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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cellular aging of skeletal muscle: telomeric and free radical evidence that physical inactivity is responsible and not age.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Telomeres play an essential role in maintaining chromosomal integrity in the face of physiological stressors. Although the age-related shortening of TL (telomere length) in highly proliferative tissue is predominantly due to the replication process, the mechanism for telomere shortening in skeletal muscle, which is minimally proliferative, is unclear. By studying TL in both the upper and lower limbs of the young, old-mobile and old-immobile subjects and by virtue of the bipedal nature of human locomotion, which declines with age, it may be possible to elucidate the mechanism(s) responsible for cellular aging of skeletal muscle. With this approach, we revealed that TL (~15 kb) in arm skeletal muscle is unaffected by age. In contrast TL fell progressively in the legs across the young (~15 kb), the old mobile (~13 kb) and old immobile (~11 kb) subjects. Interestingly, there was a reciprocal increase in leg muscle free radicals across these groups that was correlated with TL (r=0.7), with no such relationship in the arm (r=0.09). Our results document that chronological age does not affect the cellular aging of skeletal muscle, but reveals that physical inactivity, probably mediated by free radicals, has a profound effect upon this process.
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Field models and numerical dosimetry inside an extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor: the theoretical link between the electromagnetically induced mechanical forces and the biological mechanisms of the cell tensegrity.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We have implemented field models and performed a detailed numerical dosimetry inside our extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic bioreactor which has been successfully used in in vitro Biotechnology and Tissue Engineering researches. The numerical dosimetry permitted to map the magnetic induction field (maximum module equal to about 3.3 mT) and to discuss its biological effects in terms of induced electric currents and induced mechanical forces (compression and traction). So, in the frame of the tensegrity-mechanotransduction theory of Ingber, the study of these electromagnetically induced mechanical forces could be, in our opinion, a powerful tool to understand some effects of the electromagnetic stimulation whose mechanisms remain still elusive.
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Effects of the hydrostatic pressure in in vitro beating cardiac syncytia in terms of kinematics (kinetic energy and beat frequency) and syncytia geometrical-functional classification.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Many important observations and discoveries in heart physiology have been made possible using the isolated heart method of Langendorff, e.g. the discovery of the very famous Frank-Starling law of the heart. Nevertheless, the Langendorffs method has some limitations and disadvantages such as the probability of preconditioning and a high oxidative stress, leading to the deterioration of the contractile function. To avoid the preceding drawbacks associated to the use of a whole heart, we have alternatively used beating mouse cardiac syncytia cultured in vitro in order to assess the ergotropic and chronotropic effects of both increasing and decreasing hydrostatic pressures. To achieve the preceding aim, we have developed a method based on image processing analysis to evaluate the kinematics of that pressure-loaded beating syncytia starting from the video registration of their contraction movement. We have verified the Frank-Starling law of the heart in in vitro beating cardiac syncytia and we have obtained their geometrical-functional classification. The present method could be used in in vitro studies of beating cardiac patches, as alternative to the Langendorffs heart in biochemical, pharmacological, and physiology studies, and, especially, when the Langendorffs technique is inapplicable. Furthermore, the method could help, in heart tissue engineering and bioartificial heart researches, to "engineer the heart piece by piece".
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Phospholipase D regulates the size of skeletal muscle cells through the activation of mTOR signaling.
Cell Commun. Signal
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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mTOR is a major actor of skeletal muscle mass regulation in situations of atrophy or hypertrophy. It is established that Phospholipase D (PLD) activates mTOR signaling, through the binding of its product phosphatidic acid (PA) to mTOR protein. An influence of PLD on muscle cell size could thus be suspected. We explored the consequences of altered expression and activity of PLD isoforms in differentiated L6 myotubes. Inhibition or down-regulation of the PLD1 isoform markedly decreased myotube size and muscle specific protein content. Conversely, PLD1 overexpression induced muscle cell hypertrophy, both in vitro in myotubes and in vivo in mouse gastrocnemius. In the presence of atrophy-promoting dexamethasone, PLD1 overexpression or addition of exogenous PA protected myotubes against atrophy. Similarly, exogenous PA protected myotubes against TNF?-induced atrophy. Moreover, the modulation of PLD expression or activity in myotubes showed that PLD1 negatively regulates the expression of factors involved in muscle protein degradation, such as the E3-ubiquitin ligases Murf1 and Atrogin-1, and the Foxo3 transcription factor. Inhibition of mTOR by PP242 abolished the positive effects of PLD1 on myotubes, whereas modulating PLD influenced the phosphorylation of both S6K1 and Akt, which are respectively substrates of mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes. These observations suggest that PLD1 acts through the activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 to induce positive trophic effects on muscle cells. This pathway may offer interesting therapeutic potentialities in the treatment of muscle wasting.
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Phospholipase D regulates myogenic differentiation through the activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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How phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in myogenesis remains unclear. At the onset of myogenic differentiation of L6 cells induced by the PLD agonist vasopressin in the absence of serum, mTORC1 complex was rapidly activated, as reflected by phosphorylation of S6 kinase1 (S6K1). Both the long (p85) and short (p70) S6K1 isoforms were phosphorylated in a PLD1-dependent way. Short rapamycin treatment specifically inhibiting mTORC1 suppressed p70 but not p85 phosphorylation, suggesting that p85 might be directly activated by phosphatidic acid. Vasopressin stimulation also induced phosphorylation of Akt on Ser-473 through PLD1-dependent activation of mTORC2 complex. In this model of myogenesis, mTORC2 had a positive role mostly unrelated to Akt activation, whereas mTORC1 had a negative role, associated with S6K1-induced Rictor phosphorylation. The PLD requirement for differentiation can thus be attributed to its ability to trigger via mTORC2 activation the phosphorylation of an effector that could be PKC?. Moreover, PLD is involved in a counter-regulation loop expected to limit the response. This study thus brings new insights in the intricate way PLD and mTOR cooperate to control myogenesis.
