JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Structure and Dynamics of Ferro- and Ferri-Cyanide Anions in Water and Heavy Water: an Insight by MD Simulations and 2D IR Spectroscopy.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Combined computational and experimental techniques were employed to investigate at microscopic level the structural and dynamic properties of ferro- and ferricyanide ions in aqueous solution. The characterization of the structural patterns and multi-scale dynamics taking place within the first solvation spheres in water and heavy water solvents was first achieved through extensive molecular dynamics simulations, performed with refined force fields, specifically parameterized for the cyanide ions under investigation. The information gained about the solute-solvent interactions is then validated through the successful comparison of computed and measured waiting-time-dependent 2D IR spectra. The vibrational patterns resulting from 2D IR measurements were rationalized in terms of the interaction between the ion and the neighboring water molecules described by simulation. It was found that, within the first solvation sphere, the stronger interactions of the solvent with the ferro species are responsible for a delay in the relaxation dynamics, which becomes more and more evident on longer time scales.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of germination time on seed morph ratio in a seed-dimorphic species and possible ecological significance.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diaspores of heteromorphic species may germinate at different times due to distinct dormancy-breaking and germination requirements, and this difference can influence life history traits. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of germination time of the two seed morphs of Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica on life history traits of the offspring.
Related JoVE Video
AcCystatin, an immunoregulatory molecule from Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ameliorates the asthmatic response in an aluminium hydroxide/ovalbumin-induced rat model of asthma.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that helminth infections are negatively related to atopic diseases, including asthma. Defining and characterising specific helminth molecules that have excellent immunomodulatory capacities as potential therapeutics for the treatment or prophylaxis of allergic manifestations are of great interest. AcCystatin, a cystatin protease inhibitor of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is a homologue of other nematode cystatins with immunoregulatory properties. Here, we aim to determine the effects of AcCystatin on an ovalbumin/aluminium hydroxide (OVA/Al[OH]3)-induced rat model of asthma. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, including a control group, an OVA/Al[OH]3-induced asthma group, a group receiving AcCystatin immunisation prior to OVA/Al[OH]3-induced asthma and a group receiving AcCystatin treatment after OVA/Al[OH]3-induced asthma. The numbers of eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood and of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted for each animal. The expression levels of the cytokines interferon-?, interleukin (IL) 4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL17A and tumour necrosis factor receptor-? in BALF, of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E in BALF and serum and of the chemokines eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2, eotaxin-3, MCP-1 and MCP-3 in lung tissue were measured. In addition, the degree of peribronchial and perivascular inflammation and the intensity of goblet cell metaplasia were qualitatively evaluated. The sensitised/challenged rats developed an extensive cell inflammatory response of the airways. AcCystatin administration significantly reduced the cellular infiltrate in the perivascular and peribronchial lung tissues and reduced both goblet mucous production and eosinophil infiltration. The rats that were treated with AcCystatin before or after sensitisation with OVA showed significant decreases in eotaxin-1, eotaxin-3 and MCP-1 expression in the lung tissue. The production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-17A and of OVA-specific IgE antibodies was also significantly reduced in AcCystatin-treated rats compared with untreated asthmatic rats. The AcCystatin treatment was associated with a significant increase in IL-10 levels. Our present findings provide the first demonstration that AcCystatin is an effective agent in the prevention and treatment of the airway inflammation associated with asthma.
Related JoVE Video
Template-Independent, in Situ Grown DNA Nanotail Enabling Label-Free Femtomolar Chronocoulometric Detection of Nucleic Acids.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A routine electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensor requires either an exquisite design of conformation-switchable recognition probe that is critical to facilitate electron transfer at a sensing interface, or a template-dependent DNA amplification, which often involves designing prone-to-false "sticky ends" and labeling redox tags at one end of the signal probes. Here we report an in situ grown DNA nanotail (IGT)-mediated straightforward and template-free signal amplification strategy for highly sensitive and sequence-specific DNA detection. This novel electrochemical IGT (E-IGT) DNA sensor can quantify target nucleic acids in a label-free manner because the electrochemical signals are generated by chronocoulometric interrogation of redox [Ru(NH3)6](3+) that electrostatically and quantitatively binds to the negatively charged phosphate moieties in the electrode surface-attached DNA. By introduction of terminal deoxynucleoside transferase (TdT) to this sensor design, both the sensitivity and selectivity have been significantly enhanced. This DNA sensor achieves an impressive detection limit of 20 fM for a DNA sequence with 22 nucleotides, which is lower than that of an analogous optical DNA sensor by 2 orders of magnitude. More importantly, it exhibits excellent selectivity against even a single-base mismatched sequence. In addition, this novel DNA sensor presents reliable reusability and is capable of measuring target DNA in complex matrixes, such as undiluted human serum, with minimal interference. These advantages make our E-IGT sensor a promising contender in the E-DNA sensor family for medical diagnostics.
