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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Fructose transporters GLUT5 and GLUT2 expression in adult patients with fructose intolerance.
United European Gastroenterol J
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Gastrointestinal symptoms and malabsorption following fructose ingestion (fructose intolerance) are common in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The underlying mechanism is unclear, but is hypothesized to be related an abnormality of intestinal fructose transporter proteins.
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Highly sensitive KRAS mutation detection from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies and circulating tumour cells using wild-type blocking polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing.
Mol Diagn Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), KRAS mutations were reported to occur in 30-51 % of all cases. CRC patients with KRAS mutations were reported to be non-responsive to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) treatment in many clinical trials. Hence, accurate detection of KRAS mutations would be critical in guiding the use of anti-EGFR MoAb therapies in CRC.
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Emergence of G186D mutation in the presence of R292K mutation in an immunocompromised child infected with influenza A/H3N2 virus, treated with oseltamivir.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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An immunocompromised child with influenza A/H3N2 virus infection, treated with oseltamivir from day 1, had nasal swabs taken on days 1, 4, 7, and 10 of the illness. Pyrosequencing showed increasing proportions of viruses with R292K (neuraminidase gene) and G186D (hemagglutinin gene) mutations, resulting in a viral load rebound by day 10.
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Epidemiology of GB virus type C among patients infected with HIV in Singapore.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Several studies have shown that individuals co-infected with GB virus type C (GBV-C), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have slower progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and a prolonged lifespan, compared to those infected with only HIV. In Singapore, despite the steadily increasing number of HIV infections in recent years, there are no studies documenting the extent of GBV-C/HIV co-infection in this group of patients. To fill this dearth of information, two GBV-C screening assays was performed on 80 archived HIV-1-positive samples from the National University Hospital. The overall prevalence of GBV-C co-infection among patients infected with HIV in this study was 10% (8/80). Phylogenetic analysis of the eight dual-infection cases revealed that genotypes 3 (4/8, 50%) and 2a (2/8, 25%) were the main genotypes circulating among these Singaporean HIV patients. One case each of genotypes 2b (1/8, 12.5%) and 4 (1/8, 12.5%), which have not been described previously in Singapore, were identified. These findings hint at the complex epidemiology of GBV-C in different patient groups and a larger study would be needed to characterize, and understand the potential clinical impact of GBV-C co-infection on the patients.
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Absence of detectable influenza RNA transmitted via aerosol during various human respiratory activities--experiments from Singapore and Hong Kong.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Two independent studies by two separate research teams (from Hong Kong and Singapore) failed to detect any influenza RNA landing on, or inhaled by, a life-like, human manikin target, after exposure to naturally influenza-infected volunteers. For the Hong Kong experiments, 9 influenza-infected volunteers were recruited to breathe, talk/count and cough, from 0.1 m and 0.5 m distance, onto a mouth-breathing manikin. Aerosolised droplets exhaled from the volunteers and entering the manikin's mouth were collected with PTFE filters and an aerosol sampler, in separate experiments. Virus detection was performed using an in-house influenza RNA reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. No influenza RNA was detected from any of the PTFE filters or air samples. For the Singapore experiments, 6 influenza-infected volunteers were asked to breathe (nasal/mouth breathing), talk (counting in English/second language), cough (from 1 m/0.1 m away) and laugh, onto a thermal, breathing manikin. The manikin's face was swabbed at specific points (around both eyes, the nostrils and the mouth) before and after exposure to each of these respiratory activities, and was cleaned between each activity with medical grade alcohol swabs. Shadowgraph imaging was used to record the generation of these respiratory aerosols from the infected volunteers and their impact onto the target manikin. No influenza RNA was detected from any of these swabs with either team's in-house diagnostic influenza assays. All the influenza-infected volunteers had diagnostic swabs taken at recruitment that confirmed influenza (A/H1, A/H3 or B) infection with high viral loads, ranging from 10(5)-10(8) copies/mL (Hong Kong volunteers/assay) and 10(4)-10(7) copies/mL influenza viral RNA (Singapore volunteers/assay). These findings suggest that influenza RNA may not be readily transmitted from naturally-infected human source to susceptible recipients via these natural respiratory activities, within these exposure time-frames. Various reasons are discussed in an attempt to explain these findings.
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Prevalence of human endogenous retroviral element associates with Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence rates.
