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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mediation of smoking abstinence self-efficacy on the association of nicotine dependence with smoking cessation.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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The nicotine dependence (ND) has negative and smoking abstinence self-efficacy (SASE) has positive effects on successful smoking cessation, but scant data is now available for what is the mediating role of SASE on the relationship between ND and successful smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to assess the abovementioned mediation.
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Development of a Measurement System for Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery: Reliability and Repeatability of Digital Image Correlation for Measurement of Surface Deformations in SILS Port.
JSLS
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Analysis of mechanical measurements in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is important for instrument design and surgical simulators. The aim of this study was to develop a measuring system for different instruments and manipulations in LESS using a single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) port.
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Traditional Chinese medication for cardiovascular disease.
Nat Rev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Traditional Chinese medication (TCM) is increasingly used to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) in China and some other Asian countries. However, therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of TCM are difficult to evaluate because few large-scale, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling patients with CVD have been performed. In this Review, we critically examine the current evidence on the cardiovascular effects of TCM. We reviewed 68 RCTs that included a total of 16,171 patients. The methodological quality of the trials was generally low. Only three reports described adverse cardiovascular events specifically, although in most studies TCM was associated with significant improvements in surrogate end points for hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure. The risk of adverse effects was not increased compared with no intervention, placebo, or Western medications. However, whether TCM is effective in reducing the all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in patients with CVD remains unknown and must be tested in large-scale RCTs with adverse cardiovascular events as primary end points.
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Residue-Specific Force Field Based on Protein Coil Library. RSFF2: Modification of AMBER ff99SB.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Recently, we developed a residue-specific force field (RSFF1) based on conformational free-energy distributions of the 20 amino acid residues from a protein coil library. Most parameters in RSFF1 were adopted from the OPLS-AA/L force field, but some van der Waals and torsional parameters that effectively affect local conformational preferences were introduced specifically for individual residues to fit the coil library distributions. Here a similar strategy has been applied to modify the Amber ff99SB force field, and a new force field named RSFF2 is developed. It can successfully fold ?-helical structures such as polyalanine peptides, Trp-cage miniprotein, and villin headpiece subdomain and ?-sheet structures such as Trpzip-2, GB1 ?-hairpins, and the WW domain, simultaneously. The properties of various popular force fields in balancing between ?-helix and ?-sheet are analyzed based on their descriptions of local conformational features of various residues, and the analysis reveals the importance of accurate local free-energy distributions. Unlike the RSFF1, which overestimates the stability of both ?-helix and ?-sheet, RSFF2 gives melting curves of ?-helical peptides and Trp-cage in good agreement with experimental data. Fitting to the two-state model, RSFF2 gives folding enthalpies and entropies in reasonably good agreement with available experimental results.
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Parablastomonas arctica gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from high Arctic glacial till.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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A pale yellow pigmented, aerobic bacterium, strain M0-2T, was isolated from a till sample. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphase approach. Cells are Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile. Cells reproduce by budding or asymmetric cell division. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M0-2T belonged to the family Sphingomonadaceae and was closely related to Novosphingobium species (96.4-92.0%), Blastomonas species (94.6%), Sphingopyxis witflariensis W-50T (94.0%), Sphingosinicella soli KSL-125T (93.6%) and Sphingomonas astaxanthinifaciens TDMA-17T (93.5%). Ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) was the predominant respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids were summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ?7c and/or C18:1 ?6c, 31.9%), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c, 19.8%) and C14:0 2-OH (8.9%). Sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine were the major polar lipids. Spermidine was the major polyamine observed in the cell. The genomic DNA G+C content was 47.5 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic relationship, the low DNA G+C content compared with most other genera of the family Sphingomonadaceae and combined with phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain M0-2T is considered to represent a novel species in a new genus in the family Sphingomonadaceae for which the name Parablastomonas arctica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Parablastomonas arctica gen. nov., sp. nov. is M0-2T (=CCTCC AB 2012968 T = NRRL B-59110T).
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[Research meteorological environmental factors in children's allergic rhinitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To investigate the possible effects of meteorological and environmental factors on allergic rhinitis of children.
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Circulating microRNAs serve as novel biological markers for intracranial aneurysms.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Biological markers that can be used to predict the risk of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are not available.
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Adenosine receptor control of cognition in normal and disease.
Int. Rev. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Adenosine and adenosine receptors (ARs) are increasingly recognized as important therapeutic targets for controlling cognition under normal and disease conditions for its dual roles of neuromodulation as well as of homeostatic function in the brain. This chapter first presents the unique ability of adenosine, by acting on the inhibitory A1 and facilitating A2A receptor, to integrate dopamine, glutamate, and BNDF signaling and to modulate synaptic plasticity (e.g., long-term potentiation and long-term depression) in brain regions relevant to learning and memory, providing the molecular and cellular bases for adenosine receptor (AR) control of cognition. This led to the demonstration of AR modulation of social recognition memory, working memory, reference memory, reversal learning, goal-directed behavior/habit formation, Pavlovian fear conditioning, and effort-related behavior. Furthermore, human and animal studies support that AR activity can also, through cognitive enhancement and neuroprotection, reverse cognitive impairments in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia. Lastly, epidemiological evidence indicates that regular human consumption of caffeine, the most widely used psychoactive drug and nonselective AR antagonists, is associated with the reduced cognitive decline in aging and AD patients, and with the reduced risk in developing PD. Thus, there is a convergence of the molecular studies revealing AR as molecular targets for integrating neurotransmitter signaling and controlling synaptic plasticity, with animal studies demonstrating the strong procognitive impact upon AR antagonism in normal and disease brains and with epidemiological and clinical evidences in support of caffeine and AR drugs for therapeutic modulation of cognition. Since some of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are already in phase III clinical trials for motor benefits in PD patients with remarkable safety profiles, additional animal and human studies to better understand the mechanism underlying the AR-mediated control of cognition under normal and disease conditions will provide the required rationale to stimulate the necessary clinical investigation to rapidly translate adenosine and AR drug as a novel strategy to control memory impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders.
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Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.
Int. Rev. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases.
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Effects of pediatric first aid training on preschool teachers: a longitudinal cohort study in China.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Unintentional injuries are a major cause of death among children. Data suggest that the retention of knowledge and skills about first aid declined over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of pediatric first aid training among teachers.
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Terrimonas arctica sp. nov., isolated from Arctic tundra soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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A novel, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated R9-86(T), was isolated from tundra soil collected near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway (78° N). Growth occurred at 4-28 °C (optimum, 22-25 °C) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain R9-86(T) belonged to the genus Terrimonas in the family Chitinophagaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain R9-86(T) and the type strains of species of the genus Terrimonas with validly published names ranged from 93.7 to 95.0?%. Strain R9-86(T) contained iso-C15?:?1-G (25.7?%), iso-C15?:?0 (24.5?%), iso-C17?:?0-3OH (18.3?%) and summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c, 8.7?%) as its major cellular fatty acids; phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown polar lipid as its main polar lipids, and MK-7 as its predominant respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C content was 48.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain R9-86(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Terrimonas, for which the name Terrimonas arctica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R9-86(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2011004(T)?=?NRRL B-59114(T)).