Related JoVE Video
Application of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in protein studies.
J Mol Struct
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since the physical process of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was elucidated more than six decades ago, this peculiar fluorescence phenomenon has turned into a powerful tool for biomedical research due to its compatibility in scale with biological molecules as well as rapid developments in novel fluorophores and optical detection techniques. A wide variety of FRET approaches have been devised, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Especially in the last decade or so, we are witnessing a flourish of FRET applications in biological investigations, many of which exemplify clever experimental design and rigorous analysis. Here we review the current stage of FRET methods development with the main focus on its applications in protein studies in biological systems, by summarizing the basic components of FRET techniques, most established quantification methods, as well as potential pitfalls, illustrated by example applications.
Related JoVE Video
Y-chromosomal haplotyping of single sperm cells isolated from semen mixtures - a successful identification of three perpetrators in a multi-suspect sexual assault case.
Croat. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aim. To obtain individual Y-short tandem repeat (STR) profiles in a multi-suspect sexual assault case. Methods. We used laser cut microdissection to capture the single sperm cell in the multi-contributor semen sample, combined with the low volume polymerase chain reaction (LV-PCR) method to genotype the single sperm cell profiles using the Yfiler® kit. Consensus DNA profiles were generated from 5 replicate experiments. Results. Ninety-four parallel LV-PCRs were performed and 41 reactions (44%) produced Y-STR profiles with more than nine loci. Three individual Y-STR profiles were successfully obtained. Conclusion. The three Y haplotype units matched three known perpetrators' genotypes. Our results showed that single sperm cells Y-STR analysis was a powerful method for analyzing multi-donor semen mixture sample.
Related JoVE Video
Complete mitochondrial genome of Tree Sparrow Passer montanus saturatus (Passeriformes: Passeridae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Tree Sparrow Passer montanus is an Eurasian distribution passerine bird, which has 9 subspecies. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Passer montanus saturatus. The mitochondrial DNA is 16,904?bp long with A + T contents of 52.56%. The mitochondrial genome is typical circular that encodes the complete set of 37 genes. All protein-coding genes use the standard mitochondrial initiation codon ATG, except for COI starts with GTG and ND3 starts with ATA. TAN is the most frequent stop codon, and AGN and T-?- are also occurred very common. All tRNAs possess the classic clover leaf secondary structure except for tRNA(Ser (AGN)) and tRNA(Cys (CUN)), which lack the "DHU" stem, only forming a simple loop.
Related JoVE Video
Electrical Detection of the Spin Polarization Due to Charge Flow in the Surface State of the Topological Insulator Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.7Se1.3.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We detected the spin polarization due to charge flow in the spin nondegenerate surface state of a three-dimensional topological insulator by means of an all-electrical method. The charge current in the bulk-insulating topological insulator Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.7Se1.3 (BSTS) was injected/extracted through a ferromagnetic electrode made of Ni80Fe20, and an unusual current-direction-dependent magnetoresistance gave evidence for the appearance of spin polarization, which leads to a spin-dependent resistance at the BSTS/Ni80Fe20 interface. In contrast, our control experiment on Bi2Se3 gave null result. These observations demonstrate the importance of the Fermi-level control for the electrical detection of the spin polarization in topological insulators.
Related JoVE Video
8q24 rs4242382 Polymorphism is a Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer among Multi-Ethnic Populations: Evidence from Clinical Detection in China and a Meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evidence supporting an association between the 8q24 rs4242382-A polymorphism and prostate cancer (PCa) risk has been reported in North American and Europe populations, though data from Asian populations remain limited. We therefore investigated this association by clinical detection in China, and meta-analysis in Asian, Caucasian and African-American populations.
Related JoVE Video
Deviatoric stress-induced phase transitions in diamantane.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The high-pressure behavior of diamantane was investigated using angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy in diamond anvil cells. Our experiments revealed that the structural transitions in diamantane were extremely sensitive to deviatoric stress. Under non-hydrostatic conditions, diamantane underwent a cubic (space group Pa3) to a monoclinic phase transition at below 0.15 GPa, the lowest pressure we were able to measure. Upon further compression to 3.5 GPa, this monoclinic phase transformed into another high-pressure monoclinic phase which persisted to 32 GPa, the highest pressure studied in our experiments. However, under more hydrostatic conditions using silicone oil as a pressure medium, the transition pressure to the first high-pressure monoclinic phase was elevated to 7-10 GPa, which coincided with the hydrostatic limit of silicone oil. In another experiment using helium as a pressure medium, no phase transitions were observed to the highest pressure we reached (13 GPa). In addition, large hysteresis and sluggish transition kinetics were observed upon decompression. Over the pressure range where phase transitions were confirmed by XRD, only continuous changes in the Raman spectra were observed. This suggests that these phase transitions are associated with unit cell distortions and modifications in molecular packing rather than the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds under pressure.