Leuk Res Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human endogenous retrovirus-H (HERV-H) is implicated in leukaemias and lymphomas, but the precise molecular mechanism underlying HERV-mediated carcinogenesis remains unknown. We determined the prevalence of HERV-H in a cross-section of the Singapore population and explored the relationship between HERV-H positivity and incidence rates for Hodgkin's lymphoma in three major ethnic groups of Singapore. We observed that Malays were 1.11 times likely (95% CI=1.05-1.17; P<0.01), and Indians 1.12 times likely (95% CI=1.07-1.18; P<0.01) to be HERV-H positive when compared to Chinese. Interestingly, the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma for the three races positively correlated to the respective prevalence rate for HERV-H positivity (r=0.9921 for male; r=0.9801 for female), suggesting that viral inheritance in human may predispose certain racial origin unfavourably to malignancy.
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Rapid prenatal diagnosis of common beta-thalassemia mutations in Southeast Asia using pyrosequencing.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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Current methods of prenatal diagnosis to detect beta-thalassemia are Sanger sequencing and reverse dot blot. These methods are time-consuming and can prolong assay turnaround time. We aim to develop a sensitive and rapid method to detect 27 beta-thalassemia mutations using pyrosequencing.
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Plasmodium knowlesi infection: a diagnostic challenge.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Plasmodium knowlesi malaria is an uncommon, but highly prevalent parasitic infection in parts of Malaysia. This is the case of a 14-year-old Singaporean boy presenting to our emergency department with an 11-day history of fever following a school trip to Malaysia. Hepatosplenomegaly was the only clinical finding; laboratory tests showed thrombocytopaenia, lymphopaenia, mild anaemia and liver transaminitis. Specific malaria antigen tests were negative, but the peripheral blood film showed plasmodia with atypical features, with a parasite load of 0.5%. PCR confirmed the diagnosis of P knowlesi. The patient was successfully treated with chloroquine. The clinical course of P knowlesi malaria is indistinguishable from that of Plasmodium falciparum. This case highlights the importance of taking detailed travel history, careful examination of malaria blood films and judicious use of molecular techniques. Antigen tests alone may have missed a malaria diagnosis altogether, while blood film examination may wrongly identify the species as Plasmodium malariae or P falciparum. Third-generation PCR assays can be used to reliably identify P knowlesi.
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Relationship between atypical T- and B-cell size predicts survival in peripheral T-cell lymphomas with large B-cells.
Pathology
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Pathological prognostication for peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) complicated by large B-cell (LBC) proliferations has not been previously devised.
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Two-step evolution of the hepatitis B drug-resistant mutations in a patient who developed primary entecavir resistance.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Few cases of primary entecavir resistance in chronic hepatitis B patients have been reported to date. The serial profiling of the HBV polymerase gene mutations from a treatment-naive patient who developed drug resistance after 32 months of entecavir therapy is presented here.
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A novel DANP-coupled hairpin RT-PCR for rapid detection of Chikungunya virus.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Chikungunya has re-emerged as an important arboviral infection of global health significance. Because of lack of a vaccine and effective treatment, rapid diagnosis plays an important role in early clinical management of patients. In this study, we have developed a novel molecular diagnostic platform that ensures a rapid and cost-effective one-step RT-PCR assay, with high sensitivity and specificity, for the early detection of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). It uses 2,7-diamino-1,8-naphthyridine derivative (DANP)-labeled cytosine-bulge hairpin primers to amplify the nsP2 region of the CHIKV genome, followed by measurement of the fluorescence emitted from DANP-primer complexes after PCRs. The detection limit of our assay was 0.01 plaque-forming units per reaction of CHIKV. Furthermore, the HP-nsP2 primers were highly specific in detecting CHIKV, without any cross-reactivity with the panel of RNA viruses validated in this study. The feasibility of the DANP-coupled hairpin RT-PCR for clinical diagnosis was evaluated using clinical serum samples from CHIKV-infected patients, and the specificity and sensitivity were 100% (95% CI, 80.0% to 100%) and 95.5% (95% CI, 75.1% to 99.8%), respectively. These findings confirmed its potential as a point-of-care clinical molecular diagnostic assay for CHIKV in acute-phase patient serum samples.