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Somatic growth of lean children: the potential role of sleep.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Despite the current obesity pandemic, childhood malnutrition remains an urgent, public health concern. Similar to the obesity pandemic, childhood malnutrition is influenced by genetic and a number of social, environmental and biological factors. In this study, we investigated the association between sleep duration and somatic growth in lean children.
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Desertibacter xinjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from the soil of a Euphrates poplar forest, and emended description of the genus Desertibacter.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A pale pink and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain M71(T), was isolated from the soil of a Euphrates poplar forest in Xingjiang, PR China. Cells of the strain were Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred at 10-37 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0) and with 0-2.0?% NaCl (w/v, optimum 0?%). Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicated that strain M71(T) belongs to the genus Desertibacter in the family Rhodospirillaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain showed 96.2?% sequence similarity with the type strain of Desertibacter roseus 2262(T). The respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were C18?:?1?7c (53.2?%), C16?:?1?5c (11.0?%), summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c, 10.2?%) and C16?:?0 (8.5?%). The DNA G+C content was 71.2 mol% (HPLC). The strain contained phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as the predominant polar lipids. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain M71(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Desertibacter, for which the name Desertibacter xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M71(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 209291(T)?=?CIP 110127(T)).
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Regulatory T cells prevent angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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To test the hypothesis that adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells (Tregs) may dose-dependently inhibit the formation of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in apolipoprotein E knockout mice, we established an animal model of abdominal aortic aneurysm by angiotensin II infusion in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Then mice received different treatment with PBS, low-dose Tregs, high-dose Tregs, or CD25-depleting PC61 antibody. Histopathologic analysis showed that the incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysm was 80%, 76%, 27%, and 71% in the PBS, low-dose Tregs, high-dose Tregs, and PC61 groups, respectively. Tregs treatment markedly decreased macrophage and CD4+ T-cell infiltration and preserved the medial smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, Tregs decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, increased the expression of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-?, and suppressed apoptosis and oxidative stress. In vitro, Tregs inhibited the response of human aortic smooth muscle cells to angiotensin II and reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, MMP-2 and MMP-9, possibly by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-?B and extracellular signal-regulate kinase 1/2. In addition, Tregs downregulated macrophage type 1-related genes and upregulated macrophage type 2-related genes. However, Tregs-mediated effects were largely reversed by disrupting cell-cell contact or using neutralizing antibodies against interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-?. Adoptive transfer of Tregs dose-dependently prevents angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. The mechanisms may involve declined proinflammatory cytokine expression and MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine expression, which is mediated by direct cell-cell contact and soluble mediators.
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Folding of fourteen small proteins with a residue-specific force field and replica-exchange molecular dynamics.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Ab initio protein folding via physical-based all-atom simulation is still quite challenging. Using a recently developed residue-specific force field (RSFF1) in explicit solvent, we are able to fold a diverse set of 14 model proteins. The obtained structural features of unfolded state are in good agreement with previous observations. The replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulation is found to be efficient, resulting in multiple folding events for each protein. Transition path time is found to be significantly reduced under elevated temperature.
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Frequent nocturnal awakening in children: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Nocturnal awakening is the most frequent insomnia complaint in the general population. In contrast to a growing knowledge based on adults, little is known about its prevalence, correlated factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness in children. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and the correlate factors of frequent nocturnal awakening (FNA) among Chinese school-aged children. Furthermore, the associations of FNA with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness were examined.
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Residue-specific force field based on the protein coil library. RSFF1: modification of OPLS-AA/L.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Traditional protein force fields use one set of parameters for most of the 20 amino acids (AAs), allowing transferability of the parameters. However, a significant shortcoming is the difficulty to fit the Ramachandran plots of all AA residues simultaneously, affecting the accuracy of the force field. In this Feature Article, we report a new strategy for protein force field parametrization. Backbone and side-chain conformational distributions of all 20 AA residues obtained from protein coil library were used as the target data. The dihedral angle (torsion) potentials and some local nonbonded (1-4/1-5/1-6) interactions in OPLS-AA/L force field were modified such that the target data can be excellently reproduced by molecular dynamics simulations of dipeptides (blocked AAs) in explicit water, resulting in a new force field with AA-specific parameters, RSFF1. An efficient free energy decomposition approach was developed to separate the corrections on ? and ? from the two-dimensional Ramachandran plots. RSFF1 is shown to reproduce the experimental NMR (3)J-coupling constants of AA dipeptides better than other force fields. It has a good balance between ?-helical and ?-sheet secondary structures. It can successfully fold a set of ?-helix proteins (Trp-cage and Homeodomain) and ?-hairpins (Trpzip-2, GB1 hairpin), which cannot be consistently stabilized by other state-of-the-art force fields. Interestingly, the RSFF1 force field systematically overestimates the melting temperature (and the stability of native state) of these peptides/proteins. It has a potential application in the simulation of protein folding and protein structure refinement.
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Design and test of a flat-top magnetic field system driven by capacitor banks.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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An innovative method for generating a flat-top pulsed magnetic field by means of capacitor banks is developed at the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC). The system consists of two capacitor banks as they are normally used to generate a pulsed field. The two discharge circuits (the magnet circuit and the auxiliary circuit) are coupled by a pulse transformer such that the electromotive force (EMF) induced via the transformer in the magnet circuit containing the magnet coil is opposed to the EMF of the capacitor bank. At a certain point before the current pulse in the coil reaches its peak, the auxiliary circuit is triggered. With optimized parameters for charging voltage and trigger delay, the current in the magnet circuit can be approximately kept constant to obtain a flat-top. A prototype was developed at the WHMFC; the magnet circuit was energized by seven 1 MJ (3.2 mF/25?kV) capacitor modules and the auxiliary circuit by four 1 MJ modules. Fields up to 41 T with 6?ms flat-top have been obtained with a conventional user magnet used at the WHMFC.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and angiotensin 1-7: novel therapeutic targets.
Nat Rev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has pivotal roles in the regulation of normal physiology and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, and its product angiotensin 1-7, are thought to have counteracting effects against the adverse actions of other, better known and understood, members of the RAS. The physiological and pathological importance of ACE2 and angiotensin 1-7 in the cardiovascular system are not completely understood, but numerous experimental studies have indicated that these components have protective effects in the heart and blood vessels. Here, we provide an overview on the basic properties of ACE2 and angiotensin 1-7 and a summary of the evidence from experimental and clinical studies of various pathological conditions, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial remodelling, heart failure, ischaemic stroke, and diabetes mellitus. ACE2-mediated catabolism of angiotensin II is likely to have a major role in cardiovascular protection, whereas the relevant functions and signalling mechanisms of actions induced by angiotensin 1-7 have not been conclusively determined. The ACE2-angiotensin 1-7 pathway, however, might provide a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, especially in patients with overactive RAS.
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Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., isolated from Arctic glacier foreland.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Two psychrotolerant, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designed M1-27(T) and 8-24(T), were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic studies. Strain M1-27(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Midtre Lovénbreen glacier, whereas strain 8-24(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Austre Lovénbreen glacier. Both were Arctic glacier forelands, near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 91.0-96.0% and 92.3-96.7%, respectively, to type strains of recognized species of the genus Pedobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains were grouped with members of the genus Pedobacter, but represented distinct taxa. Both strains contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C contents of strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) were 43.8% and 39.4%, respectively. The phenotypic characteristics, biochemical properties and polygenetic analysis, clearly indicated that strains M1-27(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2012936(T)?= LMG 28205(T)) and 8-24(T) (?= CCTCC AB 2012941(T)?= NRRL B-59993(T)) represent two novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the names Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., respectively, are proposed.