Related JoVE Video
Dysidinoid A, an Unusual Meroterpenoid with Anti-MRSA Activity from the South China Sea Sponge Dysidea sp.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An unusual meroterpenoid, dysidinoid A (1), was isolated from the South China Sea sponge Dysidea sp. Its structure was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including HRESIMS and 2D NMR, and its absolute configuration was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Dysidinoid A (1) is the first meroterpenoid from Nature bearing a 9,4-friedodrime skeleton and a 2,5-dionepyrrole unit. Dysidinoid A (1) showed potent antibacterial activity against two strains of pathogenic bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MIC90 values of 8.0 ?g/mL against both.
Related JoVE Video
[The correlation of human papillomavirus and EB virus infection in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Fujian].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus in nasopharyngeal carcinomas of Fujian province in China.
Related JoVE Video
Towards high sensitivity gas detection with hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper investigates the effect of modal interference on the performance of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) gas sensors. By optimizing mode launch, using proper length of sensing HC-PBF, and applying proper wavelength modulation in combination with lock-in detection, as well as appropriate digital signal processing, an estimated lower detection limit of less than 1 part-per-million by volume (ppmv) acetylene is achieved.
Related JoVE Video
A "light-on" colorimetric assay for anion detection using the inhibitory effect of anions on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles for the degradation of methyl orange.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this communication, we studied the inhibitory effects of anions on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). Some anions have great affinity with specific metal nanoparticles, thus resulting in the change of surface state and inhibition of catalytic activity, which can be observed with the naked eye or manifested in the UV spectrum of MO for anion detection.
Related JoVE Video
Interaction between Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells is Dependent upon Cell Distribution in 3D and TGF-?3 Induction.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stem cells hold great promise for treating cartilage degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA). The efficacy of stem cell-based therapy for cartilage repair is highly dependent on their interactions with local cells in the joint. This study aims to evaluate the interactions between osteoarthritic chondrocytes (OACs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in 3D using biomimetic hydrogels. To examine the effects of cell distribution on such interactions, ADSCs and OACs were co-cultured in 3D using three co-culture models: conditioned medium, bi-layered, and mixed co-culture with varying cell ratios. Furthermore, the effect of TGF-?3 supplementation on ADSC-OAC interactions and the resulting cartilage formation was examined. Outcomes were analyzed using quantitative gene expression, cell proliferation, cartilage matrix production and histology. TGF-?3 supplementation led to substantial increase in cartilage matrix depositions in all groups, but had differential effects on OAC-ADSC interactions in different co-culture models. In the absence of TGF-?3, conditioned medium or bi-layered co-culture had negligible effects on gene expression or cartilage formation. With TGF-?3 supplementation, conditioned medium and bi-layered co-culture inhibited cartilage formation by both ADSCs and OACs. In contrast, mixed co-culture with moderate OAC ratios (25 & 50%) resulted in synergistic interactions with enhanced cartilage matrix deposition and reduced catabolic marker expression. Our results suggested that the interaction between OACs and ADSCs is highly dependent upon cell distribution in 3D and soluble factors, which should be taken into consideration when designing stem cell-based therapy for treating OA patients.
Related JoVE Video
Decoupling of Component Diffusion in a Glass-Forming Zr_{46.75}Ti_{8.25}Cu_{7.5}Ni_{10}Be_{27.5} Melt Far above the Liquidus Temperature.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report ^{95}Zr and ^{57}Co radiotracer diffusivities and viscosity data in the equilibrium liquid state of a bulk metallic glass forming Zr_{46.75}Ti_{8.25}Cu_{7.5}Ni_{10}Be_{27.5} melt (Vitreloy 4) far above the liquidus temperature T_{l} that are not affected by convection, as evidenced via quasielastic neutron scattering. Zr diffusion is strongly decoupled from diffusion of the smaller components by more than a factor of 4 at T_{l}, although it obeys the Stokes-Einstein equation. The results suggest that, in the present Zr-based metallic glass forming systems, diffusion and viscous flow start to develop solidlike, i.e., energy-landscape-controlled, features already in the stable liquid state more than 300 K above the mode coupling temperature T_{c}.