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Comparison of Mutation Patterns in Full-Genome A/H3N2 Influenza Sequences Obtained Directly from Clinical Samples and the Same Samples after a Single MDCK Passage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Human influenza viruses can be isolated efficiently from clinical samples using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. However, this process is known to induce mutations in the virus as it adapts to this non-human cell-line. We performed a systematic study to record the pattern of MDCK-induced mutations observed across the whole influenza A/H3N2 genome. Seventy-seven clinical samples collected from 2009-2011 were included in the study. Two full influenza genomes were obtained for each sample: one from virus obtained directly from the clinical sample and one from the matching isolate cultured in MDCK cells. Comparison of the full-genome sequences obtained from each of these sources showed that 42% of the 77 isolates had acquired at least one MDCK-induced mutation. The presence or absence of these mutations was independent of viral load or sample origin (in-patients versus out-patients). Notably, all the five hemagglutinin missense mutations were observed at the hemaggutinin 1 domain only, particularly within or proximal to the receptor binding sites and antigenic site of the virus. Furthermore, 23% of the 77 isolates had undergone a MDCK-induced missense mutation, D151G/N, in the neuraminidase segment. This mutation has been found to be associated with reduced drug sensitivity towards the neuraminidase inhibitors and increased viral receptor binding efficiency to host cells. In contrast, none of the neuraminidase sequences obtained directly from the clinical samples contained the D151G/N mutation, suggesting that this mutation may be an indicator of MDCK culture-induced changes. These D151 mutations can confound the interpretation of the hemagglutination inhibition assay and neuraminidase inhibitor resistance results when these are based on MDCK isolates. Such isolates are currently in routine use in the WHO influenza vaccine and drug-resistance surveillance programs. Potential data interpretation miscalls can therefore be avoided by careful exclusion of such D151 mutants after further sequence analysis.
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Simplified large-scale Sanger genome sequencing for influenza A/H3N2 virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies and the resultant lower costs of sequencing have enabled production of massive amounts of data, including the generation of full genome sequences of pathogens. However, the small genome size of the influenza virus arguably justifies the use of the more conventional Sanger sequencing technology which is still currently more readily available in most diagnostic laboratories.
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Plumbagin inhibits invasion and migration of breast and gastric cancer cells by downregulating the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Increasing evidence indicates that the interaction between the CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and its ligand CXCL12 is critical in the process of metastasis that accounts for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. Thus, novel agents that can downregulate the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis have therapeutic potential in inhibiting cancer metastasis.
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High-resolution melting approach to efficient identification and quantification of H275Y mutant influenza H1N1/2009 virus in mixed-virus-population samples.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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The single-nucleotide variation 823C to T (His275Tyr), responsible for oseltamivir drug resistance has been detected in some isolates of the influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus. Early detection of the presence of this oseltamivir-resistant strain allows prompt consideration of alternative treatment options. An isolated-probe-asymmetric amplification PCR (Roche LightCycler v2.0) and high-resolution melting (HRM) method using unlabeled probes and amplified products (Idaho LightScanner 32) was designed and optimized to detect and estimate the proportion of H275Y mutants in influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus samples. The lower limit of quantification within the linear range of PCR assay detection was 200 copies/reaction. The melting peaks of the H275Y-specific unlabeled probe for the wild-type A/H1N1/2009 and H275Y mutant viruses were clearly distinguishable at 65.5°C and 69.0°C, respectively, at various ratios of wild-type/mutant virus population standards. The 95% detection limit for the 10% mutant sample pool was 1,200 copies/reaction (95% confidence interval, 669.7 to 3,032.6 copies/reaction). This HRM assay was tested with 116 archived clinical specimens. The quantitative HRM results obtained with samples containing mixed mutant-wild-type virus populations, at threshold cycle (C(T)) values of <29, compared well to those obtained with a pyrosequencing method performed by an independent laboratory. The quantitative feature of this assay allows the proportions of mutant and wild-type viral populations to be determined, which may assist in the conventional clinical management of infected patients and potentially more preemptive clinical management. This validated quantitative HRM method, with its low running cost, is well positioned as a rapid, high-throughput screening tool for oseltamivir resistance mutations in influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus-infected patients, with the potential to be adapted to other influenza virus species.
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Comparison of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal influenza viral loads, Singapore.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Mean viral loads for patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were ?1 log?? times lower than those for patients with seasonal influenza within the first week after symptom onset. Neither pandemic nor seasonal influenza viral loads correlated with clinical severity of illness. No correlation was found between viral loads and concurrent illness.
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Mixtures of oseltamivir-sensitive and -resistant pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 viruses in immunocompromised hospitalized children.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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We report on 3 immunocompromised children infected with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 in whom mixtures of oseltamivir-susceptible and oseltamivir-resistant viral populations developed, despite them receiving relatively short-term courses of oseltamivir. In addition, it was found that bacterial coinfections were common, indicating that empiric, antibiotics should be considered in such patients when infected with influenza virus.
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Alanine aminotransferase is an inadequate surrogate marker for detecting lamivudine resistance.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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To investigate the accuracy of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diagnosing lamivudine resistance and factors that contributed to abnormal serum ALT.