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Dental age assessment in 7-14-year-old Chinese children: Comparison of Demirjian and Willems methods.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Several approaches have proven be valuable in estimating dental age in children. The Demirjian method, based on crown and root calcification, is the most frequently used tool. The Willems method is a modification of the Demirjian method. There are few studies regarding to compare the application of the two methods in China. This study aims to apply the two methods in a Han population as well as identify if there are some differences between two methods in estimating dental age versus chronological age. Nine hundred forty-one orthopantomograms of 410 boys and 531 girls between seven and 14 years of age were selected from our patient records database with defined standard, and the Demirjian and Willems methods of dental age estimation were applied. The seven left mandibular teeth were scored and calculated in order to obtain the Demirjian and Willems estimated dental ages. It is suggested that the Demirjian method overestimated chronological age by 1.68 years for boys and 1.28 years for girls. The discrepancy between the Demirjian estimate and the chronological age was most frequently observed between 1 and 3.5 years for boys and between 1 and 2 years for girls. While it is indicted that the Willems method overestimated chronological age by 0.35 years for boys and underestimated the age by 0.02 years for girls. The discrepancy between chronological age and Willems estimated age was most frequently observed between -0.5 and 0.5 years for boys and between -1 and 0.5 years for girls. It is demonstrated that the Willems method was more accurate in estimating dental age than the Demirjian method, with a mean absolute error of 0.98 years for boys and 0.93 years for girls. As a result, it is highly recommended that the Willems method should be applied when estimating dental age in Chinese Han population, further modifications to the method are suggested.
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Spirosoma arcticum sp. nov., isolated from high Arctic glacial till.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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A novel orange-pigmented strain, designated R2-35(T), was isolated from a glacier till near Ny-Alesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. The cells were aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped and sometimes filamentous. Growth occurred at 4-28 °C (optimum, 20 °C), at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and with 0-1% NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain R2-35(T) belonged to the genus Spirosoma with sequence similarity to related species ranging from 91.65 to 95.19%. Strain R2-35(T) contained C16 : 0 (10.7%), C18 : 0 (9.2%), C16 : 1?5c (16.5%) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1?6c and/or C16 : 1?7c) (24.6%) as the major cellular fatty acids, MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylethanolamine as the main polar lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain R2-35(T) was 54.9 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic data, strain R2-35(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Spirosoma, for which the name Spirosoma arcticum sp. nov., is proposed, The type strain is R2-35(T) (?= CCTCC AB 2012849(T)?= LMG 28141(T)).
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[Multi-center study of premature thelarche and gynecomastia in Chinese infants and toddlers].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The term "premature thelarche" refers to isolated breast development before 8 years of age in female, without any other signs of sexual maturation, while "gynecomastia" is the presence of breast tissue in males. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of premature thelarche and gynecomastia in Chinese infants and toddlers, identify the potential risk factors, and explore the influence of early breast development on physical growth, mental development and psychomotor development.
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Prostacyclin signaling boosts NADPH oxidase 4 in the endothelium promoting cytoprotection and angiogenesis.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Prostacyclin (PGI2) that is released from the vascular endothelium plays an important role in vasodilatation and thrombo-resistance, and it has long been suspected to protect cell survival. How it does so has never been clear. Recently, it has been shown that the NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) improves endothelial cell functions and promotes angiogenesis in vivo, but it was not known how to boost Nox4 therapeutically to exploit its protective functions in the vasculature. Here, we identified such a stimulus. Results: The selective and stable prostacyclin receptor (IP-R) agonist cicaprost increases the expression of Nox4 in human endothelial cells of several types, including endothelial progenitor cells. The elevation of cellular cyclic-AMP increased Nox4 expression and H2O2 production and prevented endothelial cell apoptosis. We delineate the intracellular signaling that promotes cytoprotection: Cicaprost acts via the IP-R/protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) protein pathway. Importantly, the up-regulation of Nox4 by cicaprost also enhanced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis, with all effects being substantially decreased by Nox4 gene silencing. Finally, cicaprost enhanced the growth of blood vessels into subcutaneous sponges implanted in mice, an effect that was also blocked by Nox4 gene silencing.
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Redox mechanisms of the beneficial effects of heme oxygenase in hypertension.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Heme oxygenases, namely heme oxygenase-1 and heme oxygenase-2, have important biological functions in vascular homeostasis. Heme oxygenase and its catabolic products, including bilirubin and carbon monoxide, have been implicated in blood pressure regulation. Increased expression of heme oxygenase exerts multiple protective actions against hypertension-induced vascular injuries. However, the underlining mechanisms of these effects are not entirely clear. We and others have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 can modulate production of reactive oxygen species, both in vivo and in vitro, from NADPH oxidase, a major enzymatic source of reactive oxygen species generation in the vascular wall. NADPH oxidase has been implicated in the development of hypertension and hypertension-related organ injuries. In this mini review, we summarize our current understanding of the interactions between heme oxygenase and NADPH oxidase, and we propose that modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by heme oxygenase could be a potential mechanism of the beneficial effects of heme oxygenase in hypertension.
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Hymenobacter arcticus sp. nov., isolated from glacial till.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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A novel, red-pink-pigmented strain, designated R2-4(T), was isolated from a till sample near Ny-Alesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative and rod-shaped. Growth occurred at 4-30 °C (optimum, 20-22 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and with 0-1% NaCl added to R2A agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain R2-4(T) belonged to the genus Hymenobacter. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain R2-4(T) and the type strains of related species of the genus ranged from 94.51 to 96.05%. Strain R2-4(T) contained iso-C(15?:?0), anteiso-C(15?:?0), summed feature 3 (C(16?:?1)?6c and/or C(16?:?1)?7c), summed feature 4 (C(17?:?1) anteiso B and/or iso I) and C(16?:?1)?5c as the major cellular fatty acids, MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminophospholipids, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids as the main polar lipids. The polyamine was sym-homospermidine. The DNA G+C content of strain R2-4(T) was 61.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic data, strain R2-4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter arcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R2-4(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2012104(T)?=?KACC 16881(T)).
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Spatial distribution of organic and pyritic sulfur in surface sediments of eutrophic Jiaozhou Bay, China: Clues to anthropogenic impacts.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Anthropogenic perturbations exert important impacts on sulfur geochemistry in marine sediments. In the study, chemical extraction was used to quantify four sulfur pools, i.e., pyrite, humic-acid sulfur (HA-S), fulvic-acid sulfur (FA-S), and residual organic sulfur (ROS), in surface sediments of eutrophic Jiaozhou Bay. Results show that riverine inputs are the main control on organic matter (OM) distribution in the sediments. OM enrichment in the eastern coast is mainly due to discharges of anthropogenic wastes. Spatial coupling of pyrite and FA-S vs. TOC points to the impacts of OM enrichment on formation and preservation of pyrite and FA-S. Poor spatial coupling of HA-S vs. TOC is due to low fractions of diagenetic OS in the pool. ROS is mainly from riverine inputs and anthropogenic OS has been superimposed on this pool. Spatial coupling among TOC, pyrite-S and FA-S is a sensitive indicator of anthropogenic impacts on benthic processes of the bay.