Related JoVE Video
Increased plasma dipeptidyl peptidase 4 activities predict new-onset microalbuminuria in association with its proinflammatory effects in Chinese without diabetes: a four-year prospective study.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent evidence supports a protective role of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors in lowering microalbuminuria (MAU) in diabetes but till now few studies have investigated the associations between DPP4 activity and MAU in nondiabetic Chinese individuals. This study tested whether DPP4 activity could predict new-onset MAU in Chinese without diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Photoisomerization and structural dynamics of two nitrosylruthenium complexes: a joint study by NMR and nonlinear IR spectroscopies.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this work, the photoisomerization and structural dynamics of two isomeric nitrosylruthenium(ii) complexes [Ru(OAc)(2cqn)2NO] (H2cqn = 2-chloro-8-quinolinol) in CDCl3 and DMSO are examined using NMR and IR spectroscopic methods. The two N atoms in the 2cqn ligand are in trans position in the synthesized cis-1 isomer, while they are in cis position in the cis-2 isomer. Kinetics monitored by NMR spectroscopy shows that the rate constant of photoisomerization from cis-2 to cis-1 isomer depends on the wavelength of irradiation and solvent polarity; it proceeds faster on irradiating near the absorption peak in the UV-Vis region, and also in more polar solvents (DMSO). Density functional theory computation indicates that the peculiarity of [Ru(ii)-NO(+)] group affects the structure and reactivity of the nitrosylruthenium complexes. Using the nitrosyl stretching (?NO) to be vibrational probe, the structural dynamics and structural distributions of the cis-1 and cis-2 isomers are examined by steady-state linear infrared and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopies. The structural and photochemical aspects of the observed spectroscopic parameters are discussed in terms of solute-solvent interactions for the two nitrosylruthenium complexes.
Related JoVE Video
[Recent progress in interferon induced protein GBP1 research].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP1) is an interferon induced protein, that belongs to the guany late-binding protein family. GBP1 is widely involved in anti-infection immune responses, anti-tumor activity and various biological reactions. Recent studies have proved that IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, IL1alpha, IL1beta, TNF-alpha and LPS can induce GBP1 expression; hence, the diverse biological functions of GBP1 have been gradually deduced and exploited. Many studies have been performed over recent years to understand the exact mechanisms that underlie the anti-infection and anti-tumor properties of GBP1. This review describes the molecular structure, biological activity, anti-infective properties and other functions of GBP1, in order to provide insights into the divergent roles of GBP1 in the regulation of various biological processes.
Related JoVE Video
In Situ X-ray Near-Edge Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of the State of Charge of All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Synchrotron-based in situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) has been used to study the valence state evolution of the vanadium ion for both the catholyte and anolyte in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) under realistic cycling conditions. The results indicate that, when using the widely used charge-discharge profile during the first charge process (charging the VRB cell to 1.65 V under a constant current mode), the vanadium ion valence did not reach V(V) in the catholyte and did not reach V(II) in the anolyte. Consequently, the state of charge (SOC) for the VRB cell was only 82%, far below the desired 100% SOC. Thus, such incompletely charged mix electrolytes results in not only wasting the electrolytes but also decreasing the cell performance in the following cycles. On the basis of our study, we proposed a new charge-discharge profile (first charged at a constant current mode up to 1.65 V and then continuously charged at a constant voltage mode until the capacity was close to the theoretical value) for the first charge process that achieved 100% SOC after the initial charge process. Utilizing this new charge-discharge profile, the theoretical charge capacity and the full utilization of electrolytes has been achieved, thus having a significant impact on the cost reduction of the electrolytes in VRB.
Related JoVE Video
Hybrid membranes of metal-organic molecule nanocages for aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbon separation by pervaporation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hybrid membranes composed of porous metal-organic molecule nanocages as fillers embedded in a hyperbranched polymer (Boltorn W3000) were fabricated, which exhibit excellent pervaporation separation performances towards aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbons. The unique nature of the molecule-based fillers and their good dispersion and compatibility in/with the polymer are responsible for the good membrane properties.
Related JoVE Video
Collagen VI Enhances Cartilage Tissue Generation by Stimulating Chondrocyte Proliferation.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regeneration of human cartilage is inherently inefficient. Current cell-based approaches for cartilage repair, including autologous chondrocytes, are limited by the paucity of cells, associated donor site morbidity, and generation of functionally inferior fibrocartilage rather than articular cartilage. Upon investigating the role of collagen VI (Col VI), a major component of the chondrocyte pericellular matrix (PCM), we observe that soluble Col VI stimulates chondrocyte proliferation. Interestingly, both adult and osteoarthritis chondrocytes respond to soluble Col VI in a similar manner. The proliferative effect is, however, strictly due to the soluble Col VI as no proliferation is observed upon exposure of chondrocytes to immobilized Col VI. Upon short Col VI treatment in 2D monolayer culture, chondrocytes maintain high expression of characteristic chondrocyte markers like Col2a1, agc, and Sox9 whereas the expression of the fibrocartilage marker Collagen I (Col I) and of the hypertrophy marker Collagen X (Col X) is minimal. Additionally, Col VI-expanded chondrocytes show a similar potential to untreated chondrocytes in engineering cartilage in 3D biomimetic hydrogel constructs. Our study has, therefore, identified soluble Col VI as a biologic that can be useful for the expansion and utilization of scarce sources of chondrocytes, potentially for autologous chondrocyte implantation. Additionally, our results underscore the importance of further investigating the changes in chondrocyte PCM with age and disease and the subsequent effects on chondrocyte growth and function.
