast cancer in post-menopause reported a relative risk of 1.75 in women with the metabolic syndrome, confirming the results of other smaller epidemiological studies.
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Alcohol drinking and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with focus on light-drinkers and never-smokers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Quantification of the association between alcohol drinking and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an open issue, particularly among light alcohol drinkers, never-smokers, and Asian populations, in which some high-risk polymorphisms in alcohol metabolizing genes are more prevalent. To address these issues, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using 40 case-control and 13 cohort studies that reported on the risk associated with alcohol drinking for at least three levels of consumption. In studies adjusted for age, sex, and tobacco smoking, the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between light alcohol drinking (? 12.5 g/d) and risk of ESCC was 1.38 (1.14-1.67). The association was slightly stronger in Asian countries than in other populations. The adjusted RRs (95% CIs) were 2.62 (2.07-3.31) for moderate drinking (>12.5-<50 g/d) and 5.54 (3.92-7.28) for high alcohol intake (?50 g/d); the RRs were slightly higher in non-Asian populations. In prospective studies, the RR (95% CI) was 1.35 (0.92-1.98) for light, 2.15 (1.55-2.98) for moderate, and 3.35 (2.06-5.46) for high alcohol intakes; light drinking showed an association with ESCC in Asia (five studies) but not in other regions (three studies). Among never-smokers (nine studies), the RR (95% CI) was 0.74 (0.47-1.16) for light, 1.54 (1.09-2.17) for moderate, and 3.09 (1.75-5.46) for high intakes. This meta-analysis further corroborates the association of moderate and high alcohol intake with risk of ESCC and provides risk estimates based on multiple prospective studies. Light alcohol intake appears to be associated to ESCC mainly in studies in Asia, which suggests a possible role of genetic susceptibility factors.
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Trends in cancer mortality in Mexico, 1981-2007.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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The objective of this study was to provide information on recent trends in cancer mortality in Mexico. We analyzed data provided by the World Health Organization, using joinpoint analysis to detect changes in trends between 1981 and 2007. For most cancers, mortality was upward but started to decline in the late 1980s/early 1990s for both sexes. Overall cancer mortality was 75.53/100 000 men, world standard, and 69.2/100 000 women in 2005-2007. Mortality from uterine cancer declined by approximately 2.5% per year in the 1990s, and by approximately 5% per year in the last decade, but its rates remained exceedingly high (9.7/100 000 in 2005-2007). Other major declines over recent years were those of stomach cancer (approximately 2.5% per year, with rates of 6.6/100 000 in men and 4.9/100 000 in women in 2005-2007) and lung cancer (2-2.5% per year, 11.0/100 000 in men and 4.5/100 000 in women in 2005-2007). Mortality leveled off only since the early 1990s for breast and prostate, and since the late 1990s for colorectal cancer. Death rates from cancer in Mexico remained low on a worldwide scale and showed favorable trends over more recent calendar years. Mortality from (cervix) uterine cancer still represents a major public health priority in this country.
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The metabolic syndrome and risk of prostate cancer in Italy.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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To provide information on the role of the metabolic syndrome on prostate cancer risk.
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Age-period-cohort analysis of oral cancer mortality in Europe: the end of an epidemic?
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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Over the last decade, mortality from oral and pharyngeal cancer has been declining in most European countries, but it had been increasing substantially in Hungary, Slovakia and a few other countries of central Europe, reaching rates comparable to those of lung cancer in several western European countries in males. To update trends in oral cancer mortality and further analyse the recent epidemic in central Europe, official death certifications for oral and pharyngeal cancer for 37 European countries were derived over the period 1970-2007, and an age-period-cohort model was fitted for selected countries. Male oral cancer mortality continued to decline in most European countries, including the Russian Federation, and, more importantly, it also started to decline in some of the countries with the highest male rates, i.e. Hungary and Slovakia; persisting rises were, however, observed in Belarus, Bulgaria and Romania. Oral cancer mortality rates for women were lower than in men and showed no appreciable trend over recent periods in the EU overall. Estimates from the age-period-cohort analysis for most selected countries showed a fall in effects for the cohorts born after the 1950s. For the period effect displayed a rise for the earlier periods, an inversion in the 1990 s and a continuous fall up to the last studied period. Only some former non-market economy countries, like Romania, Ukraine and Lithuania, had rising cohort effect trends up to most recent generations. The major finding of this updated analysis of oral cancer mortality is the leveling of the epidemic for men in most European countries, including Hungary and other central European countries, where mortality from this cancer was exceedingly high. These trends essentially reflect the changes in alcohol and tobacco consumption in various populations.