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Video evaluation of the kinematics and dynamics of the beating cardiac syncytium: an alternative to the Langendorff method.
Int J Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Many important observations and discoveries in heart physiology have been made possible using the isolated heart method of Langendorff. Nevertheless, the Langendorff method has some limitations and disadvantages such as the vulnerability of the excised heart to contusions and injuries, the probability of preconditioning during instrumentation, the possibility of inducing tissue edema, and high oxidative stress, leading to the deterioration of the contractile function. To avoid these drawbacks associated with the use of a whole heart, we alternatively used beating mouse cardiac syncytia cultured in vitro in order to assess possible ergotropic, chronotropic, and inotropic effects of drugs. To achieve this aim, we developed a method based on image processing analysis to evaluate the kinematics and the dynamics of the drug-stimulated beating syncytia starting from the video recording of their contraction movement. In this manner, in comparison with the physiological no-drug condition, we observed progressive positive ergotropic, positive chronotropic, and positive inotropic effects of 10 µM isoproterenol (ß-adrenergic agonist) and early positive ergotropic, negative chronotropic, and positive inotropic effects of 10 µM phenylephrine (alpha-adrenergic agonist), followed by a late phase with negative ergotropic, positive chronotropic, and negative inotropic trends. Our method permitted a systematic study of in vitro beating syncytia, producing results consistent with previous works. Consequently, it could be used in in vitro studies of beating cardiac patches, as an alternative to Langendorffs heart in biochemical and pharmacological studies, and especially when the Langendorff technique is inapplicable (e.g., in studies about human cardiac syncytium in physiological and pathological conditions, patient-tailored therapeutics, and syncytium models derived from induced pluripotent/embryonic stem cells with genetic mutations). Furthermore, the method could be helpful in heart tissue engineering and bioartificial heart research to "engineer the heart piece by piece." In particular, the proposed method could be useful in the identification of a suitable cell source, in the development and testing of "smart" biomaterials, and in the design and use of novel bioreactors and microperfusion systems.
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?1-syntrophin modulation by miR-222 in mdx mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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In mdx mice, the absence of dystrophin leads to the deficiency of other components of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DAPC), making skeletal muscle fibers more susceptible to necrosis. The mechanisms involved in the disappearance of the DAPC are not completely understood. The muscles of mdx mice express normal amounts of mRNA for the DAPC components, thus suggesting post-transcriptional regulation.
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Skeletal myoblasts overexpressing relaxin improve differentiation and communication of primary murine cardiomyocyte cell cultures.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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The possibility that resident myocardial progenitor cells may be re-activated by transplantation of exogenous stem cells into the post-infarcted heart has been suggested as a possible mechanism to explain the hearts functional improvement after stem cell therapy. Here we studied whether differentiation of mouse neonatal immature cardiomyocytes in vitro was influenced by mouse skeletal myoblasts C2C12, wild type or engineered to secrete the cardiotropic hormone relaxin. The cultured cardiomyocytes formed spontaneously beating clusters and temporally exhibited cardiac immunophenotypical (cKit, atrial natriuretic peptide, troponin T, connexin-43, HCN4) and electrical features (inward voltage-dependent Na(+), T- and L-type Ca(2+) currents, outward and inward K(+) currents, I(f) pacemaker current). These clusters were functionally connected through nanotubular structures and undifferentiated cardiac cells in the form of flattened stripes, bridging the clusters through connexin-43-containing gap junctions. These findings suggested the existence of long distance cell-to-cell communications among the cardiomyocyte aggregates involved in the intercellular transfer of Ca(2+) signals and organelles, likely required for coordination of myocardial differentiation. Co-presence of the myoblasts greatly increased cardiomyocyte differentiation and the amount of intercellular connections. In fact, these cells formed a structural support guiding elongation of nanotubules and stripe-like cells. The secretion of relaxin by the engineered myoblasts accelerated and enhanced the cardiomyogenic potential of the co-culture. These findings underscore the possibility that grafted myoblasts and cardiotropic factors, such as relaxin, may influence regeneration of resident immature cardiac cells, thus adding a tile to the mosaic of mechanisms involved in the functional benefits of cell transplantation for cardiac repair.
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Inflammation in muscular dystrophy and the beneficial effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Muscle Nerve
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Glucocorticoids are the only drugs available for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but it is unclear whether their efficacy is dependent on their anti-inflammatory activity.
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Chronic Inhibition of cGMP phosphodiesterase 5A improves diabetic cardiomyopathy: a randomized, controlled clinical trial using magnetic resonance imaging with myocardial tagging.
Circulation
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cGMP phosphodiesterase type 5 protein is upregulated in myocardial hypertrophy. However, it has never been ascertained whether phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition exerts an antiremodeling effect in nonischemic heart disease in humans. We explored the cardioreparative properties of a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, in a model of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
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TNF-?- and tumor-induced skeletal muscle atrophy involves sphingolipid metabolism.
Skelet Muscle
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Muscle atrophy associated with various pathophysiological conditions represents a major health problem, because of its contribution to the deterioration of patient status and its effect on mortality. Although the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines in this process is well recognized, the role of sphingolipid metabolism alterations induced by the cytokines has received little attention.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.