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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Grafting and early expression of growth factors from adipose-derived stem cells transplanted into the cochlea, in a Guinea pig model of acoustic trauma.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Noise exposure causes damage of multiple cochlear cell types producing permanent hearing loss with important social consequences. In mammals, no regeneration of either damaged hair cells or auditory neurons has been observed and no successful treatment is available to achieve a functional recovery. Loads of evidence indicate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as promising tools in diversified regenerative medicine applications, due to the high degree of plasticity and trophic features. This study was aimed at identifying the path of in vivo cell migration and expression of trophic growth factors, upon ASCs transplantation into the cochlea, following noise-induced injury. ASCs were isolated in primary culture from the adipose tissue of a guinea pig, transduced using a viral vector to express the green fluorescent protein, and implanted into the scala tympani of deafened animals. Auditory function was assessed 3 and 7?days after surgery. The expression of trophic growth factors was comparatively analyzed using real-time PCR in control and noise-injured cochlear tissues. Immunofluorescence was used to assess the in vivo localization and expression of trophic growth factors in ASCs and cochleae, 3 and 7?days following homologous implantation. ASC implantation did not modify auditory function. ASCs migrated from the perilymphatic to the endolymphatic compartment, during the analyzed time course. Upon noise exposure, the expression of chemokine ligands and receptors related to the PDGF, VEGF, and TGFbeta pathways, increased in the cochlear tissues, possibly guiding in vivo cell migration. Immunofluorescence confirmed the increased expression, which appeared to be further strengthened by ASCs' implantation. These results indicated that ASCs are able to migrate at the site of tissue damage and express trophic factors, upon intracochlear implantation, providing an original proof of principle, which could pave the way for further developments of ASC-based treatments of deafness.
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Spinal fusion in the next generation: gene and cell therapy approaches.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bone fusion represents a challenge in the orthopedics practice, being especially indicated for spine disorders. Spinal fusion can be defined as the bony union between two vertebral bodies obtained through the surgical introduction of an osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic compound. Autogenous bone graft provides all these three qualities and is considered the gold standard. However, a high morbidity is associated with the harvest procedure. Intensive research efforts have been spent during the last decades to develop new approaches and technologies for successful spine fusion. In recent years, cell and gene therapies have attracted great interest from the scientific community. The improved knowledge of both mesenchymal stem cell biology and osteogenic molecules allowed their use in regenerative medicine, representing attractive approaches to achieve bone regeneration also in spinal surgery applications. In this review we aim to describe the developing gene- and cell-based bone regenerative approaches as promising future trends in spine fusion.
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The neurogenic effects of exogenous neuropeptide Y: early molecular events and long-lasting effects in the hippocampus of trimethyltin-treated rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Modulation of endogenous neurogenesis is regarded as a promising challenge in neuroprotection. In the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration obtained by Trimethyltin (TMT) administration (8 mg/kg), characterised by selective pyramidal cell loss, enhanced neurogenesis, seizures and cognitive impairment, we previously demonstrated a proliferative role of exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY), on dentate progenitors in the early phases of neurodegeneration. To investigate the functional integration of newly-born neurons, here we studied in adult rats the long-term effects of intracerebroventricular administration of NPY (2 µg/2 µl, 4 days after TMT-treatment), which plays an adjuvant role in neurodegeneration and epilepsy. Our results indicate that 30 days after NPY administration the number of new neurons was still higher in TMT+NPY-treated rats than in control+saline group. As a functional correlate of the integration of new neurons into the hippocampal network, long-term potentiation recorded in Dentate Gyrus (DG) in the absence of GABAA receptor blockade was higher in the TMT+NPY-treated group than in all other groups. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of Kruppel-like factor 9, a transcription factor essential for late-phase maturation of neurons in the DG, and of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5, critically involved in the maturation and dendrite extension of newly-born neurons, revealed a significant up-regulation of both genes in TMT+NPY-treated rats compared with all other groups. To explore the early molecular events activated by NPY administration, the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway, which participates in the maintenance of the neurogenic hippocampal niche, was evaluated by qPCR 1, 3 and 5 days after NPY-treatment. An early significant up-regulation of Shh expression was detected in TMT+NPY-treated rats compared with all other groups, associated with a modulation of downstream genes. Our data indicate that the neurogenic effect of NPY administration during TMT-induced neurodegeneration involves early Shh pathway activation and results in a functional integration of newly-generated neurons into the local circuit.