Related JoVE Video
[Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone mineral density in children under 7 years old].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the endogenous vitamin D level and its correlation with bone mineral density (BMD) in children under 7 years old.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of PDE4 pathway inhibition in rat experimental stroke.
J Pharm Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The first genomewide association study indicated that variations in the phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene confer risk for ischemic stroke. However, inconsistencies among the studies designed to replicate the findings indicated the need for further investigation to elucidate the role of the PDE4 pathway in stroke pathogenesis. Hence, we studied the effect of global inhibition of the PDE4 pathway in two rat experimental stroke models, using the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram. Further, the specific role of the PDE4D isoform in ischemic stroke pathogenesis was studied using PDE4D knockout rats in experimental stroke.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of yanggan yishui granule on collagen I, III, and IV, and FN in spontaneously hypertensive rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effect of Yanggan Yishui Granule (YGYSG) on collagen protein I, III, and IV, as well as fibronection (EN) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and to explore its possible renal protective mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of acupuncture intervention on expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 and C/EBP homologous protein in hippocampal CA 1 region in rats with hyperspasmia].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effect of acupuncture intervention on expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp 78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in the hippocampus in epilepsy rats so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of hyperspasmia-induced brain injury.
Related JoVE Video
Cytotoxic aaptamine derivatives from the South China Sea sponge Aaptos aaptos.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nine new aaptamine derivatives (1-9), together with three known related compounds (10-12), have been isolated from the South China Sea sponge Aaptos aaptos. The structures of all compounds were unambiguously elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Structurally, compound 1 possesses a piperidinyl group fused to a demethyl(oxy)aaptamine moiety, whereas compounds 3-6 share an imidazole-fused 1H-benzo[de][1,6]naphthyridin-2(4H)-one skeleton. The cytotoxic activities of the compounds were evaluated against various human cancer cell lines, and compounds 2, 8, 11, and 12 showed potent cytotoxicities against HL60, K562, MCF-7, KB, HepG2, and HT-29 cells, with IC50 values in the range of 0.03 to 8.5 ?M.
Related JoVE Video
CRL4B interacts and coordinates with SIN3A/HDAC complex to repress CDKN1A in driving cell cycle progression.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CUL4B, a scaffold protein that assembles CRL4B ubiquitin ligase complex, participates in the regulation of a broad spectrum of biological processes. We here demonstrated a critical role of CUL4B in driving cell cycle progression. We showed that loss of CUL4B resulted in a significantly reduced cell proliferation and G1 cell cycle arrest that were accompanied by the upregulation of the CDK inhibitors p21 and p57. Strikingly, CUL4B was found to negatively regulate the function of p21 via transcription repression, but not via proteolysis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CRL4B and SIN3A/HDAC complexes interact with each other and co-occupy the CDKN1A and CDKN1C promoters. Lack of CUL4B led to a decreased retention of SIN3A/HDAC components and increased levels of acetylated H3 and H4. Interestingly, the ubiquitination function of CRL4B is not required for the stable retention of SIN3A/HDAC on the promoters of target genes. Thus, in addition to directly contributing to epigenetic silencing by catalyzing H2AK119 monoubiquitination, CRL4B also facilitates the deacetylation function of SIN3A/HDAC. Our findings reveal a coordinated action between CRL4B and SIN3A/HDAC complexes in transcription repression.
Related JoVE Video
A mesoporous "shell-in-shell" structured nanocatalyst with large surface area, enhanced synergy, and improved catalytic performance for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel mesoporous "shell-in-shell" structured nanocatalyst (@Pd/meso-TiO2/Pd@meso-SiO2) with large surface area, enhanced synergy, and improved catalytic performance is created for catalyzing Suzuki-Miyaura coupling and 4-nitrophenol reduction reactions.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors of recurrence for resected T1aN0M0 invasive lung adenocarcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of 177 patients.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed at identifying risk factors of recurrence for completely resected pathologic T1aN0M0 lung adenocarcinomas.
Related JoVE Video
Linalool, derived from Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl leaf extracts, possesses molluscicidal activity against Oncomelania hupensis and inhibits infection of Schistosoma japonicum.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Schistosomiasis japonicum remains a considerable economic and public health concern in China, the Philippines and Indonesia. Currently available measures to control the unique intermediate host Oncomelania hupensis are frequently associated with severe side effects. Previous studies have demonstrated that linalool-rich extracts from various plants exhibited promising biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-microbial and anti-parasitic properties.