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Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and the risk of different histological types of nasopharyngeal cancer in a low-risk population.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare in western Countries. Tobacco smoking is a well-recognised risk factor, whereas the role of alcohol drinking is still in debate. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Italy on 150, histologically-confirmed, NPC cases of Caucasian ethnicity, aged 18-76years, including 118 undifferentiated NPCs and 22 differentiated squamous-cell NPC. Controls were 450 Caucasian cancer-free patients admitted to general hospitals for acute conditions. Cases and controls were matched according to sex, age, and place of residence. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) while adjusting for known confounders. No significant association emerged between tobacco smoking and all NPCs (OR for current vs. never smokers=1.52; 95% CI: 0.89-2.60). Conversely, for differentiated NPC only, statistically significant elevated OR were associated with increasing smoking intensity (OR for ?15cigarettes/day=5.40; 95% CI: 1.34-21.76) and duration of the habit (OR for ?32years=4.48; 95% CI: 1.11-18.04). Although alcohol drinking was not, per se, significantly associated to NPC risk, the combination of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking accounted for 57% of differentiated NPCs, whereas it accounted for only 14% of undifferentiated carcinomas. Our findings suggest that, in western populations, NPC includes two separate entities: the differentiated NPC, associated with tobacco smoking like other cancers of head and neck, and the undifferentiated NPC, upon which tobacco smoking has little or no influence.
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Olive oil and cancer risk: an update of epidemiological findings through 2010.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Consumption of olive oil has been related to reduced risk of several diseases, including various neoplasms. In this paper, we reviewed epidemiological studies on olive oil and cancer published up to 2010. We performed a systematic literature search in the Medline database and, after assessment of relevant papers, we included 25 studies providing original data on olive oil consumption and cancer risk. We also performed a meta-analysis of studies of breast cancer, calculating the pooled relative risk (RR), and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), for high vs. low olive oil consumption. Several studies conducted in Southern Europe reported olive oil consumption as a favourable indicator of breast, digestive tract, and particularly upper aero-digestive tract cancers. For the latter, after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use, the RRs between extreme levels of olive oil consumption were 0.3-0.4, and there was an over 5-fold difference in risk between subjects consuming mainly olive oil and those consuming mainly butter. The summary RR of breast cancer was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.44-0.88) for the highest vs. lowest level of olive oil consumption. Thus, preferring olive oil to other added lipids, particularly those rich in saturated fats, can decrease the risk of upper digestive and respiratory tract neoplasms, breast and, possibly, colorectal and other cancer sites.
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Reproductive and hormonal factors and pancreatic cancer risk in women.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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To investigate the role of menstrual, reproductive, and hormonal factors, as well as benign female conditions, on pancreatic cancer risk.
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Family history of cancer and the risk of laryngeal cancer: a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Only limited data is available on the relationship between family history of laryngeal and other neoplasms and laryngeal cancer risk. We investigated the issue using data from a multicentre case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1992 and 2009 including 852 cases with histologically confirmed laryngeal cancer and 1970 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non neoplastic conditions. Unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, study center, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and number of siblings were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of laryngeal cancer. The multivariate OR was 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-5.3) in subjects reporting a first-degree relative with laryngeal cancer, as compared to subjects with no family history. The OR was higher when the relative was diagnosed before 60 years of age (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.8). As compared to subjects without family history, non-smokers, and moderate drinkers, the OR was 37.1 (95% CI 9.9-139.4) for current smokers, heavy drinkers, with family history of laryngeal cancer. Family history of colorectal (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3) and kidney (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.1) cancer were also associated to an increased risk of laryngeal cancer, while no significant increase in risk was found for family history of cancer at all sites, excluding the larynx (OR = 1.1).