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Antenatal glucocorticoids supplementation and central nervous system development.
Curr. Drug Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Maternal antenatal therapy with glucocorticoids (GC) is routinely used to prevent lung immaturity. The potential harmful effects on other organs, including in particular the central nervous system (CNS), are still controversial. In the present review we aimed to investigate: i) the beneficial and detrimental effects of antenatal GC treatment in both human and animal models; ii) the potential usefulness of biochemical markers such as calcium binding proteins (S100B, synaptophysin) and cytoskeletal protein of neurons and dendrites (MAP2) in the perinatal period, and iii) whether the assessment of brain markers in different biological fluids could constitute a promising tool for the monitoring of CNS function and/or developmental in fetuses and newborns whose mothers assumed GC antenatally.
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Gene expression profiling as a tool to investigate the molecular machinery activated during hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT) administration.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Trimethyltin (TMT) is an organotin compound exhibiting neurotoxicant effects selectively localized in the limbic system and especially marked in the hippocampus, in both experimental animal models and accidentally exposed humans. TMT administration causes selective neuronal death involving either the granular neurons of the dentate gyrus or the pyramidal cells of the Cornu Ammonis, with a different pattern of localization depending on the different species studied or the dosage schedule. TMT is broadly used to realize experimental models of hippocampal neurodegeneration associated with cognitive impairment and temporal lobe epilepsy, though the molecular mechanisms underlying the associated selective neuronal death are still not conclusively clarified. Experimental evidence indicates that TMT-induced neurodegeneration is a complex event involving different pathogenetic mechanisms, probably acting differently in animal and cell models, which include neuroinflammation, intracellular calcium overload, and oxidative stress. Microarray-based, genome-wide expression analysis has been used to investigate the molecular scenario occurring in the TMT-injured brain in different in vivo and in vitro models, producing an overwhelming amount of data. The aim of this review is to discuss and rationalize the state-of-the-art on TMT-associated genome wide expression profiles in order to identify comparable and reproducible data that may allow focusing on significantly involved pathways.
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Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Cells for Bone Regereneration: State of the Art.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Adipose tissue represents a hot topic in regenerative medicine because of the tissue source abundance, the relatively easy retrieval, and the inherent biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells residing in its stroma. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are indeed multipotent somatic stem cells exhibiting growth kinetics and plasticity, proved to induce efficient tissue regeneration in several biomedical applications. A defined consensus for their isolation, classification, and characterization has been very recently achieved. In particular, bone tissue reconstruction and regeneration based on ASCs has emerged as a promising approach to restore structure and function of bone compromised by injury or disease. ASCs have been used in combination with osteoinductive biomaterial and/or osteogenic molecules, in either static or dynamic culture systems, to improve bone regeneration in several animal models. To date, few clinical trials on ASC-based bone reconstruction have been concluded and proved effective. The aim of this review is to dissect the state of the art on ASC use in bone regenerative applications in the attempt to provide a comprehensive coverage of the topics, from the basic laboratory to recent clinical applications.
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Urine S100 BB and A1B dimers are valuable predictors of adverse outcome in full-term asphyxiated infants.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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To investigate whether S100A1B and BB dimers are predictors of early perinatal death in newborns with perinatal asphyxia (PA).
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Alternative splicing of human insulin receptor gene (INSR) in type I and type II skeletal muscle fibers of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 and type 2.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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INSR, one of those genes aberrantly expressed in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) due to a toxic RNA effect, encodes for the insulin receptor (IR). Its expression is regulated by alternative splicing generating two isoforms: IR-A, which predominates in embryonic tissue, and IR-B, which is highly expressed in adult, insulin-responsive tissues (skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue). The aberrant INSR expression detected in DM1 and DM2 muscles tissues, characterized by a relative increase of IR-A versus IR-B, was pathogenically related to the insulin resistance occurring in DM patients. To assess if differences in the aberrant splicing of INSR could underlie the distinct fiber type involvement observed in DM1 and DM2 muscle tissues, we have used laser capture microdissection (LCM) and RT-PCR, comparing the alternative splicing of INSR in type I and type II muscle fibers isolated from muscle biopsies of DM1, DM2 patients and controls. In the controls, the relative amounts of IR-A and IR-B showed no obvious differences between type I and type II fibers, as in the whole muscle tissue. In DM1 and DM2 patients, both fiber types showed a similar, relative increase of IR-A versus IR-B, as also evident in the whole muscle tissue. Our data suggest that the distinct fiber type involvement in DM1 and DM2 muscle tissues would not be related to qualitative differences in the expression of INSR. LCM can represent a powerful tool to give a better understanding of the pathogenesis of myotonic dystrophies, as well as other myopathies.