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Genome-wide microRNA changes in human intracranial aneurysms.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Intracranial aneurysms are pathological dilatations of the cerebral artery, while rupture of intracranial aneurysms causes life-threatening subarachnoid hemorrhage. The molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms are poorly understood. MicroRNAs have fundamental roles in modulating vascular biology and disease. In the present study, we carried out a genome-wide characterization on expressions of microRNAs, and performed integrative analyses in conjunction with changes of the transcriptome in human intracranial aneurysms.
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Psychroglaciecola arctica gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from Arctic glacial foreland soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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A novel pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic strain, designated M6-76T, was isolated from glacial foreland soil near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Cells of strain M6-76T were rod-shaped (0.4-0.7×0.8-2.0 µm), Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and motile by a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred at 4-28 °C (optimum 18 °C) and at pH 5-8 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M6-76T belonged to the family Methylobacteriaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the novel strain showed 94.6%, 94.0% and 93.9% sequence similarity to those of Methylobacterium salsuginis MRT, Methylobacterium organophilum ATCC 27886T and Microvirga subterranea FaiI4T, respectively. Cells could utilize methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy but not formate. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and two unknown polar lipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18:1?7c and/or C18:1?6c), summed feature 3 (C16:1?6c and/or C16:1?7c) and C16:0. The DNA G+C content was 67 mol%. The polyphasic data presented in this study indicated that the isolate should be classified as representing a novel species of a new genus within the family Methylobacteriaceae. The name Psychroglaciecola arctica gen. nov., sp. nov. is therefore proposed for the isolate. The type strain of the type species is M6-76T (=CCTCC AB 2013033T=KACC 17684T).
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Transforming growth factor-?1 requires NADPH oxidase 4 for angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a key physiological event in organ development and tissue responses to hypoxia but is also involved in pathophysiologies such as tumour growth and retinopathies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved is important to design strategies for therapeutic intervention. One important regulator of angiogenesis is transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ROS-forming NADPH oxidase type 4 (Nox4) have been implicated as additional regulators such as during hypoxia. Here, we show that both processes are indeed mechanistically linked. TGF-?1-stimulated Nox4 expression and ROS formation in endothelial cells. In cells from Nox4-deficient mice, TGF-?1-induced cell proliferation, migration and tube formation were abolished. In vivo, TGF-?1 stimulated growth of blood vessels into sponges implanted subcutaneously, and this angiogenesis was markedly reduced in Nox4 knockout mice. Thus, endothelial cells are regulated by a TGF-?1 signalling pathway involving Nox4-derived ROS to promote angiogenesis. In order to abrogate pathological angiogenesis triggered by a multitude of factors, such as TGF-?1 and hypoxia, Nox4 may thus be an ideal therapeutic target.
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Hip joint osteochondroma: systematic review of the literature and report of three further cases.
Adv Orthop
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature with regards to surgical treatment of patients with hip joint osteochondromas, and to report our surgical management of three paediatric patients who had femoral neck or acetabular osteochondromas in association with acetabular dysplasia. We performed a systematic review using PubMed and Embase databases for all studies that reported surgical treatments for patients with peritrochanteric or acetabular osteochondroma with or without acetabular dysplasia. We also retrospectively reviewed three patients who were diagnosed with a hip osteochondroma in association with actetabular dysplasia. These patients were known to have hereditary multiple exostoses (HME). The systematic review revealed 21 studies that met our inclusion criteria. All studies were case reports and retrospective in nature and failed to conclude a uniform treatment plan. The three reported cases illustrate successful excision of hip osteochondromas and treatment of acetabular dysplasia. Early excision of hip osteochondromas might prevent acetabular dysplasia in HME patients. Routine radiographic pelvic survey at the time of diagnosis of HME is recommended for early detection of hip osteochondromas and acetabular dysplasia in these children.
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Chronic caffeine treatment protects against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice: therapeutic window and receptor subtype mechanism.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Chronic treatment with caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive drug and a non-selective antagonist of adenosine receptors, can protection against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying caffeine-mediated neuroprotection against EAE by determining the effective therapeutic time-window of caffeine and the involvement of adenosine A2A and A1 receptor. We found that administration of caffeine during the effector phase (10 ? 20 days post-immunization, d.p.i., corresponding to appearance of neurological deficits) but not the induction phase (0 ? 10 d.p.i., before the appearance of ascending flaccid paralysis) significantly ameliorated EAE-induced neurobehavioral deficits, reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord and reduced the demyelination of spinal cord. Furthermore, genetic deletion of the A2AR exacerbated MOG-induced brain damage and caffeine administering to A2AR knockout mice reversed this EAE pathology by acting at non-A2AR target. The protective effect of chronic caffeine treatment was associated with up-regulation of brain A1R (but not A2AR). The identification of the effective therapeutic window of caffeine at the effector phase and clarification of non-A2AR target (likely A1R) in caffeine action in EAE models advance the therapeutic prospective that chronic caffeine consumption may attenuate brain damage in MS.
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NADPH oxidase-dependent redox signaling in TGF-?-mediated fibrotic responses.
Redox Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Uncontrolled fibrosis in organs like heart, kidney, liver and lung is detrimental and may lead to end-stage organ failure. Currently there is no effective treatment for fibrotic disorders. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? has a fundamental role in orchestrating the process of fibrogenesis; however, interventions directly targeting TGF-? would have undesired systemic side effects due to the multiple physiological functions of TGF-?. Further characterization of the downstream signaling pathway(s) involved in TGF-?-mediated fibrosis may lead to discovery of novel treatment strategies for fibrotic disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that Nox4 NADPH oxidase may be an important downstream effector in mediating TGF-?-induced fibrosis, while NADPH oxidase-dependent redox signaling may in turn regulate TGF-?/Smad signaling in a feed-forward manner. It is proposed that pharmacological inhibition of the Nox4 function may represent a novel approach in treatment of fibrotic disorders.
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TRAIL/DR5 signaling promotes macrophage foam cell formation by modulating scavenger receptor expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) has been shown to have protective effects against atherosclerosis. However, whether TRAIL has any effects on expression of macrophage scavenger receptors and lipid uptake has not yet been studied. Macrophage lines RAW264.7 and THP-1, and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages, were cultured in vitro and treated with recombinant human TRAIL. Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to measure mRNA and protein expressions. Foam cell formation was assessed by internalization of acetylated and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. We found that TRAIL treatment increased expression of scavenger receptor (SR)-AI and SR-BI in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and this effect was accompanied by increased foam cell formation. These effects of TRAIL were abolished by a TRAIL neutralizing antibody or in DR5 receptor-deficient macrophages. The increased LDL uptake by TRAIL was blocked by SR-AI gene silencing or the SR-AI inhibitor poly(I:C), while SR-BI blockade with BLT-1 had no effect. TRAIL-induced SR-AI expression was blocked by the inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not by inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK. TRAIL also induced apoptosis in macrophages. In contrast to macrophages, TRAIL showed little effects on SR expression or apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that TRAIL promotes macrophage lipid uptake via SR-AI upregulation through activation of the p38 pathway.