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Tobacco smoking and esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
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Smoking has been related to esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, but the magnitude of the association is uncertain.
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Smoking habits and the risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rica.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but there is little information on Latin America.
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Diabetes mellitus, other medical conditions and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Diabetes and other medical conditions have been related to pancreatic cancer, but time risk quantification is unsettled.
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Trends in mortality from urologic cancers in Europe, 1970-2008.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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In recent decades, there have been substantial changes in mortality from urologic cancers in Europe.
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Metabolic syndrome and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study in Italy and meta-analysis.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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We assessed the relation between metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components, and pancreatic cancer risk in an Italian case-control study and performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies published up to February 2011. The case-control study included 326 patients with incident pancreatic cancer and 652 controls admitted to the same hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. MetS was defined as having at least 3 conditions among diabetes, drug-treated hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and body mass index at least 25 kg/m(2) at age 30 years. We computed multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models adjusted for tobacco smoking, education, and other sociodemographic variables. For the meta-analysis, we calculated summary relative risks (RRs) using random-effects models. The OR of pancreatic cancer in the case-control study was 2.36 (95% CI, 1.43-3.90) for diabetes, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.55-1.08) for hypertension, 1.38 (95% CI, 0.94-2.01) for hypercholesterolemia, and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.91-1.78) for being overweight at age 30 years. The risk was significantly increased for subjects with 3 or more MetS components (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.01-4.49) compared with subjects with no component, the estimates being consistent among strata of sex, age, and alcohol consumption. The meta-analysis included 3 cohort studies and our case-control study, and found a summary RR of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.19-2.01) for subjects with MetS. Metabolic syndrome is related to pancreatic cancer risk. Diabetes is the key component related to risk.
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Sun exposure, vitamin D, and risk of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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Similarities in the epidemiology of melanoma, other skin cancers, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have led to the hypothesis that UV exposure, the major risk factor for cutaneous cancers, could play a role on NHL risk too. Epidemiologic studies, however, including a pooled analysis of 10 case-control studies performed by the Interlymph consortium, have failed to confirm this hypothesis. If anything, an inverse association between sun exposure and NHL risk was reported, which appeared confined to recreational sun exposure. Given that sun exposure is the major determinant of vitamin D status in several populations and that vitamin D has been suggested to protect against cancer at several sites, it has been postulated that vitamin D may protect against NHL. Studies that have investigated the association of nutritional sources of vitamin D or serum levels of 25 hydroxy-vitamin D-an indicator of vitamin D status-with NHL are scanty and not totally consistent. Thus, the epidemiologic evidence to date suggests that sun exposure is not likely to increase NHL risk, whereas the vitamin D-NHL relation remains largely undefined. The paucity of information on the relation of sun exposure or vitamin D with adult Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or childhood lymphomas prevents any definite conclusion.
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Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and cancer risk: a network of case-control studies from Italy.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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We considered flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in a network of multicentric Italian case-control studies including about 10,000 incident, histologically confirmed cases of selected cancers and over 16,000 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) for the highest vs. the lowest quintile of 6 classes of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins were estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Total flavonoids, flavanones, and flavonols were inversely related to oral and laryngeal cancers (ORs, respectively 0.56 and 0.60 for total flavonoids; 0.51 and 0.60 for flavanones; and 0.62 and 0.32 for flavonols). Flavanols were also inversely related to laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.64), whereas flavanones were inversely related to esophageal cancer (OR = 0.38). A reduced risk of colorectal cancer was found for high intake of anthocyanidins (OR = 0.67), flavonols (OR = 0.64), flavones (OR = 0.78), and isoflavones (OR = 0.76). Inverse relations with breast cancer were found for flavones (OR = 0.81) and flavonols (OR = 0.80). Flavonols (OR = 0.63) and isoflavones (OR = 0.51) were inversely associated to ovarian cancer, whereas flavonols (OR = 0.69) and flavones (OR = 0.68) were inversely associated to renal cancer. No association between flavonoids and prostate cancer emerged. We found inverse associations between proanthocyanidins and colorectal cancer. These associations appeared stronger for proanthocyanidins with a higher degree of polymerization (OR = 0.69 for ? 10 mers).