Related JoVE Video
All-trans retinoic acid regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retinoic acid (RA) and bile acids share common roles in regulating lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In addition, the receptor for RA (retinoid x receptor) is a permissive partner of the receptor for bile acids, farnesoid x receptor (FXR/NR1H4). Thus, RA can activate the FXR-mediated pathway as well. The current study was designed to understand the effect of all-trans RA on bile acid homeostasis. Mice were fed an all-trans RA-supplemented diet and the expression of 46 genes that participate in regulating bile acid homeostasis was studied. The data showed that all-trans RA has a profound effect in regulating genes involved in synthesis and transport of bile acids. All-trans RA treatment reduced the gene expression levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Akr1d1, which are involved in bile acid synthesis. All-trans RA also decreased the hepatic mRNA levels of Lrh-1 (Nr5a2) and Hnf4? (Nr2a1), which positively regulate the gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1. Moreover, all-trans RA induced the gene expression levels of negative regulators of bile acid synthesis including hepatic Fgfr4, Fxr, and Shp (Nr0b2) as well as ileal Fgf15. All-trans RA also decreased the expression of Abcb11 and Slc51b, which have a role in bile acid transport. Consistently, all-trans RA reduced hepatic bile acid levels and the ratio of CA/CDCA, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data suggest that all-trans RA-induced SHP may contribute to the inhibition of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, which in turn reduces bile acid synthesis and affects lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.
Related JoVE Video
Mutations of novel influenza A(H10N8) virus in chicken eggs and MDCK cells.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The recent emergence of human infection with influenza A(H10N8) virus is an urgent public health concern. Genomic analysis showed that the virus was conserved in chicken eggs but presented substantial adaptive mutations in MDCK cells. Our results provide additional evidence for the avian origin of this influenza virus.
Related JoVE Video
Functional characterization of a new non-Kunitz serine protease inhibitor from the scorpion Lychas mucronatus.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serine protease inhibitors have been widely discovered from different animal venoms, but most of them belong to Kunitz-type toxin subfamily. Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified four new non-Kunitz serine protease inhibitors with a conserved Ascaris-type structural fold: Ascaris-type toxins Lychas mucronatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (LmAPI), Pandinus cavimanus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (PcAPI), Pandinus cavimanus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (PcAPI-2), and Hottentotta judaicus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (HjAPI). The detailed characterization of one Ascaris-type toxin LmAPI was further carried out, which contains 60 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant LmAPI inhibits the activity of chymotrypsin potently with a Ki value of 15.5nM, but has little effect on trypsin and elastase. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that LmAPI contains unique functional residues "TQD" and might be a useful template to produce specific protease inhibitors. Our results indicated that animal venoms are a natural source of new type of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for human diseases that target diverse proteases.
Related JoVE Video
Meibomian gland dysfunction determines the severity of the dry eye conditions in visual display terminal workers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) may determine the severity of dry eye conditions in visual display terminal (VDT) workers.
Related JoVE Video
Spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in soils near a primitive e-waste recycling site.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The total concentrations of 12 heavy metals in surface soils (SS, 0-20 cm), middle soils (MS, 30-50 cm) and deep soils (DS, 60-80 cm) from an acid-leaching area, a deserted paddy field and a deserted area of Guiyu were measured. The results showed that the acid-leaching area was heavily contaminated with heavy metals, especially in SS. The mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb in SS from the acid-leaching area were 278.4, 684.1, 572.8, 1.36, 3,472, 1,706 and 222.8 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal pollution in the deserted paddy field was mainly concentrated in SS and MS. The average values of Sb in SS and MS from the deserted paddy field were 16.3 and 20.2 mg/kg, respectively. However, heavy metal contamination of the deserted area was principally found in the DS. Extremely high concentrations of heavy metals were also observed at some special research sites, further confirming that the level of heavy metal pollution was very serious. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values revealed that the acid-leaching area was severely polluted with heavy metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Pb, while deserted paddy field was contaminated predominately by metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu. It was obvious that the concentrations of some uncommon contaminants, such as Sb and Sn, were higher than principal contaminants, such as Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, suggesting that particular attention should be directed to Sn and Sb contamination in the future research of heavy metals in soils from e-waste-processing areas. Correlation analysis suggested that Li and Be in soils from the acid-leaching area and its surrounding environment might have originated from other industrial activities and from batteries, whereas Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb contamination was most likely caused by uncontrolled electronic waste (e-waste) processing. These results indicate the significant need for optimisation of e-waste-dismantling technologies and remediation of polluted soil environment.
Related JoVE Video
[Treatment of chronic heart failure of Xin-Shen yang deficiency, interior retention of water-fulld syndrome by external application of Zhuangshenling recipe combined with western medicine: a clinical study].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effect of external application of Zhuangshenling Recipe (ZR) combined with Western medicine (WM) on the heart function of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients of Xin-Shen yang deficiency, interior retention of water-fluid syndrome (XSYDIRWFS).