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Viral loads of herpes simplex virus in clinical samples--a 5-year retrospective analysis.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Viral loads of herpes simplex virus (HSV) are not monitored usually for the effective clinical management of HSV-related diseases. However, recently, there has been more interest about the typical HSV levels in clinical specimens, and how such data may improve understanding of the behavior of this virus in such clinical presentations, particularly in immunocompromised patients, where more prolonged therapy using higher doses of antiviral drugs may be required. Using an in-house quantitative HSV-1/HSV-2 polymerase chain reaction assay, an observational, retrospective 5-year analysis of diagnostic, quantitative HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA levels was conducted. The results (all in median log(10) DNA copies/ml), including perhaps the first quantitative comparison of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HSV viral loads, were as follows: CSF: HSV-1, 3.40 (range 2.30-8.98) versus HSV-2, 3.60 (range 2.31-6.86) (P=0.559); plasma: HSV-1, 3.20 (range 2.23-5.51) versus HSV-2, 3.20 (range 3.18-3.41) (P=0.905); genital swabs: HSV-1, 6.79 (range 2.28-8.48) versus HSV-2, 6.97 (range 3.40-9.66) (P=0.810); oral swabs: HSV-1, 7.28 (range 2.46-10.04) versus HSV-2, 5.62 (range 4.60-6.63) (P=0.529). Note that with the samples usually collected for HSV testing (i.e., CSF, plasma, oral, and genital swabs) there was no significant difference in the viral loads between HSV-1 and HSV-2 types, nor between immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients for each of these different HSV types. Indeed, even between immunocompromised patients with similar diseases, for these samples, the HSV loads were found to vary considerably. These findings may therefore limit the usefulness of monitoring HSV loads in everyday clinical practice.
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A self-contained all-in-one cartridge for sample preparation and real-time PCR in rapid influenza diagnosis.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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Herein we present a fully automated system with pseudo-multiplexing capability for rapid infectious disease diagnosis. The all-in-one system was comprised of a polymer cartridge, a miniaturized thermal cycler, 1-color, 3-chamber fluorescence detectors for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), and a pneumatic fluidic delivery unit consisting of two pinch-valve manifolds and two pneumatic pumps. The disposable, self-contained cartridge held all the necessary reagents for viral RNA purification and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection, which took place all within the completely sealed cartridge. The operator only needed to pipette the patients sample with lysis buffer into the cartridge, and the system would automatically perform the entire sample preparation and diagnosis within 2.5 h. We have successfully employed this system for seasonal influenza A H1N1 typing and sub-typing, obtaining comparable sensitivity as the experiments conducted using manual RNA extraction and commercial thermal cycler. A minimum detectable virus loading of 100 copies per ?l has been determined by serial dilution experiments. This all-in-one desktop system would be suitable for decentralized disease diagnosis at immigration check points and outpatient clinics, and would not require highly skilled operators.
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Diagnostic testing for pandemic influenza in Singapore: a novel dual-gene quantitative real-time RT-PCR for the detection of influenza A/H1N1/2009.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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With the relative global lack of immunity to the pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus that emerged in April 2009 as well as the sustained susceptibility to infection, rapid and accurate diagnostic assays are essential to detect this novel influenza A variant. Among the molecular diagnostic methods that have been developed to date, most are in tandem monoplex assays targeting either different regions of a single viral gene segment or different viral gene segments. We describe a dual-gene (duplex) quantitative real-time RT-PCR method selectively targeting pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009. The assay design includes a primer-probe set specific to only the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of this novel influenza A variant and a second set capable of detecting the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of all swine-origin influenza A virus. In silico analysis of the specific HA oligonucleotide sequence used in the assay showed that it targeted only the swine-origin pandemic strain; there was also no cross-reactivity against a wide spectrum of noninfluenza respiratory viruses. The assay has a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 97.7% and 100%, respectively, a lower detection limit of 50 viral gene copies/PCR, and can be adapted to either a qualitative or quantitative mode. It was first applied to 3512 patients with influenza-like illnesses at a tertiary hospital in Singapore, during the containment phase of the pandemic (May to July 2009).