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Mitochondrial network genes in the skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Recent evidence suggested that muscle degeneration might lead and/or contribute to neurodegeneration, thus it possibly play a key role in the etiopathogenesis and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To test this hypothesis, this study attempted to categorize functionally relevant genes within the genome-wide expression profile of human ALS skeletal muscle, using microarray technology and gene regulatory network analysis. The correlation network structures significantly change between patients and controls, indicating an increased inter-gene connection in patients compared to controls. The gene network observed in the ALS group seems to reflect the perturbation of muscle homeostasis and metabolic balance occurring in affected individuals. In particular, the network observed in the ALS muscles includes genes (PRKR1A, FOXO1, TRIM32, ACTN3, among others), whose functions connect the sarcomere integrity to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Overall, the analytical approach used in this study offer the possibility to observe higher levels of correlation (i.e. common expression trends) among genes, whose function seems to be aberrantly activated during the progression of muscle atrophy.
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Over-Expression of hNGF in Adult Human Olfactory Bulb Neural Stem Cells Promotes Cell Growth and Oligodendrocytic Differentiation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The adult human olfactory bulb neural stem/progenitor cells (OBNC/PC) are promising candidate for cell-based therapy for traumatic and neurodegenerative insults. Exogenous application of NGF was suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for traumatic and neurodegenerative diseases, however effective delivery of NGF into the CNS parenchyma is still challenging due mainly to its limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, and intolerable side effects if administered into the brain ventricular system. An effective method to ensure delivery of NGF into the parenchyma of CNS is the genetic modification of NSC to overexpress NGF gene. Overexpression of NGF in adult human OBNSC is expected to alter their proliferation and differentiation nature, and thus might enhance their therapeutic potential. In this study, we genetically modified adult human OBNS/PC to overexpress human NGF (hNGF) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes to provide insight about the effects of hNGF and GFP genes overexpression in adult human OBNS/PC on their in vitro multipotentiality using DNA microarray, immunophenotyping, and Western blot (WB) protocols. Our analysis revealed that OBNS/PC-GFP and OBNS/PC-GFP-hNGF differentiation is a multifaceted process involving changes in major biological processes as reflected in alteration of the gene expression levels of crucial markers such as cell cycle and survival markers, stemness markers, and differentiation markers. The differentiation of both cell classes was also associated with modulations of key signaling pathways such MAPK signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway for OBNS/PC-GFP, and axon guidance, calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 7 for OBNS/PC-GFP-hNGF as revealed by GO and KEGG. Differentiated OBNS/PC-GFP-hNGF displayed extensively branched cytoplasmic processes, a significant faster growth rate and up modulated the expression of oligodendroglia precursor cells markers (PDGFR?, NG2 and CNPase) respect to OBNS/PC-GFP counterparts. These findings suggest an enhanced proliferation and oligodendrocytic differentiation potential for OBNS/PC-GFP-hNGF as compared to OBNS/PC-GFP.
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Neurotrophic features of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells: in vitro and in vivo studies.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Due to its abundance, easy retrieval, and plasticity characteristics, adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells (ATSCs) present unquestionable advantages over other adult-tissue-derived stem cells. Based on the in silico analysis of our previous data reporting the ATSC-specific expression profiles, the present study attempted to clarify and validate at the functional level the expression of the neurospecific genes expressed by ATSC both in vitro and in vivo. This allowed evidencing that ATSCs express neuro-specific trophins, metabolic genes, and neuroprotective molecules. They were in fact able to induce neurite outgrowth in vitro, along with tissue-specific commitment along the neural lineage and the expression of the TRKA neurotrophin receptor in vivo. Our observation adds useful information to recent evidence proposing these cells as a suitable tool for cell-based applications in neuroregenerative medicine.