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[Progress of researches on specificity of acupoints in China in recent 10 years].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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After searching for literature about the specificity of acupoints from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database (in Chinese) and MEDLINE (in English), published by Chinese scholars from June 2003 to June 2012, the authors made a systemic analysis on the retrieved papers. It was found that most Chinese scholars took a positive viewpoint about the specificity of acupoints in morphological structure, biophysical characters, pathological reactions, acupuncture stimulation-induced responses in different brain regions and therapeutic effects. However, the research methods and comprehensive analysis of abundant research results need being improved, and the conclusion should be validated extensively. Moreover, the research on the affecting factors of specificity of acupoints will be one of the major directions.
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Antagonistic Interaction between Adenosine A2A Receptors and Na+/K+-ATPase-?2 Controlling Glutamate Uptake in Astrocytes.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Astrocytic glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-I) is critical to control the bulk of glutamate uptake and, thus, to regulate synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. GLT-I glutamate uptake is driven by the sodium gradient implemented by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases (NKAs) and the ?2 subunit of NKA (NKA-?2) is actually linked to GLT-I to regulate astrocytic glutamate transport. We recently found that adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs), which control synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration, regulate glutamate uptake through unknown mechanisms. Here we report that A2AR activation decreases NKA activity selectively in astrocytes to inhibit glutamate uptake. Furthermore, we found a physical association of A2ARs with NKA-?2s in astrocytes, as gauged by coimmunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assays, in the cerebral cortex and striatum, two brain regions where A2ARs inhibit the astrocytic glutamate uptake. Moreover, the selective deletion of A2ARs in astrocytes (using Gfa2-A2AR-KO mice) leads to a concurrent increase of both astrocytic glutamate uptake and NKA-?2 levels and activity in the striatum and cortex. This coupling of astrocytic A2ARs to the regulation of glutamate transport through modulation of NKA-?2 activity provides a novel mechanism linking neuronal activity to ion homeostasis controlling glutamatergic activity, all of which are processes intricately associated with the etiology of several brain diseases.
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Mechanical Evaluation of Articulating Instruments and Cross-Handed Manipulation in Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery.
Surg Innov
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Background. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is limited by loss of triangulation and internal instruments conflict. To overcome these difficulties, some concepts have been introduced, namely, articulating instruments and cross-handed manipulation, which causes the right hand to control the left instrument tip and vice versa. The aim of this study was to compare task performance with different approaches based on a mechanical evaluation platform. Methods. A LESS mechanical evaluation platform was set up to investigate the performance of 2 tasks (suture pass-through rings and clip-cut) with 3 different settings: uncrossed manipulation with straight instruments (group A, the control group), uncrossed manipulation with articulating instruments (group B), and cross-handed manipulation with articulating instruments (group C). The operation time and average load required for accomplishment of the standard tasks were measured. Results. Group A presented significantly better time scores than group B, and group C consumed the longest time to accomplish the 2 tasks (P < .05). Comparing of average load required to perform the suture pass-through rings task, it differed significantly between dominant and nondominant hand in all groups (P < .01) and was less in group A and group B than group C in dominant hand (P < .01), while it was almost the same in all groups in the nondominant hand. In terms of average load requirement to accomplish clip-cut task, it was almost equal not only between group A and B but also between dominant and nondominant hand while the increase reached statistical significance when comparing group C with other groups (P < .05). Conclusions. Compared with conventional devices and maneuvering techniques, articulating instruments and cross-handed manipulation are associated with longer operation time and higher workload. Instruments with better maneuverability should be developed in the future for LESS.
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Homework Schedule: An Important Factor Associated With Shorter Sleep Duration Among Chinese School-Aged Children.
Behav Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese childrens sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify childrens homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays.
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The Relation Among Sleep Duration, Homework Burden, and Sleep Hygiene in Chinese School-Aged Children.
Behav Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.
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Involvement of Nox2 NADPH oxidase in retinal neovascularization.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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The proliferation of new blood vessels in the retina is a leading cause of vision impairment. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) is involved in cell signaling for ischemia-induced angiogenesis, but its role in retinal neovascularization is unclear. We have analyzed the dependence of retinal neovascularization on the Nox2 isoform in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) in mice.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of cyclopentyl-triazolol-pyrimidine (CPTP) based P2Y12 antagonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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In this Letter we describe SAR investigation on the cyclopentyl-triazolol-pyrimidine scaffold in pursuit of new oral P2Y12 inhibitors. Different synthetic routes were developed for variations at the cyclopentyl core. Optimization finally led to compound 2d which was advanced into preclinical development based on better potency and safety profile in comparison to ticagrelor.
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An optically tunable wideband optoelectronic oscillator based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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An optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with wideband frequency tunability and stable output based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Realized by cascading a finite impulse response (FIR) filter and an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter together, the tunable bandpass MPF successfully replaces the narrowband electrical bandpass filter in a conventional single-loop OEO and serves as the oscillating frequency selector. The FIR filter is based on a tunable multi-wavelength laser and dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) while the IIR filter is simply based on an optical loop. Utilizing a long length of DCF as the dispersion medium for the FIR filter also provides a long delay line for the OEO feedback cavity and as a result, optical tuning over a wide frequency range can be achieved without sacrificing the quality of the generated signal. By tuning the wavelength spacing of the multi-wavelength laser, the oscillation frequency can be tuned from 6.88 GHz to 12.79 GHz with an average step-size of 0.128 GHz. The maximum frequency drift of the generated 10 GHz signal is observed to be 1.923 kHz over 1 hour and its phase noise reaches the -112 dBc/Hz limit of our measuring equipment at 10 kHz offset frequency.
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Pontibacter soli sp. nov., isolated from the soil of a Populus rhizosphere in Xinjiang, China.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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A Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and pink-pigmented bacterial strain, designated strain HYL7-26(T), was isolated from a soil in the Desert Park of Huyang forest located in Xinjiang, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain HYL7-26(T) belongs to the genus Pontibacter in the family Cytophagaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain HYL7-26(T) and type strains of Pontibacter species ranged from 93.2 to 96.0 %. Strain HYL7-26(T) was found to contain iso-C15:0 (15.9 %), iso-C17:0 3-OH (9.5 %) and summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17:1 B and/or iso-C17:1 I, 21.0 %, as defined by the MIDI system) as the major cellular fatty acids. The major respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7 and the DNA G+C content was determined to be 43.8 mol%. sym-Homospermidine was the major polyamine observed in the cells. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain HYL7-26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pontibacter, for which the name Pontibacter soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HYL7-26(T) (=CCTCC AB 206240(T) = NRRL B-59490(T)).
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Ecto-5-nucleotidase (CD73)-mediated formation of adenosine is critical for the striatal adenosine A2A receptor functions.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Adenosine is a neuromodulator acting through inhibitory A1 receptors (A1Rs) and facilitatory A2ARs, which have similar affinities for adenosine. It has been shown that the activity of intracellular adenosine kinase preferentially controls the activation of A1Rs, but the source of the adenosine activating A2ARs is unknown. We now show that ecto-5-nucleotidase (CD73), the major enzyme able to convert extracellular AMP into adenosine, colocalizes with A2ARs in the basal ganglia. In addition to astrocytes, striatal CD73 is prominently localized to postsynaptic sites. Notably, CD73 coimmunoprecipitated with A2ARs and proximity ligation assays confirmed the close proximity of CD73 and A2ARs in the striatum. Accordingly, the cAMP formation in synaptosomes as well as the hypolocomotion induced by a novel A2AR prodrug that requires CD73 metabolization to activate A2ARs were observed in wild-type mice, but not in CD73 knock-out (KO) mice or A2AR KO mice. Moreover, CD73 KO mice displayed increased working memory performance and a blunted amphetamine-induced sensitization, mimicking the phenotype of global or forebrain-A2AR KO mice, as well as upon pharmacological A2AR blockade. These results show that CD73-mediated formation of extracellular adenosine is responsible for the activation of striatal A2AR function. This study points to CD73 as a new target that can fine-tune A2AR activity, and a novel therapeutic target to manipulate A2AR-mediated control of striatal function and neurodegeneration.