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Mutant nucleophosmin deregulates cell death and myeloid differentiation through excessive caspase-6 and -8 inhibition.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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In up to one-third of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, a C-terminal frame-shift mutation results in abnormal and abundant cytoplasmic accumulation of the usually nucleoli-bound protein nucleophosmin (NPM), and this is thought to function in cancer pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate a gain-of-function role for cytoplasmic NPM in the inhibition of caspase signaling. The NPM mutant specifically inhibits the activities of the cell-death proteases, caspase-6 and -8, through direct interaction with their cleaved, active forms, but not the immature procaspases. The cytoplasmic NPM mutant not only affords protection from death ligand-induced cell death but also suppresses caspase-6/-8-mediated myeloid differentiation. Our data hence provide a potential explanation for the myeloid-specific involvement of cytoplasmic NPM in the leukemogenesis of a large subset of acute myeloid leukemia.
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Butein downregulates chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression and function through suppression of NF-?B activation in breast and pancreatic tumor cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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The CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4), a Gi protein-coupled receptor for the ligand CXCL12/stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?), is known to be expressed in various tumors. This receptor mediates homing of tumor cells to specific organs that express the ligand CXCL12 for this receptor and plays an important role in tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Thus, a priori, agents that can downregulate CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling cascade have potential against cancer metastasis. In this study, we report the identification of butein (3, 4, 2, 4-tetrahydroxychalcone) as a novel regulator of CXCR4 expression and function. We found that butein downregulated the expression of CXCR4 in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The decrease in CXCR4 expression induced by butein was not cell type-specific as the inhibition also occurred in pancreatic, prostate, multiple myeloma, head and neck, and hepatocellular cancer cell lines. When investigated for the molecular mechanism(s), it was found that the downregulation of CXCR4 was not due to proteolytic degradation but rather to transcriptional regulation as indicated by downregulation of mRNA expression, inhibition of NF-?B activation evident by both DNA binding, and reporter assays, and suppression of chromatin immunoprecipitation activity. Suppression of CXCR4 expression by butein correlated with the inhibition of CXCL12-induced migration and invasion of both breast and pancreatic cancer cells. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time that butein is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression and thus has a potential in suppressing metastasis of cancer.
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Annexin A3 is associated with cell death in lactacystin-mediated neuronal injury.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2010
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Massive neuronal apoptosis and accumulation of protein aggregates in the cortex and hippocampus of the brain are hallmarks of several neurodegenerative disorders, indicating ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction. Lactacystin, a classical proteasome inhibitor, is used to simulate ubiquitin proteasome system dysfunction in neurons to mimic pathological features of neurodegenerative disorders. Based on Western blot analyses, we reported for the first time that annexin A3 (AnxA3) is not only endogenously expressed in mouse cortical neurons but also more importantly, by gene expression microarray and real-time RT-PCR that it is greatly transcriptional up-regulated to approximately 11- and 15-fold, respectively in murine primary cortical neurons with 1?M lactacystin for 24h. Up-regulation of AnxA3 expression occurred after 12-15h post-lactacystin treatment, which corresponded with the onset of neuronal injury, with approximately 25% of the neurons being non-viable by that time interval. Western blot analysis with anti-AnxA3 antibodies further validated that up-regulation of AnxA3 only occurs with onset of neuronal death, and not with the onset of proteasome inhibition, which occurs at 4.5h post-lactacystin treatment. Over-expression studies suggested AnxA3 might be involved in death promotion during lactacystin-mediated neuronal death, since caspase-3 activation was significantly stronger upon neuronal AnxA3 over-expression. We propose AnxA3 up-regulation may have significant relevance in the elucidation of neurodegenerative pathophysiology.
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Differing symptom patterns in early pandemic vs seasonal influenza infections.
Arch. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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Singapore is a tropical country with a temperature range of 23 degrees C to 35 degrees C and relative humidity of 48% to 100% throughout the year. Influenza incidence peaks in June through July and November through January, though influenza cases can be detected throughout the year.
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Tracking the emergence of pandemic Influenza A/H1N1/2009 and its interaction with seasonal influenza viruses in Singapore.
Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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Since the emergence of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus in April 2009, diagnostic testing in many countries has revealed the rapid displacement and then replacement of circulating seasonal influenza viruses by this novel virus.
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Silencing of the PP2A catalytic subunit causes HER-2/neu positive breast cancer cells to undergo apoptosis.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), in its activated form as a phosphatase, is a tumour suppressor. However, when PP2A is phosphorylated at the tyrosine residue (pY307), it loses its phosphatase activity and becomes inactivated. In our previous study, we found a higher expression of pY307-PP2A in HER-2/neu positive breast tumour samples and significantly correlated to tumour progression, and in this context, it could function as a proto-oncogene. The above and subsequent findings led us to postulate that the critical role of PP2A in maintaining the balance between cell survival and cell death may be linked to its phosphorylation status at its Y307 residue. Hence, we further investigated the effects of knocking down the PP2A catalytic subunit which contains the Y307 amino acid residue in two HER-2/neu positive breast cancer cell lines, BT474 and SKBR3. We showed that this causes the silenced HER-2/neu breast cancer cells to undergo apoptosis and furthermore, that such apoptosis is mediated by p38 MAPK-caspase 3/PARP activation. Understanding the role of PP2A in HER2/neu positive cells might thus provide insight into new targets for breast cancer therapy.