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Perinatal asphyxia: kidney failure does not affect S100B urine concentrations.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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S100B protein is a well-established marker of brain damage. Its importance in urine assessment is the convenience of a collection and sampling procedure that can be repeated without risk for the newborn. Since S100B is mainly eliminated by the kidneys and perinatal asphyxia (PA) is often associated with kidney failure we investigated whether S100B release might be kidney-mediated, thereby modifying the proteins reliability as a brain-damage marker.
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Undifferentiated human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells induce mandibular bone healing in rats.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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To test the osteo-regenerative potential of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ATSCs), an attractive human source for tissue engineering, in a rat model of mandibular defect. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) were used as a differentiated cellular control in the study.
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S100B protein maternal and fetal bloodstreams gradient in healthy and small for gestational age pregnancies.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Brain S100B assessment in maternal blood has been proposed as a useful tool for early perinatal brain damage detection. Among potential confounding factors the possibility of a protein gradient between maternal and fetal bloodstreams under pathophysiological conditions is consistent. The present study investigates in healthy and small gestational age fetuses (SGA) whether S100B concentrations differ among fetal and maternal bloodstreams.
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Trimethyltin-induced hippocampal degeneration as a tool to investigate neurodegenerative processes.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Trimethyltin (TMT), an organotin compound with neurotoxicant effects selectively localised in the limbic system and especially marked in the hippocampus, is considered a useful tool to obtain an experimental model of neurodegeneration. Animals exposed to TMT develop behavioural alterations (hyperactivity and aggression), cognitive impairment (memory loss and learning impairment) and spontaneous seizures. TMT induces selective neuronal death involving the granular neurons of the Fascia Dentata and the pyramidal cells of the Cornu Ammonis, with a different pattern of severity and extension according to the various species studied and the dosage schedule. TMT-induced neurodegenerative events are associated with the activation of astrocytes and microglial cells and with the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. While the mechanisms by which TMT induces neurodegeneration are still not understood, many hypotheses seem to suggest that neuronal damage could be largely dependent on calcium overload. This review summarizes current data from in vivo and in vitro studies of the neurotoxic effects of TMT, focusing on the hypotheses regarding the mechanisms leading to neuronal death induced by the toxin.
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Gene expression profiling of embryonic human neural stem cells and dopaminergic neurons from adult human substantia nigra.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Neural stem cells (NSC) with self-renewal and multipotent properties serve as an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat neurodegenerative insults such as Parkinsons disease. We used Agilents and Illumina Whole Human Genome Oligonucleotide Microarray to compare the genomic profiles of human embryonic NSC at a single time point in culture, and a multicellular tissue from postmortem adult substantia nigra (SN) which are rich in dopaminergic (DA) neurons. We identified 13525 up-regulated genes in both cell types of which 3737 (27.6%) genes were up-regulated in the hENSC, 4116 (30.4%) genes were up-regulated in the human substantia nigra dopaminergic cells, and 5672 (41.93%) were significantly up-regulated in both cell population. Careful analysis of the data that emerged using DAVID has permitted us to distinguish several genes and pathways that are involved in dopaminergic (DA) differentiation, and to identify the crucial signaling pathways that direct the process of differentiation. The set of genes expressed more highly at hENSC is enriched in molecules known or predicted to be involved in the M phase of the mitotic cell cycle. On the other hand, the genes enriched in SN cells include a different set of functional categories, namely synaptic transmission, central nervous system development, structural constituents of the myelin sheath, the internode region of axons, myelination, cell projection, cell somata, ion transport, and the voltage-gated ion channel complex. Our results were also compared with data from various databases, and between different types of arrays, Agilent versus Illumina. This approach has allowed us to confirm the consistency of our obtained results for a large number of genes that delineate the phenotypical differences of embryonic NSCs, and SN cells.