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Aspirin and risk of endometrial cancer: a case-control study from Italy.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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Data on the role of aspirin on endometrial cancer risk are scanty. Here we provide additional information on the issue, using data from a multicentric Italian case-control study. The study was conducted between 1992 and 2006 in three Italian areas, on 442 cases with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer and 676 control women admitted to the same hospitals as cases for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic, non-gynaecological, non-hormone-related conditions, providing information on aspirin use. Odds ratios (OR) of endometrial cancer and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multiple logistic regression models, including terms for sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index and hormonal and reproductive factors. Regular aspirin use was reported by 28 (6.3%) cases and 46 (6.8%) controls, corresponding to a multivariate OR of 0.65 (95% confidence interval 0.37-1.11). There was no consistent pattern of risk with duration of use, nor with age at first use, time since first use or time since last use. Further, there was no difference in risk estimates across strata of body mass index. This study--the first one from a population outside North America--adds relevant information on the absence of a consistent association between aspirin use and endometrial cancer risk, even in high-risk overweight and obese women.
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Nutrients and risk of prostate cancer.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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This study assesses the association between intake of protein, fats, cholesterol, and carbohydrates and the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Between 1994 and 1997, in 8 Canadian provinces, mailed questionnaires were completed by 1,797 incident, histologically confirmed cases of PCa and 2,547 population controls. Information was collected on socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 yr before the study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using unconditional logistic regression, including terms for sociodemographic factors, body mass index, alcohol, and total energy intake. Intake of trans fat was associated with the risk of PCa; the OR for the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.45 (95% CI = 1.16-1.81); the association was apparently stronger in subjects aged less than 65, normal weight men, and ever smokers. An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose and disaccharides. In contrast, men in the highest quartile of cholesterol intake were at lower risk of PCa. No association was found with intake of total proteins, total fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, monosaccharides, and total carbohydrates. The findings provide evidence that a diet low in trans fat could reduce PCa risk.
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Childhood cancer mortality in America, Asia, and Oceania, 1970 through 2007.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Over the last 4 decades, childhood cancer mortality declined in most developed areas of the world. However, scant information is available from middle-income and developing countries. The authors analyzed and compared patterns in childhood cancer mortality in 24 developed and middle-income countries in America, Asia, and Oceania between 1970 and 2007.
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Nutrient dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Italy.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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The role of diet on colorectal cancer has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns.
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A meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and oral and pharyngeal cancers. Part 2: results by subsites.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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Oral and pharyngeal cancers are strongly related to alcohol drinking. We combined findings from all case-control and cohort studies published up to September 2009 and presented analyses by subsites, using a meta-analytic approach. Summary measures were obtained using random-effects models, and taking into account the correlation between estimates from the same study. We also performed a dose-risk analysis, using a random-effects meta-regression model. Compared to non- or occasional drinkers, the overall relative risks (RR) for light drinkers were 1.17 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.01-1.35) for oral (nine studies) and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.87-1.73) for pharyngeal (five studies) cancer, with no significant heterogeneity between the two sites (p=0.793). RRs for heavy drinkers were 4.64 (95% CI, 3.78-5.70) for oral (17 studies) and 6.62 (95% CI, 4.72-9.29) for pharyngeal (17 studies) cancer (p of heterogeneity between the two sites=0.075). The summary RRs for heavy drinkers were 4.11 (95% CI, 2.46-6.87) for tongue (five studies), 7.76 (95% CI, 4.77-12.62) for oropharyngeal (four studies), and 9.03 (95% CI, 4.46-18.27) for hypopharyngeal (four studies) cancer. In conclusion, the alcohol-related RRs are higher for pharyngeal than for oral cancer, particularly at higher doses, while the association with cancer of the tongue was similar to that for oral cancer.
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Risk factors for falls in community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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Falls are the main cause of accidental death in persons aged 65 years or older.