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of catheter-related bladder discomfort after urological surgery.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to figure out the predictors of early postoperative catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) after urological surgery. We designed a prospective observational study in our hospital. Consecutive adult patients undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia or epidural anaesthesia necessitating urinary catheterization were included during a 3-month period. severity of bladder discomfort was assessed on a 4-point scale: (1) no pain, (2) mild pain (revealed only by interviewing the patient), (3) moderate (a spontaneous complaint by the patient of a burning sensation in the urethra and/or an urge to urinate and/or sensation of urethral foreign body without any emotional agitation) and (4) severe discomfort (agitation, loud complaints and attempt to remove the bladder catheter associated with a burning sensation in the urethra). Predictors of CRBD were identified by univariate and multivariate analysis. Totally, 116 patients were included, of which 84.5% had CRBD (mild CRBD: 40.5%; moderate or severe CRBD: 44.0%) at day 1, while 31.9% developed CRBD (mild CRBD: 29.3%; moderate or severe CRBD: 2.6%) at day 3. We evaluated 9 potential forecast factors of CRBD, and univariate Chi-square test showed male gender [OR=2.4, 95%CI (1.1-5.6), P<0.05], abdominal open surgery compared with transurethral surgery [OR=0.3, 95%CI (0.1-0.6), P<0.05], abdominal surgery compared with laparoscopic surgery [OR=3.3, 95%CI (1.2-8.9), P<0.05] and history of catheterization [OR=0.5, 95%CI (0.2-0.9), P<0.05] were independent predictors of moderate or severe CRBD in the patients after surgery. While multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the abdominal open surgery [EXP(B)=3.074, 95%CI (1.3-7.4), P<0.05] and the history of catheterization [EXP(B)=2.458, 95%CI (1.1-5.9), P<0.05] might contribute more to the occurrence of moderate or severe CRBD. In conclusion, this observational study identified that the type of surgery and the history of catheterization might be predictive factors of moderate and severe CRBD after urological surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in a rat model of cavernous neurectomy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) are at high risk for erectile dysfunction (ED) due to potential cavernous nerve (CN) damage during surgery. Penile hypoxia after RP is thought to significantly contribute to ED pathogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Scalarane sesterterpenes from the Paracel Islands marine sponge Hyrtios sp.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new scalarane sesterterpene, sesterstamide (1), together with four known sesterterpenes (2-5), were isolated from the Paracel Islands marine sponge Hyrtios sp. The chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with known compounds. The cytotoxic and antileishmanial activities of the isolated compounds were also evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
Cd(II)-MOF: adsorption, separation, and guest-dependent luminescence for monohalobenzenes.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of isostructural 2-fold interpenetrating 2D Cd(II)-MOFs, namely G?CdL2(OTs)2 (G = THF (1), PhF (2), PhCl (3), PhBr (4), PhI (5), L = 1,2-bis[(3-(pyridin-4-yl)phenoxy]ethane, and OTs(-) = p-toluenesulfonate anion), have been successfully synthesized from the flexible ethylene glycol ether-bridging ligand L and Cd(OTs)2 in solution. The CdL2(OTs)2 framework contains squarelike nonpolar channels, and the encapsulated guest molecules can be removed by heating (150 °C) to generate a guest-free host framework which is able to reversibly adsorb monohalobenzenes PhX (X = F, Cl, Br, I) in the liquid phase under ambient conditions without loss of framework integrity. Furthermore, it can effectively separate these monohalobenzenes and exhibits a clear affinity for monohalobenzenes according to the following order: PhI > PhBr > PhCl > PhF. In addition, PhX?CdL2(OTs)2 exhibits guest-dependent luminescence properties.
Related JoVE Video
Relative and absolute stereochemistry of diacarperoxides: antimalarial norditerpene endoperoxides from marine sponge Diacarnus megaspinorhabdosa.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five new norditerpene endoperoxides, named diacarperoxides H-L (1-5), and a new norditerpene diol, called diacardiol B (6), were isolated from the South China Sea sponge, Diacarnus megaspinorhabdosa. Their structures, including conformations and absolute configurations, were determined by using spectroscopic analyses, computational approaches and chemical degradation. Diacarperoxides H-J (1-3) showed some interesting stereochemical issues, as well as antimalarial activity.
Related JoVE Video
Visceral adiposity index may be a surrogate marker for the assessment of the effects of obesity on arterial stiffness.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. This study aims to describe the relationship between arterial stiffness and obesity in order to investigate the effects of obesity on CVD.