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A three-dimensional Cu-Na heteronuclear coordination polymer based on iminodiacetic acid.
Acta Crystallogr C
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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A novel Cu-Na heteronuclear three-dimensional coordination polymer, poly[diaquadi-?5-iminodiacetato-di-?4-iminodiacetato-tricopper(II)disodium(I)], [Cu3Na2(C4H5NO4)4(H2O)2]n, has been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The asymmetric unit contains one and a half copper(II) cations, a sodium cation, two iminodiacetate (ida) ligands and a coordinated water ligand. One of the two independent Cu(II) centres is in a general position and is five-coordinated in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. A [Cu(ida)] unit is formed via a bis-chelating ida ligand and the coordination sphere of the Cu(II) atom is completed by two O atoms of two different neighbouring [Cu(ida)2] units. These [Cu(ida)2] units are associated with the second Cu(II) cation, which is located on a crystallographic inversion centre and is coordinated in a distorted square-planar geometry by two chelating ida ligands. The carboxylate groups of the ida ligands act as bridges and connect the [Cu(ida)] and [Cu(ida)2] building blocks in a 2:1 ratio, forming two-dimensional arrays. These layers are interconnected into a three-dimensional structure by the sodium ions. Each Na(I) cation is coordinated by six O atoms from five ida ligands and a water molecule. When [Cu(ida)], the Na(I) cations and [Cu(ida)2] are viewed as 5-, 5- and 8-connected nodes, respectively, the three-dimensional network exhibits a (3(2).4(3).5(2).6(3))2(3(2).4(3).5(2).6(3))2(3(4).6(16).7(8)) topology.
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Therapeutic anti-tumor effect of exogenous apoptin driven by human survivin gene promoter in a lentiviral construct.
Arch Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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The aim of this study was to construct a lentivirus vector with survivin promoter (pSur)-driven apoptin and test its efficiency in suppressing the growth of tumor cells.
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Environmental risk factor assessment: a multilevel analysis of childhood asthma in China.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Rapid changes in socioeconomic environment and their diverse patterns in China raise a question: how socio-environmental factors affect childhood asthma in China. We performed a multilevel analysis based on a 2005 national survey to understand the association between environmental factors and asthma, and to provide insights on developing prevention strategies.
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Male vocal competition is dynamic and strongly affected by social contexts in music frogs.
Anim Cogn
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Male-male vocal competition in anuran species is critical for mating success; however, it is also highly time-consuming, energetically demanding and likely to increase predation risks. Thus, we hypothesized that changes in the social context would cause male vocal competition to change in real time in order to minimize the costs and maximize the benefits of competition. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of repeating playbacks of either white noise (WN) or male advertisement calls on male call production in the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina), a species in which males build mud-retuse burrows and call from within these nests. Previous studies have shown that calls produced from inside burrows are highly sexually attractive (HSA) to females while those produced outside nests are of low sexual attractiveness (LSA). Results showed that most subjects called responsively after the end of WN playbacks but before the onset of conspecific call stimuli although call numbers were similar, indicating that while males adjusted competitive patterns according to the biological significance of signals, their competitive motivation did not change. Furthermore, these data indicate that the frogs had evolved the ability of interval timing. Moreover, when the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between playbacks was varied, the subjects preferentially competed with HSA calls when the ISI was short (<4 s) but responded equally to HSA and LSA calls if the ISI was long (?4 s), suggesting that males allocate competitive efforts depending on both the perceived sexual attractiveness of rivals and the time available for calling. Notably, approximately two-thirds of male calls occurred in response to HSA calls, a preference rate comparable to that previously found for females in phonotaxis experiments and consistent with the idea that the mechanisms underlying both the males competitive responses to rivals and the females preferences toward potential mates coevolved under the same selective pressure.
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Regulation of Fear Responses by Striatal and Extrastriatal Adenosine A2A Receptors in Forebrain.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are enriched in the striatum but are also present at lower levels in the extrastriatal forebrain (i.e., hippocampus, cortex), integrating dopamine, glutamate, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, and are thus essential for striatal neuroplasticity and fear and anxiety behavior.
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Alteration in abundance and compartmentalization of inflammation-related miRNAs in plasma after intracerebral hemorrhage.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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We tested the hypothesis that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) present in plasma might display a specific signature in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
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Analysis of HYAL3 gene mutations in Chinese lung squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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In a previous study, we found a hyaluronidase 3 (HYAL3) gene mutation in exon 2 at position 188 by genome sequencing in a lung squamous cell carcinoma patient. The mutation results in substitution of serine for alanine. The aim of the study was to screen the HYAL3 gene mutation in Chinese lung squamous cell carcinoma patients and explore the correlation between mutation of HYAL3 with clinical and pathological characteristics in lung squamous cell carcinoma patients in China.
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Adenosine A2A receptor deficiency alleviates blast-induced cognitive dysfunction.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly explosive blast-induced TBI (bTBI), has become the most prevalent injury among military personnel. The disruption of cognitive function is one of the most serious consequences of bTBI because its long-lasting effects prevent survivors fulfilling their active duty and resuming normal civilian life. However, the mechanisms are poorly understood and there is no treatment available. This study investigated the effects of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) on bTBI-induced cognitive deficit, and explored the underlying mechanisms. After being subjected to moderate whole-body blast injury, mice lacking the A2AR (A2AR knockout (KO)) showed less severity and shorter duration of impaired spatial reference memory and working memory than wild-type mice did. In addition, bTBI-induced cortical and hippocampal lesions, as well as proinflammatory cytokine expression, glutamate release, edema, cell loss, and gliosis in both early and prolonged phases of the injury, were significantly attenuated in A2AR KO mice. The results suggest that early injury and chronic neuropathological damages are important mechanisms of bTBI-induced cognitive impairment, and that the impairment can be attenuated by preventing A2AR activation. These findings suggest that A2AR antagonism is a potential therapeutic strategy for mild-to-moderate bTBI and consequent cognitive impairment.
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Ruthenium-containing phosphinesulfonate chelate for the hydrogenation of aryl ketones.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Various ruthenium(II) complexes that contain phosphinesulfonate chelate have been synthesized. Arene-free complexes were found to be efficient in the base-free hydrogenation of various aryl ketones, whereas the arene-containing precatalysts required the presence of an amine as an additive. The seminal asymmetric hydrogenation reaction by using the new Sulfo-Binepine ligand was also investigated for the possible intervention of a dihydride species.