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Investigation of causes of oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis failures during influenza A (H1N1-2009) outbreaks.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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Antiviral post-exposure prophylaxis with oseltamivir has been used as a strategy in mitigating the Influenza A (H1N1-2009) pandemic. There have been few reports of well-documented prophylaxis failures and the reasons for failure.
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Detection of cutaneous HPV types 4 and 24 DNA sequences in breast carcinoma in Singaporean women of Asian ancestry.
Pathology
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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To date, there have been conflicting data on the prevalence of HPV in primary breast carcinoma, with a median prevalence of 35%. We believe that the low prevalence reported could be due to use of inappropriate amplification primers and methods of detection. We designed a study to detect and reflect more accurately the incidence of both mucosal and cutaneous HPV types in breast carcinoma among Singaporean women.
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Tyrosine phosphorylation of PP2A is regulated by HER-2 signalling and correlates with breast cancer progression.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Activation of HER-2/neu leads to multiple signalling cascades and plays a vital role in cell survival and growth. We used a signal transduction antibody array to characterize the tyrosine phosphorylation profiles in heregulin (HRG alpha1)-treated BT474 breast cancer cells, and identified a group of 80 molecules in which tyrosine phosphorylation was highly regulated by HRG-enhanced HER-2/neu signalling. These phosphoproteins included many known HER-2/neu-regulated molecules (e.g., SHC, Akt, Syk and Stat1) and proteins that had not been previously linked to HER-2/neu signalling, such as Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), apoptosis repressor with CARD domain (ARC), and the tumour suppressor, protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A). Pharmacological inhibition with HER-2 inhibitor AG825, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98095, and p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 confirmed that PP2A phosphorylation was modulated by the complicated, HER-2/neu-driven downstream signal network, with the PI3K and MEK1/2 positively, while the p38MAPK negatively regulating its tyrosine phosphorylation. In breast tumour specimens, expression of tyrosine-phosphorylated PP2A (pY307-PP2A) was highly increased in the HER-2/neu positive breast tumours, and significantly correlated to tumour progression, thus enhancing its potential prognostic value. Our data provide meaningful information in the elucidation of the HER-2-driven tyrosine phosphorylation network, and in the development of phosphopeptide-related targets as prognostication indicators.
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Cytokeratin 19 regulates endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibits ERp29 expression via p38 MAPK/XBP-1 signaling in breast cancer cells.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) is widely used as a biomarker for the detection of disseminated tumor cells in blood and bone marrow, and its positivity is considered as an independent prognostication indicator in cancer patients. However, its role in breast cancer progression remains unknown. We had established a stable CK19-expressing clone in the CK19-negative BT549 human breast cancer cell line and found that CK19 expression in the BT549 cells caused cell cycle arrest, reduced cell motility and increased drug resistance. Further study revealed that CK19 expression regulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling by up-regulating p38/RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK)/p-eIF2alpha and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (Bip/GRP78), and down-regulating focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The level of ER protein 29 (ERp29) was shown to be decreased in the CK19-expressing BT549 cells by proteomic analyses and verified by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 signaling by its specific inhibitor SB203580 or knockdown of p38 and transcription factor XBP-1 by siRNA in BT549/CK19 and MDA-MB-231 cells revealed that p38/XBP-1 signaling negatively regulated ERp29 expression. Our results indicated that CK19 modulates ER stress signaling and contributes to cell survival and dormancy in breast cancer cells.
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A novel diagnostic target in the hepatitis C virus genome.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Detection and quantification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA is integral to diagnostic and therapeutic regimens. All molecular assays target the viral 5-noncoding region (5-NCR), and all show genotype-dependent variation of sensitivities and viral load results. Non-western HCV genotypes have been under-represented in evaluation studies. An alternative diagnostic target region within the HCV genome could facilitate a new generation of assays.
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Influenza outbreaks in Singapore: epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
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With the recent influenza A/H1N1 2009 pandemic still spreading through global populations, there has been an increased focus on optimizing the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of influenza infections, as well as the epidemiology of the virus. Clinical and epidemiological data on influenza infections in tropical countries have been relatively sparse until fairly recently, and it is the aim of this review to close some of these gaps by examining the behavior of influenza viruses in the tropical Singaporean population.