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Protease-activated receptor-1 expression in rat microglia after trimethyltin treatment.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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In the nervous system, protease-activated receptors (PARs), which are activated by thrombin and other extracellular proteases, are expressed widely at both neuronal and glial levels and have been shown to be involved in several brain pathologies. As far as the glial receptors are concerned, previous experiments performed in rat hippocampus showed that expression of PAR-1, the prototypic member of the PAR family, increased in astrocytes both in vivo and in vitro following treatment with trimethyltin (TMT). TMT is an organotin compound that induces severe hippocampal neurodegeneration associated with astrocyte and microglia activation. In the present experiments, the authors extended their investigation to microglial cells. In particular, by 7 days following TMT intoxication in vivo, confocal immunofluorescence revealed an evident PAR-1-related specific immunoreactivity in OX-42-positive microglial cells of the CA3 and hilus hippocampal regions. In line with the in vivo results, when primary rat microglial cells were treated in vitro with TMT, a strong upregulation of PAR-1 was observed by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. These data provide further evidence that PAR-1 may be involved in microglial response to brain damage.
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S100B modulates growth factors and costimulatory molecules expression in cultured human astrocytes.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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S100B is a Ca(2+)-binding protein expressed in the nervous system. Increased levels of S100B in the extracellular space have been detected in several neurological disorders. We investigated the response of human astrocytes to micromolar chronic concentrations of this protein measuring the expression of some costimulatory molecules, such as CD137, CD137-L, CD40, CD40-L, the chemokine RANTES and two growth factors FGF-2 and TGF-?2. Our findings suggest that high levels of S100B in the brain parenchyma may modulate the activation status of astrocytes decreasing their neuroprotective role and modifying their interaction with microglia and other inflammatory cells. This effect may contribute to evolution of some neurological disorders.
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Early transcriptional events during osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells induced by Lim mineralization protein 3.
Gene Expr.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
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Lim mineralization protein-3 (LMP3) induces osteoblast differentiation by regulating the expression and activity of certain molecules involved in the osteogenic cascade, including those belonging to the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family. The complete network of molecular events involved in LMP3-mediated osteogenesis is still unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the genome-wide gene expression profiles in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) induced by exogenous LMP3 to mediate osteogenesis. For this purpose hMSC were transduced with a defective adenoviral vector expressing the human LMP3 gene and microarray analysis was performed 1 day post-adenoviral transduction. Cells transduced with the vector backbone and untransduced cells were used as independent controls in the experiments. Microarray data were independently validated by means of real-time PCR on selected transcripts. The statistical analysis of microarray data produced a list of 263 significantly (p < 0.01) differentially expressed transcripts. The biological interpretation of the results indicated, among the most noteworthy effects, the modulation of genes involved in the TGF-beta1 pathway: 88 genes coding for key regulators of the cell cycle regulatory machinery and 28 genes implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation along with the development of connective, muscular, and skeletal tissues. These results suggested that LMP3 could affect the fine balance between cell proliferation/differentiation of mesenchymal cells mostly by modulating the TGF-beta1 signaling pathway.
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Gene profiling of bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells: a key role of Kruppel-like factor 4 in cell fate regulation.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) represent promising sources for regenerative medicine. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying MSC stemness maintenance versus differentiation are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to compare the genome-wide expression profiles of bone marrow-and adipose tissue-derived MSC, in order to identify a common molecular stemness core.
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Saliva S100B in professional sportsmen: High levels at resting conditions and increased after vigorous physical activity.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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Neurological dysfunction is a key medical concern in professional sportsmen (PSM). We investigated whether saliva S100B concentrations in PSM and healthy controls are modified before and after training.
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Neural stem cells modified to express BDNF antagonize trimethyltin-induced neurotoxicity through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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In vitro expansion of neural stem cells (NSC) lentivirally transduced with human BDNF may serve as better cellular source for replacing degenerating neurons in disease, trauma and toxic insults. In this study, we evaluate the functional role of forced BDNF expression by means of NSC (M3GFP-BDNF) obtained from cerebral cortex of 1-day-old mice respect to NSC-control (M3GFP). We find that M3GFP-BDNF induced to differentiate significantly accumulate BDNF and undergone to high potassium-mediated depolarization, show rapid BDNF recycle and activation of Trk receptors signaling. Differentiated M3GFP-BDNF exhibit neurons and oligodendrocytes with extended processes although quantitative analyses of NSC-derived cell lineages show none statistical significance between both cell populations. Moreover, those cells show a significant induction of neuronal and oligodendroglial markers by RT-PCR and Western blot respect to M3GFP, such as betaIII-Tubulin, microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2), neurofilaments heavy (NF-H), oligodendroglial myelin glycoprotein (OMG) and some molecules involved in glutamatergic synapse maturation, such as receptors tyrosine kinases (TRKs), post-synaptic density (PSD-95) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors 2 A/B (NMDA2A/B). After treatment with the neurotoxicant trimethyltin (TMT), differentiated M3GFP-BDNF exhibit an attenuation of cellular damage which correlates with a significant activation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling and delayed activation of death signals, while on M3GFP, TMT induces a significant reduction of cell survival, neuronal differentiation and concomitant earlier activation of cleaved caspase-3. We demonstrate that overexpression of BDNF firmly regulate cell survival and differentiation of NSC and protects differentiated NSC against TMT-induced neurotoxicity through the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.