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Could the types of paraclinoid aneurysm be used as a criterion in choosing endovascular treatment? Neuro-radiologists view.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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The type of paraclinoid aneurysm has been used to decide management methods. Our aim was to assess the relation of the types of paraclinoid aneurysms and outcomes after endovascular treatment and the efficiency of present endovascular techniques.
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Global Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Functional Importance of Sirt2 in Endothelial Cells under Oxidative Stress.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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The NAD+-dependent deacetylases Sirt1 and Sirt2 mediate cellular stress responses and are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells. In contrast to the well-documented protective actions of Sirt1, the role of endothelial Sirt2 remains unknown. Using cDNA microarray and PCR validation, we examined global gene expression changes in response to Sirt2 knock down in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells under oxidative stress. We found that Sirt2 knock down changed expression of 340 genes, which are mainly involved in cellular processes including actin binding, cellular amino acid metabolic process, transmembrane receptor protein serine/threonine kinase signaling, ferrous iron transport, protein transport and localization, cell morphogenesis, and functions associated with endosome membrane and the trans-Golgi network. These genes and associated functions were largely non-overlapping with those altered by Sirt1 knock down. Moreover, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of Sirt2 attenuated oxidant-induced cell toxicity in endothelial cells. These suggest that Sirt2 is functionally important in endothelial cells under oxidative stress, and may have a primarily distinct role as compared to Sirt1. Our results may provide a basis for future studies aiming to dissect the specific signaling pathway(s) that mediates specific Sirt2 functions in endothelial cells.
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Atypical chemokine receptor D6 inhibits human non-small cell lung cancer growth by sequestration of chemokines.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Chemokines and their receptors have been shown to play a vital role in lung cancer progression. D6 is an atypical chemokine receptor which is able to internalize and degrade chemokines. To investigate the potential role of D6 in lung cancer, we established D6-overexpressing A549 lung cancer cell lines by the transfection of human D6 cDNA. Results showed that D6 inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. We also determined chemokine levels in the supernatant and showed that a number of chemokines (CCL2/4/5) had significantly decreased protein levels in D6-overexpressing cells compared with the controls, whereas no significant changes in mRNA expression levels of these chemokines were detected. The cell cycle distribution and expression of certain growth factors and their receptors did not change in the D6-overexpressing cells compared with parental cells. Thus, our results suggest that D6 is a negative regulator of growth in lung cancer, mainly by the sequestration of specific chemokines.
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Pharmacological priming of adipose-derived stem cells for paracrine VEGF production with deferoxamine.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) show great potentials in applications such as therapeutic angiogenesis, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Pharmacological preconditioning of stem cells to boost the release of cytoprotective factors may represent an effective way to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, the aim was to determine whether deferoxamine can enhance the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from in vitro expanded ASCs. It is demonstrated that deferoxamine (50-300 ?m) upregulated VEGF expression in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. At the concentrations used, deferoxamine did not show any cytotoxic effects. The stimulatory effect of deferoxamine on VEGF expression was mediated by augmentation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 in ASCs, but independent of its antioxidant properties. Moreover, deferoxamine enhanced the paracrine effects of ASCs in promoting the regenerative functions of endothelial cells (migration and in vitro wound healing activities). This study provides evidence that deferoxamine might be a useful drug with low cell toxicity for pharmacological preconditioning of ASCs to enhance their capacity of VEGF production. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The intrinsic conformational features of amino acids from a protein coil library and their applications in force field development.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The local conformational (?, ?, ?) preferences of amino acid residues remain an active research area, which are important for the development of protein force fields. In this perspective article, we first summarize spectroscopic studies of alanine-based short peptides in aqueous solution. While most studies indicate a preference for the P(II) conformation in the unfolded state over ? and ? conformations, significant variations are also observed. A statistical analysis from various coil libraries of high-resolution protein structures is then summarized, which gives a more coherent view of the local conformational features. The ?, ?, ? distributions of the 20 amino acids have been obtained from a protein coil library, considering both backbone and side-chain conformational preferences. The intrinsic side-chain ?(1) rotamer preference and ?(1)-dependent Ramachandran plot can be generally understood by combining the interaction of the side-chain C?/O? atom with two neighboring backbone peptide groups. Current all-atom force fields such as AMBER ff99sb-ILDN, ff03 and OPLS-AA/L do not reproduce these distributions well. A method has been developed by combining the ?, ? plot of alanine with the influence of side-chain ?(1) rotamers to derive the local conformational features of various amino acids. It has been further applied to improve the OPLS-AA force field. The modified force field (OPLS-AA/C) reproduces experimental (3)J coupling constants for various short peptides quite well. It also better reproduces the temperature-dependence of the helix-coil transition for alanine-based peptides. The new force field can fold a series of peptides and proteins with various secondary structures to their experimental structures. MD simulations of several globular proteins using the improved force field give significantly less deviation (RMSD) to experimental structures. The results indicate that the local conformational features from coil libraries are valuable for the development of balanced protein force fields.
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Important steps to improve translation from medical research to health policy.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Translational medicine entails not only "from-bench-to-bedside" but also preventive medicine. The present article proposes a conceptual framework of translational research from scientific research to health care policy and public health policy. We highlight the importance of translational medicine to bridge between research and policy and share our experience of translating medical research to public health policy in China as well as obstacles and challenges we are facing in the translation process.
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Psychological stress, vascular inflammation, and atherogenesis: potential roles of circulating cytokines.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that chronic psychosocial stress increases the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and this may involve multiple mediators and regulating pathways, whereas the precise mechanisms underlying the effects of stress on development of atherosclerosis are not completely understood. In this mini review, we summarize current information from various animal studies suggesting that stress may promote atherogenesis by stimulating vascular inflammation via elevating the level of circulating proinflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin 6). Although circulating cytokines can serve as reliable biomarkers of systemic inflammation, in light of the emerging evidence, we propose that these molecules may also have a causal role in mediating stress-triggered vascular inflammatory reaction and atherogenesis. Further studies are warranted to clarify whether targeting circulating cytokines may be an effective approach to reduce the detrimental effects of chronic stress.
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Adenosine A2A Receptors in Striatal Glutamatergic Terminals and GABAergic Neurons Oppositely Modulate Psychostimulant Action and DARPP-32 Phosphorylation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are located postsynaptically in striatopallidal GABAergic neurons, antagonizing dopamine D2 receptor functions, and are also located presynaptically at corticostriatal terminals, facilitating glutamate release. To address the hypothesis that these two A2AR populations differently control the action of psychostimulants, we characterized A2AR modulation of cocaine-induced effects at the level of DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr-34 and Thr-75, c-Fos expression, and psychomotor activity using two lines of cell-type selective A2AR knockout (KO) mice with selective A2AR deletion in GABAergic neurons (striatum-A2AR-KO mice), or with A2AR deletion in both striatal GABAergic neurons and projecting cortical glutamatergic neurons (forebrain-A2AR-KO mice). We demonstrated that striatum-A2AR KO mice lacked A2ARs exclusively in striatal GABAergic terminals whereas forebrain-A2AR KO mice lacked A2ARs in both striatal GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals leading to a blunted A2AR-mediated facilitation of synaptosomal glutamate release. The inactivation of A2ARs in GABAergic neurons reduced striatal DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr-34 and increased its phosphorylation at Thr-75. Conversely, the additional deletion of corticostriatal glutamatergic A2ARs produced opposite effects on DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr-34 and Thr-75. This distinct modulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation was associated with opposite responses to cocaine-induced striatal c-Fos expression and psychomotor activity in striatum-A2AR KO (enhanced) and forebrain-A2AR KO mice (reduced). Thus, A2ARs in glutamatergic corticostriatal terminals and in GABAergic striatal neurons modulate the action of psychostimulants and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in opposite ways. We conclude that A2ARs in glutamatergic terminals prominently control the action of psychostimulants and define a novel mechanism by which A2ARs fine-tune striatal activity by integrating GABAergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling.