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A universal influenza A and B duplex real-time RT-PCR assay.
J. Med. Virol.
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A high throughput universal influenza A and B duplex real-time RT-PCR was developed to meet effectively the heightened surveillance and diagnostic needs essential in managing influenza infections and outbreaks. Primers and probes, designed to target highly conserved regions of the matrix protein of influenza A and the nucleoprotein of influenza B, were optimized using the high-throughput LightCycler 480 II system. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were characterized using RNA transcripts diluted serially, archived non-influenza respiratory viruses, and proficiency test samples. Eighty-nine clinical samples were tested in parallel against existing influenza A and B monoplex assays. Once validated, the duplex assay was applied prospectively on 2,458 clinical specimens that were later subtyped. In April 2011, the emergence of an influenza B variant necessitated the inclusion of an additional modified probe for influenza B and revalidation of the revised protocol. The lower detection limits of the assay were 50 copies/PCR. There was no cross-reactivity against any non-influenza respiratory virus and all proficiency testing materials were identified correctly. The parallel testing revealed a 98.9% overall agreement. Routine application of the assay revealed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of influenza A/H1N1/2009, A/H3N2 and influenza B. Assay C(q) values correlated well between the pre- and post-revision protocols for influenza A (r(2) = 0.998) and B (r(2) = 0.999). The revised protocol detected three additional novel influenza B variant cases in 200 specimens reported previously as influenza B negative. This in-house assay offers a highly sensitive and specific option for laboratories seeking to expand their influenza testing capacity.
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Microsieve lab-chip device for rapid enumeration and fluorescence in situ hybridization of circulating tumor cells.
Lab Chip
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Herein we present a lab-chip device for highly efficient and rapid detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood samples. The device utilizes a microfabricated silicon microsieve with a densely packed pore array (10(5) pores per device) to rapidly separate tumor cells from whole blood, utilizing the size and deformability differences between the CTCs and normal blood cells. The whole process, including tumor cell capture, antibody staining, removal of unwanted contaminants and immunofluorescence imaging, was performed directly on the microsieve within an integrated microfluidic unit, interconnected to a peristaltic pump for fluid regulation and a fluorescence microscope for cell counting. The latter was equipped with a dedicated digital image processing program which was developed to automatically categorize the captured cells based on the immunofluorescence images. A high recovery rate of >80% was achieved with defined numbers of MCF-7 and HepG2 cancer cells spiked into human whole blood and filtered at a rapid flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). The device was further validated with blood drawn from various cancer patients (8 samples). The whole process, from sample input to result, was completed in 1.5 h. In addition, we have also successfully demonstrated on-microsieve fluorescence in situ hybridization for single cell molecular analysis. This simple method has great potential to supplant existing complex CTC detection schemes for cancer metastasis analysis.
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A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assay for Zika virus.
J. Med. Virol.
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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus. Infection results in a dengue-like illness with fever, headache, malaise, and a maculopapular rash. Nearly all cases are mild and self-limiting but in 2007, a large outbreak of ZIKV was reported from the island of Yap (in Micronesia, northwest of Indonesia). Singapore is already endemic for dengue, and its impact on public health and economic burden is significant. Other dengue-like infections (e.g., Chikungunya virus) are present. Yet only 10% of reported dengue cases have laboratory confirmation. The identification and control of other dengue-like, mosquito-transmitted infections is thus important for the health of Singapores population, as well as its economy. Given that ZIKV shares the same Aedes mosquito vector with both dengue and Chikungunya, it is possible that this virus is present in Singapore and causing some of the mild dengue-like illness. A specific and sensitive one-step, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with an internal control (IC) was designed and tested on 88 archived samples of dengue-negative, Chikungunya-negative sera from patients presenting to our hospital with a dengue-like illness, to determine the presence of ZIKV in Singapore. The assay was specific for detection of ZIKV and displayed a lower limit of detection (LoD) of 140 copies viral RNA/reaction when tested on synthetic RNA standards prepared using pooled negative patient plasma. Of the 88 samples tested, none were positive for ZIKV RNA, however, the vast majority of these were from patients admitted to hospital and further study may be warranted in community-based environments.
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Targeting both rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms with a single-tube high-resolution melting assay for IL28b genotyping.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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A rapid, duplex, high-resolution melting interleukin-28B gene (IL28B) genotyping assay, targeting both rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms, was developed and validated using 30 DNA samples from healthy volunteers. A linkage study on 300 healthy Singaporeans showed variable haplotypes. When the assay was applied to plasma DNA from 50 hepatitis C virus genotype-1 (HCV-1)-infected patients, five compound heterozygous types were detected.