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Perinatal S100B Protein Assessment in Human Unconventional Biological Fluids: A Minireview and New Perspectives.
Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Growing evidence is now available on the use of S100B protein as a valuable marker of brain damage and its role as a neurotrophic factor. Bearing in mind, among different S100B protein properties that are still being investigated, the possibility of measuring this protein in different biological fluids renders it suitable for use in several disciplines. This is the case with perinatal medicine where even more noninvasive techniques are particularly desirable in order to ensure the minimal handling diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In this setting, the present minireview reports data on the presence and the usefulness of S100B protein as brain damage marker and as a neurotrophic factor in the so-called unconventional biological fluids such as saliva and human milk, respectively. Results offer new possibilities for the use of S100B in perinatal medicine as a key-protein for the investigations focusing on central nervous system development and damage.
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Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects preterm infants S100B urine concentration in a dose-dependent manner.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Maternal glucocorticoid (GC) treatment is widely used to prevent lung immaturity in preterm infants. There is growing evidence that GCs may be detrimental to the Central Nervous System (CNS). We investigated whether antenatal GC administration affects CNS function in a dose-dependent manner by measuring urine concentrations of a well-established brain damage marker, S100B.
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In vivo morphological changes in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimers-like disease: MRI approach.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2009
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the only noninvasive technique that provides structural information on both cell loss and metabolic changes. After reviewing all the results obtained in clinical studies, reliable biomarkers in neurological diseases are still lacking. Diffusional MRI, MR spectroscopy, and the assessment of regional atrophy are promising approaches, but they cannot be simultaneously used on a single patient. Thus, for further research progress, reliable animal models are needed. To this aim, we have used the clinical MRI to assess neurodegenerative processes in the hSOD-1(G93A) ALS rat model and in the trimethyltin (TMT)-treated model of Alzheimers-like disease. T2-weighted (T2W) hyperintensive neurodegenerative foci were found in the brainstem of the ALS rat with apparent lateral ventricle dilation (T1W-hypointensity vs. T2W-hyperintensity). Degenerative processes in these areas were also confirmed by confocal images of GFAP-positive astrogliosis. MRI after i.v.i. of magnetic anti-CD4 antibodies indicated an accumulation of inflammatory cells near dilated ventricles. TMT-treated rats also revealed the dilation of lateral ventricles. Expected deterioration in the hippocampus was not observed by clinical MRI, but immunocytochemistry could reveal significant redistribution of macro- and microglia in this structure. In both models, Gd-DTPA contrast revealed a compromised blood brain barrier that may serve as the passage for inflammatory immune cells in the vicinity of dilated lateral ventricles. Moreover, in both models the midbrain region of the dorsal hippocampus was the target of BBB compromise, thus revealing a potentially vulnerable point that can be the primary target of neurodegeneration in the central nervous system.
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Urinary S100A1B and S100BB to predict hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy at term.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed)
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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Urinary S100A1B and S100BB were measured to detect cases at risk of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in asphyxiated newborns. We recruited 42 asphyxiated infants and 63 healthy term neonates. S100A1B and S100BB were measured at first urination (time 0) and at 4 (time 1), 8 (time 2), 12 (time 3), 16 (time 4), 20 (time 5), 24 (time 6), 72 (time 7) hours after birth. 20 infants had no/mild HIE with good prognosis (Group A) and 22 had moderate/severe HIE with a greater risk of neurological handicap (Group B). Urine S100A1B and S100BB levels were significantly (P less than 0.0.01, for all) higher at all monitoring time-points in Group B than Group A and controls, but not between Group A and controls. Both S100A1B and S100BB have great sensitivity and specificity for HIE since their first measurement. In conclusion, S100A1B and S100BB are increased in urine collected from asphyxiated newborns who will develop HIE since first urination, and their measurement may be useful to early predict HIE when monitoring procedures are still of no avail.