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cAMP level modulates scleral collagen remodeling, a critical step in the development of myopia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The development of myopia is associated with decreased ocular scleral collagen synthesis in humans and animal models. Collagen synthesis is, in part, under the influence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). We investigated the associations between cAMP, myopia development in guinea pigs, and collagen synthesis by human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs). Form-deprived myopia (FDM) was induced by unilateral masking of guinea pig eyes. Scleral cAMP levels increased selectively in the FDM eyes and returned to normal levels after unmasking and recovery. Unilateral subconjunctival treatment with the adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator forskolin resulted in a myopic shift accompanied by reduced collagen mRNA levels, but it did not affect retinal electroretinograms. The AC inhibitor SQ22536 attenuated the progression of FDM. Moreover, forskolin inhibited collagen mRNA levels and collagen secretion by HSFs. The inhibition was reversed by SQ22536. These results demonstrate a critical role of cAMP in control of myopia development. Selective regulation of cAMP to control scleral collagen synthesis may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating myopia.
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Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children.
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A method for WD40 repeat detection and secondary structure prediction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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WD40-repeat proteins (WD40s), as one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes, play vital roles in assembling protein-protein/DNA/RNA complexes. WD40s fold into similar ?-propeller structures despite diversified sequences. A program WDSP (WD40 repeat protein Structure Predictor) has been developed to accurately identify WD40 repeats and predict their secondary structures. The method is designed specifically for WD40 proteins by incorporating both local residue information and non-local family-specific structural features. It overcomes the problem of highly diversified protein sequences and variable loops. In addition, WDSP achieves a better prediction in identifying multiple WD40-domain proteins by taking the global combination of repeats into consideration. In secondary structure prediction, the average Q3 accuracy of WDSP in jack-knife test reaches 93.7%. A disease related protein LRRK2 was used as a representive example to demonstrate the structure prediction.
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Annexin peptide Ac2-26 suppresses TNF?-induced inflammatory responses via inhibition of Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase in human endothelial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The anti-inflammatory peptide annexin-1 binds to formyl peptide receptors (FPR) but little is known about its mechanism of action in the vasculature. Here we investigate the effect of annexin peptide Ac2-26 on NADPH oxidase activity induced by tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) in human endothelial cells. Superoxide release and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from NADPH oxidase was measured with lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, respectively. Expression of NADPH oxidase subunits and intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Promoter activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) was measured by luciferase activity assay. TNF? stimulated NADPH-dependent superoxide release, total ROS formation and expression of ICAM-1and VCAM-1. Pre-treatment with N-terminal peptide of annexin-1 (Ac2-26, 0.5-1.5 µM) reduced all these effects, and the inhibition was blocked by the FPRL-1 antagonist WRW4. Furthermore, TNF?-induced NF?B promoter activity was attenuated by both Ac2-26 and NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium (DPI). Surprisingly, Nox4 gene expression was reduced by TNF? whilst expression of Nox2, p22phox and p67phox remained unchanged. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity by either dominant negative Rac1 (N17Rac1) or DPI significantly attenuated TNF?-induced ICAM-1and VCAM-1 expression. Ac2-26 failed to suppress further TNF?-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in N17Rac1-transfected cells. Thus, Ac2-26 peptide inhibits TNF?-activated, Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase derived ROS formation, attenuates NF?B pathways and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. This suggests that Ac2-26 peptide blocks NADPH oxidase activity and has anti-inflammatory properties in the vasculature which contributes to modulate in reperfusion injury inflammation and vascular disease.
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Systemic upregulation of NADPH oxidase in diet-induced obesity in rats.
Redox Rep.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is upregulated in a variety of tissues in obesity. It is still unclear as to whether NADPH oxidase upregulation in a specific tissue is part of a systemic response. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of NADPH oxidase in vascular, adipose, and kidney tissues in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. After weaning, rats were fed either a normal or high-fat diet for 12 weeks. The high-fat diet resulted in 20% increased body weight. In the aorta, Nox4 expression was increased by three-fold in obese rats. Upregulations of p22phox and p47phox in adipose, and Nox4, p22phox, and p47phox in kidney were observed in obesity. Marked increases in plasma leptin and insulin were observed, with more modest changes in adiponectin in obese rats. The average systolic blood pressure in the obese group was 11 mmHg higher than that of lean rats (P < 0.005). There was a significant correlation between blood pressure and aortic Nox4 expression (P < 0.01). In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, adiponectin reduced the expression of Nox4 in a protein kinase A-dependent manner. Our results suggest that upregulation of NADPH oxidase in multiple tissues during obesity appears to be a systemic response. At least in vitro, adiponectin may have a protective antioxidant role by suppressing vascular NADPH oxidase expression. The association between NADPH oxidase Nox4 expression in the vasculature and the elevated blood pressure in obesity requires further investigation.
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Single-port laparoscopic intragastric surgery using SILS port: a feasibility study on a porcine model.
Surg Innov
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficiency of single-port laparoscopic intragastric surgery by using a single-port device.
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Full-length human glutaminase in complex with an allosteric inhibitor.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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Glutaminase (GLS1/2) catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate and ammonia. The level of a splice variant of GLS1 (GAC) is elevated in certain cancers, and GAC is specifically inhibited by bis-2-(5-phenylacetimido-1,2,4,thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES). We report here the first full-length crystal structure of GAC in the presence and absence of BPTES molecules. Two BPTES molecules bind at an interface region of the GAC tetramer in a manner that appears to lock the GAC tetramer into a nonproductive conformation. The importance of these loops with regard to overall enzymatic activity of the tetramer was revealed by a series of GAC point mutants designed to create a BPTES resistant GAC.
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Luteolibacter luojiensis sp. nov., isolated from Arctic tundra soil, and emended description of the genus Luteolibacter.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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A yellow-pigmented, Gram-reaction-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacterium, designated DR4-30(T), was isolated from tundra soil near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway (78° 58 N 12° 03 E). Growth occurred at 4-28 °C (optimum 20-25 °C) and at pH 7-8 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain DR4-30(T) belongs to the genus Luteolibacter in the family Verrucomicrobiaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain showed 95.4 and 94.7 % sequence similarity to those of Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis A4T-83(T) and Luteolibacter algae A5J-41-2(T), respectively. The major respiratory quinones were MK-9 and MK-10; the predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)?7c and/or C(16 : 1)?6c; 20.7 %), iso-C(14 : 0) (20.3 %), C(17 : 0) (10.7 %), C(16 : 0) (8.0 %) and C(14 : 0) (6.6 %). The DNA G+C content was 57.3 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain DR4-30(T) represents a novel species of the genus Luteolibacter, for which the name Luteolibacter luojiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DR4-30(T) (= CCTCC AB 2010415(T) = NRRL B-59669(T)). An emended description of the genus Luteolibacter is also provided.
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