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Alcohol drinking and laryngeal cancer: overall and dose-risk relation--a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Alcohol drinking is a known risk factor for laryngeal cancer. However, little information is available on the risk associated with light alcohol drinking. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis using two methods: (i) random-effects models with reconstruction of alcohol consumption categories and calculation of risk estimates associated with predefined consumption levels using Hamling method and (ii) random-effects meta-regression models. The PubMed database was searched for all case-control or cohort studies published in the English language on the association between alcohol consumption and risk of laryngeal cancer. Forty studies (38 case-control, 2 cohort) reporting on at least three levels of consumption were included. Overall, alcohol drinking versus non-drinking was associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in risk of laryngeal cancer (RR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.59-2.28). While light alcohol drinking (?1 drink/day) did not show any significant association with risk of laryngeal cancer (12 studies. RR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.71-1.08), moderate drinking (>1 to <4drinks/day) was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in risk (35 studies. RR=1.47; 95% CI: 1.25-1.72) and heavy drinking (?4drinks/day) was associated with a 2.5-fold increased risk (33 studies. RR=2.62; 95% CI: 2.13-3.23). Subgroup analyses for studies that adjusted for main potential confounding factors (age, sex, and tobacco use) and several further subgroup analyses showed similar results, which suggest the robustness of the results.
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Bladder cancer mortality of workers exposed to aromatic amines: a 58-year follow-up.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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We previously investigated bladder cancer risk in a cohort of dyestuff workers who were heavily exposed to aromatic amines from 1922 through 1972. We updated the follow-up by 14 years (through 2003) for 590 exposed workers to include more than 30 years of follow-up since last exposure to aromatic amines. Expected numbers of deaths from bladder cancer and other causes were computed by use of national mortality rates from 1951 to 1980 and regional mortality rates subsequently. There were 394 deaths, compared with 262.7 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval = 1.36 to 1.66). Overall, 56 deaths from bladder cancer were observed, compared with 3.4 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 16.5, 95% confidence interval = 12.4 to 21.4). The standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer increased with younger age at first exposure and increasing duration of exposure. Although the standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer steadily decreased with time since exposure stopped, the absolute risk remained approximately constant at 3.5 deaths per 1000 man-years up to 29 years after exposure stopped. Excess risk was apparent 30 years or more after last exposure.
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Aspirin use and pancreatic cancer risk.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Preclinical findings suggest that aspirin might inhibit pancreatic carcinogenesis, but epidemiological data are scanty and controversial. The role of aspirin use in pancreatic cancer is further analyzed in a multicentric hospital-based case-control study conducted in Italy between 1991 and 2008. Cases were 308 patients with incident pancreatic cancer and controls were 477 patients admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute conditions, not related to risk factors for pancreatic cancer. A total of 22 cases (7%) and 37 controls (8%) reported regular aspirin use, with a corresponding adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-1.61]. A slight protection, although not significant, was observed for duration of use > or =5 years (OR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.21-1.33) and for time since first use > or =10 years (OR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.25-1.93). The risk of pancreatic cancer was significantly below unity for current users of > or =5 years (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.06-0.90), but the risk was based on three cases and 16 controls only. We observed no association between regular aspirin use and pancreatic cancer risk, although our results suggested a possible protective effect for long-term current users.
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Recent trends in colorectal cancer mortality in Europe.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Colorectal cancer mortality has been declining over the last two decades in Europe, particularly in women, the trends being, however, different across countries and age groups. We updated to 2007 colorectal cancer mortality trends in Europe using data from the World Health Organization (WHO). Rates were analyzed for the overall population and separately in young, middle-age and elderly populations. In the European Union (EU), between 1997 and 2007 mortality from colorectal cancer declined by around 2% per year, from 19.7 to 17.4/100,000 men (world standardized rates) and from 12.5 to 10.5/100,000 women. Persisting favorable trends were observed in countries of western and northern Europe, while there were more recent declines in several countries of eastern Europe, including the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia particularly in women (but not Romania and the Russian Federation). In 2007, a substantial excess in colorectal cancer mortality was still observed in Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, the Czech Republic and Slovenia in men (rates over 25/100,000), and in Hungary, Norway, Denmark and Slovakia in women (rates over 14/100,000). Colorectal mortality trends were more favorable in the young (30-49 years) from most European countries, with a decline of ?2% per year since the early 1990s in both men and women from the EU. The recent decreases in colorectal mortality rates in several European countries are likely due to improvements in (early) diagnosis and treatment, with a consequent higher survival from the disease. Interventions to further reduce colorectal cancer burden are, however, still warranted, particularly in eastern European countries.