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S100B milk concentration in mammalian species.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed)
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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S100B is a neurotrophic protein detectable in biological fluids and in human milk. Since there are several maternal-neonatal conditions requiring the administration of animal milks the aim of the present study was to quantify S100B in milk from different mammalian species and to compare proteins concentration among human and mammalian milks. We assessed S100B concentrations in donkey (n=12), goat (n=15) sheep (n=15), commercially available cow (n=8) and human (n=15) milk samples. S100B measurements were performed using an immunoluminometric assay. S100B concentration in human milk (10.41 +/- 4.2 microg/L) was higher (P LESS THAN0.001) than mammalian milks. Of note, S100B concentration in cow milk (3.13 +/- 0.56 microg/L) was higher (P LESS THAN0.01) than that showed in donkey (1.17 +/- 0.26 microg/L), sheep (0.25 +/- 0.11 microg/L) and goat (0.26 +/- 0.11 microg/L). S100B in donkey milk was higher (P LESS THAN0.01) than sheep and goat samples whilst proteins concentration did not differ between goat and sheep. The present study suggests the opportunity of S100B addition to animal milk intended for infant feeding.
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Diagnostic accuracy of S100B urinary testing at birth in full-term asphyxiated newborns to predict neonatal death.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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Neonatal death in full-term infants who suffer from perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a major subject of investigation, since few tools exist to predict patients at risk of ominous outcome. We studied the possibility that urine S100B measurement may identify which PA-affected infants are at risk of early postnatal death.
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Lim mineralization protein 3 induces the osteogenic differentiation of human amniotic fluid stromal cells through Kruppel-like factor-4 downregulation and further bone-specific gene expression.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
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Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with extensive self-renewal properties can be easily isolated and rapidly expanded in culture from small volumes of amniotic fluid. These cells, namely, amniotic fluid-stromal cells (AFSCs), can be regarded as an attractive source for tissue engineering purposes, being phenotypically and genetically stable, plus overcoming all the safety and ethical issues related to the use of embryonic/fetal cells. LMP3 is a novel osteoinductive molecule acting upstream to the main osteogenic pathways. This study is aimed at delineating the basic molecular events underlying LMP3-induced osteogenesis, using AFSCs as a cellular model to focus on the molecular features underlying the multipotency/differentiation switch. For this purpose, AFSCs were isolated and characterized in vitro and transfected with a defective adenoviral vector expressing the human LMP3. LMP3 induced the successful osteogenic differentiation of AFSC by inducing the expression of osteogenic markers and osteospecific transcription factors. Moreover, LMP3 induced an early repression of the Kruppel-like factor-4, implicated in MSC stemness maintenance. KLF4 repression was released upon LMP3 silencing, indicating that this event could be reasonably considered among the basic molecular events that govern the proliferation/differentiation switch during LMP3-induced osteogenic differentiation of AFSC.
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Lim mineralization protein is involved in the premature calvarial ossification in sporadic craniosynostoses.
Bone
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Sporadic mono-sutural craniosynostosis represents a highly prevalent regional bone disorder, where a single cranial suture undergoes premature ossification due to a generally unclear etiopathogenesis. The LIM mineralization protein (LMP) was recently described as an efficient osteogenic molecule involved in osteoblast differentiation, expressed in calvarial tissues upon corticosteroid-osteogenic induction and used as a potent inducer of bone formation in several animal models. In this study, calvarial cells isolated from both prematurely fused and physiologically patent sutures of children with sporadic craniosynostosis, were used as an in vitro paradigmatic model for the study of the molecular events involved in calvarial osteogenesis, focusing on the possible role of the LMP-related osteogenic signaling. Calvarial cells isolated from both patent and fused sutures expressed a mesenchymal-like immunophenotype. Cells isolated from fused sutures displayed an increased osteogenic potential, being able to undergo spontaneous mineralization and premature response to osteogenic induction, leading to in vitro bone nodule formation. The expression of LMP and its target genes (bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin and Runt-related transcription factor 2) was significantly up-regulated in cells derived from the fused sutures. Upon silencing the expression of LMP in fused suture-derived cells, the osteogenic potential along with the expression of osteo-specific transcription factors decreased, restoring the "physiologic" cell behavior. These results suggested that: 1. mesenchymal cells residing in fused sutures display a constitutionally active osteogenic disposition leading to the premature suture ossification; 2. the molecular basis of the overactive osteogenic process may at least in part involve a deregulation of the LMP-related pathway in calvarial cells.