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Same-day prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal aneuploidies using microfluidics-fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Prenat. Diagn.
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Rapid molecular prenatal diagnostic methods, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative fluorescence-PCR, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, can detect common fetal aneuploidies within 24 to 48 h. However, specific diagnosis or aneuploidy exclusion should be ideally available within the same day as fetal sampling to alleviate parental anxiety. Microfluidic technologies integrate different steps into a microchip, saving time and costs. We have developed a cost-effective, same-day prenatal diagnostic FISH assay using microfluidics. Amniotic fluids (1-4 mL from 40 pregnant women at 15-22 weeks of gestation) were fixed with Carnoys before loading into the microchannels of a microfluidic FISH-integrated nanostructured device. The glass slides were coated with nanostructured titanium dioxide to facilitate cell adhesion. Pretreatment and hybridization were performed within the microchannels. Fifty nuclei were counted by two independent analysts, and all results were validated with their respective karyotypes. Of the 40 samples, we found three cases of fetal aneuploidies (trisomies 13, 18, and 21), whereas the remaining 37 cases were normal. Results were concordant with their karyotypes and ready to be released within 3 h of sample receipt. Microfluidic FISH, using 20-fold less than the recommended amount of probe, is a cost-effective method to diagnose common fetal aneuploidies within the same day of fetal sampling.
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CYP2C19 and PON1 polymorphisms regulating clopidogrel bioactivation in Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects.
Pharmacogenomics
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AIM, MATERIALS & METHODS: We investigated the functional significance of CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 and PON1 Q192R SNPs in 89 consecutive Asian patients on clopidogrel treatment and the prevalence of functionally significant polymorphisms among 300 Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians.
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Detection of a novel single nucleotide polymorphism of the human thiopurine s-methyltransferase gene in a Chinese individual.
Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet.
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A 62-year-old Chinese patient with recurrent pompholyx submitted his blood sample for pre-treatment thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) pharmacogenetic profiling, and it was found to harbour a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The novel SNP, detected by mRNA sequencing, was a c.2T>C (g.11018T>C) transition in the start codon, causing a Met1Thr amino acid change. This finding was confirmed on a subsequent blood sample from the same patient by DNA sequencing. The patient was genotyped as TPMT*1/*29, sequentially named as such following the latest TPMT SNP (TPMT*1/*28) at the time of writing. The novel SNP is expected to result in complete lack of protein translation, similar to the impact exerted by TPMT*14, another start codon SNP of the TPMT gene.
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with hyperplastic germinal centres (pattern 1) shows superior survival to patterns 2 and 3: a meta-analysis of 56 cases.
Histopathology
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) may present in patterns 1, 2 or 3, representing those with hyperplastic, regressed or effaced germinal centres (GCs), respectively, but the prognostic utility of this subclassification has not been previously validated.
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An in-house HIV genotyping assay for the detection of drug resistance mutations in Southeast Asian patients infected with HIV-1.
J. Med. Virol.
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Genotyping for HIV drug resistance is costly and beyond the means for many Southeast Asian patients, who are self-funded. This prompted the development of a more cost-effective, in-house assay for an ethnically diverse, Southeast Asian population at the National University Hospital in Singapore, using Sanger-based sequencing. Plasma samples from 20 treatment-failure patients with a broad spectrum of HIV drug resistance mutations were used to validate this assay clinically. Blinded testing gave concordant results for 7/7 (100%) protease drug resistance-related mutations, including one major and six minor mutations, and 111/116 (95.7%) reverse-transcriptase (RT) drug resistance-related mutations, including 65 nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTI) and 46 non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTI) mutations. There were five discordant results, involving three NRTI- and two NNRTI-resistance-associated mutations. Highly conserved primers designed to have a wide coverage of the HIV pol gene (covering the entire protease and 395 codons of the RT region) enabled efficient multi-ethnic population-based genotyping. Reagents for this in-house test cost around 60% less than those for commercially available assays (SGD150 vs. SGD350 per sample). In addition, this assay also identified mutations located within the C-terminal domain (codons 312-560) of RT that are beyond the reach of most published and commercial GRTs. Currently, most research on C-terminal drug-resistance-related mutations has been conducted on HIV subtype B infections. Therefore this assay enables further study of these C-terminal mutations in Southeast Asian populations, where there is a high prevalence of CRF01_AE and other non-subtype B HIV infections.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.