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Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and the risk of stomach cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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Flavonoids have been suggested to be responsible for the potential beneficial properties of fruit and vegetables on stomach cancer risk. To provide further information on flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and gastric cancer risk, we analyzed data from a case-control study conducted in Italy. Subjects were 230 cases with incident, histologically confirmed gastric cancer and 547 frequency-matched controls, admitted to the same hospitals of cases for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. Subjects were interviewed using a reproducible and valid food frequency questionnaire. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of gastric cancer and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression models including terms for major recognized gastric cancer risk factors. The ORs of the highest quintile of intake compared to the lowest were below unity for all classes of flavonoids, in the absence, however, of significant associations. Strong inverse relations were found for proanthocyanidins. The OR was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.25-0.76) for monomers and dimers combined and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.21-0.63) for polymers with three or more mers. Further adjustment for fruit and vegetables, or vitamin C, did not materially change these associations. This is the first epidemiological study to suggest that dietary proanthocyanidins have a favorable role on gastric cancer risk.
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An age-period-cohort analysis of gastric cancer mortality from 1950 to 2007 in Europe.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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To analyze the components of the favorable trends in gastric cancer in Europe.
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Aspirin and risk of renal cell cancer in Italy.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been related to decreased risk of several cancers, but studies on the relation with the risk of renal cell cancer (RCC) are inconsistent. A case-control study of RCC was conducted in Italy between 1992 and 2004. Cases were 755 patients with incident, histologically confirmed RCC, and controls were 1297 patients in hospital for acute non-neoplastic conditions. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RCC were conditioned on center, sex, age, and year of interview, and adjusted for education, smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, and hypertension. Regular use of aspirin for at least 6 months was reported by 67 cases and 99 controls, corresponding to an OR of 0.98 (95% CI 0.69-1.38). The ORs were 0.91 (95% CI 0.55-1.50) in regular users for less than 3 years, and 1.04 (95% CI 0.67-1.63) in users for 3 years or longer; 0.47 (95% CI 0.20-1.12) when aspirin was used as analgesic and 1.10 (95% CI 0.75-1.62) when it was used for cardiovascular disease prevention. No significant heterogeneity was found for regular use of aspirin across strata of age and sex. This study, based on a large dataset, suggests that regular use of aspirin did not increase RCC risk.
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Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to body mass index and waist to hip ratio.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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High-glycemic index (GI) diet has been associated with obesity, but epidemiological data are inconsistent. We therefore investigated the relation between GI and glycemic load (GL) with body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR), as a measure of body fat distribution.
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Metabolic syndrome is associated with colorectal cancer in men.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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We assessed the relation between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components and colorectal cancer.
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A meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and oral and pharyngeal cancers. Part 1: overall results and dose-risk relation.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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Alcohol consumption, together with tobacco, is the best recognised risk factor for oral and pharyngeal cancers (OPC), but several important aspects of this association need to be further explored. In order to provide up to date and more precise quantification of the association between alcohol drinking and OPC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of available data. We performed a PubMed search of articles published up to September 2009, and we identified 43 case-control and two cohort studies presenting results for at least three categories of alcohol drinking, including a total of 17,085 OPC cases. We derived meta-analytic summary estimates using random-effects models, and taking into account correlation between estimates. We also performed a dose-risk analysis using non-linear random-effects meta-regression models. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.21 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.10-1.33) for or=4 drinks per day). The dose-risk analysis resulted in RR of 1.29 for 10g ethanol/day, 3.24 for 50g ethanol/day, 8.61 for 100g ethanol/day, and 13.02 for 125g ethanol/day. This meta-analysis provides more precise evidence of a gross excess of OPC risk for heavy alcohol drinkers. It also indicates an increased risk for moderate doses, i.e.,
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