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Genome-wide gene expression profiling of human narcolepsy.
Gene Expr.
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The objective of this study was to perform global gene expression profiling of patients affected by narcolepsy with cataplexy (NRLCP). This enabled identifying new potential biomarkers and relevant molecules possibly involved in the disease pathogenesis. In this study 10 NRLCP patients and 10 healthy controls were compared. Total RNA isolated from blood specimens was analyzed using microarray technology followed by statistical data analysis to detect genome-wide differential gene expression between patients and controls. Functional analysis of the gene list was performed in order to interpret the biological significance of the data. One hundred and seventy-three genes showed significant (p < 0.01) differential expression between the two tested conditions. The biological interpretation allowed categorizing differentially expressed genes involved in neurite outgrowth/extension and brain development, which could be possibly regarded as peripheral markers of the disease. Moreover, the NRLCP-related gene expression profiles indicated a dysregulation of metabolic and immune-related mechanisms. In conclusion, the gene expression profile associated to NRLCP suggested that molecular markers of neurological impairment, dysmetabolic and immune-related mechanisms, can be detected in blood of NRLCP patients.
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The neuroprotective and neurogenic effects of neuropeptide Y administration in an animal model of hippocampal neurodegeneration and temporal lobe epilepsy induced by trimethyltin.
J. Neurochem.
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The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is believed to play an important role in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity and in the modulation of adult neurogenesis, were evaluated in an animal model of hippocampal neurodegeneration and temporal lobe epilepsy represented by trimethyltin (TMT) intoxication. A single TMT injection (8 mg/kg) causes, in the rat brain, massive neuronal death, selectively involving pyramidal neurons, accompanied by glial activation and enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. Our data indicate that intracerebroventricular administration of exogenous NPY (at the dose of 2 ?g/2 ?L, 4 days after TMT-administration), in adult rats, exerts a protective role in regard to TMT-induced hippocampal damage and a proliferative effect on the hippocampal neurogenic niche through the up-regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl2l1, Bdnf, Sox-2, NeuroD1, Noggin and Doublecortin genes, contributing to delineate more clearly the role of NPY in in vivo neurodegenerative processes.
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Gene expression profile of adult human olfactory bulb and embryonic neural stem cell suggests distinct signaling pathways and epigenetic control.
PLoS ONE
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Global gene expression profiling was performed using RNA from human embryonic neural stem cells (hENSC), and adult human olfactory bulb-derived neural stem cells (OBNSCs), to define a gene expression pattern and signaling pathways that are specific for each cell lineage. We have demonstrated large differences in the gene expression profile of human embryonic NSC, and adult human OBNSCs, but less variability between parallel cultures. Transcripts of genes involved in neural tube development and patterning (ALDH1A2, FOXA2), progenitor marker genes (LMX1a, ALDH1A1, SOX10), proliferation of neural progenitors (WNT1 and WNT3a), neuroplastin (NPTN), POU3F1 (OCT6), neuroligin (NLGN4X), MEIS2, and NPAS1 were up-regulated in both cell populations. By Gene Ontology, 325 out of 3875 investigated gene sets were scientifically different. 41 out of the 307 investigated Cellular Component (CC) categories, 45 out of the 620 investigated Molecular Function (MF) categories, and 239 out of the 2948 investigated Biological Process (BP) categories were significant. KEGG Pathway Class Comparison had revealed that 75 out of 171 investigated gene sets passed the 0.005 significance threshold. Levels of gene expression were explored in three signaling pathways, Notch, Wnt, and mTOR that are known to be involved in NS cell fates determination. The transcriptional signature also deciphers the role of genes involved in epigenetic modifications. SWI/SNF DNA chromatin remodeling complex family, including SMARCC1 and SMARCE1, were found specifically up-regulated in our OBNSC but not in hENSC. Differences in gene expression profile of transcripts controlling epigenetic modifications, and signaling pathways might indicate differences in the therapeutic potential of our examined two cell populations in relation to in cell survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation following engraftments in different CNS insults.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.