Related JoVE Video
The performance of a diabetic retinopathy risk score for screening for diabetic retinopathy in Chinese overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Ann. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common chronic microvascular diabetic complication. The presence of DR may indicate microcirculatory dysfunction in other organ systems besides visual morbidity. The objective of this study was to develop a simple diabetic retinopathy risk score to identify DR in Chinese overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Related JoVE Video
Hotspot mutations in common oncogenes are infrequent in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oncogene mutations contribute to carcinogenesis and can provide potential therapeutic targets for clinical anticancer management. However, oncogene mutation patterns in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have yet to be fully elucidated. To gain insight into mutation patterns in NPC, a high-throughput OncoCarta panel assay was used to determine 238 hotspot mutations across 19 common oncogenes in 8 NPC cell lines and 160 NPC patient samples from southern China. Statistical analyses were further conducted to identify associations between oncogene mutations and selected clinicopathological characteristics. In total, we identified 24 mutations across 11 oncogenes in 17 (10.6%) NPC patients. Four patients exhibited mutations in at least one oncogene. We also identified a PIK3CA H1047R mutant in 7 NPC cell lines. In addition, oncogene mutations showed no correlation with either risk habits (smoking and drinking) or other clinical characteristics except for TNM stage. KIT mutations were associated with poorer overall and relapse-free survival. Furthermore, KIT mutations together with age and N stage were independent prognostic factors in NPC. Taken together, the present study is the first report on mutations in multiple oncogenes in NPC. We found that hotspot oncogene mutations are infrequent in NPC patients from southern China. The lack of hotspot mutations requires a comprehensive characterization of gene mutations in NPC for developing new therapeutic targets in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Endoperoxide polyketides from a Chinese Plakortis simplex: further evidence of the impact of stereochemistry on antimalarial activity of simple 1,2-dioxanes.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemical investigation of the organic extract obtained from the sponge Plakortis simplex collected in the South China Sea afforded five new polyketide endoperoxides (2 and 4-7), along with two known analogues (1 and 3). The stereostructures of these metabolites have been deduced on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical conversion. The isolated endoperoxide derivatives have been tested for their in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum strains, showing IC50 values in the low micromolar range. The structure-activity relationships were analyzed by means of a detailed computational investigation and rationalized in the light of the mechanism of action proposed for this class of simple antimalarials. The relative orientation of the atoms involved in the putative radical generation and transfer reaction was demonstrated to have a great impact on the antimalarial activity. The resulting 3D pharmacophoric model can be a useful guide to design simple and effective antimalarial lead compounds belonging to the class of 1,2-dioxanes.
Related JoVE Video
Neurotrophic Signaling Factors in Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion Rats: Differential Modulation Pattern between Single-Time and Multiple Electroacupuncture Stimulation.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Electroacupuncture (EA) treatment has been widely used for stroke-like disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous studies showed that single-time EA stimulation at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Shuigou" (GV 26) after the onset of ischemia can protect the brain against ischemic injury in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, we further investigated the differential effects between multiple EA and single-time EA stimulation on ischemic injury. In the present study, we found that both single-time EA and multiple EA stimulation significantly reduced MCAO-induced ischemic infarction, while only multiple EA attenuated sensorimotor dysfunctions. Also, with PCR array screening and ingenuity gene analysis, we revealed that multiple EA and single-time EA stimulation could differentially induce expression changes in neurotrophic signaling related genes. Meanwhile, with western blotting, we demonstrated that the level of glia maturation factor ? (GMF?) increased in the early stage (day 1) of reperfusion, and this upregulation was suppressed only by single-time EA stimulation. These findings suggest that the short-term effect of single-time EA stimulation differs from the cumulative effect of multiple EA, which possibly depends on their differential modulation on neurotrophic signaling molecules expression.
Related JoVE Video
Functional characterization of two novel scorpion sodium channel toxins from Lychas mucronatus.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The diverse ?-scorpion toxins are invaluable pharmacological tools and potential drugs targeting sodium channels, but the pharmacological profiles of most toxins remains unknown so far. Here, we reported pharmacological activities of two novel ?-scorpion toxins Lm?TX3 and Lm?TX5 from the Lychas mucronatus. Using the expression vector pET-28a, the recombinant Lm?TX3 and Lm?TX5 were separated by RP-HPLC and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Subsequently, sodium channels rNav1.2, mNav1.4, hNav1.5 and hNav1.7 were used for evaluating the pharmacological activities of Lm?TX3 and Lm?TX5 toxins. The electrophysiological experiments showed that both 10 ?M recombinant Lm?TX3 and Lm?TX5 seriously inhibited the fast inactivation of mNav1.4 and hNav1.5 channels, moderately affected hNav1.7 channel, and hardly modulated rNav1.2 channel. The dose-response experiments further indicated the EC50 values of Lm?TX3 were 4.98 ± 0.79 ?M for mNav1.4, 1.23 ± 0.31 ?M for hNav1.5 and 31.46 ± 2.32 ?M for hNav1.7 channels, respectively. Similar pharmacological profiles of recombinant Lm?TX5 were also observed, and its EC50 values were 4.53 ± 1.38 ?M, 1.03 ± 0.43 ?M and 67.62 ± 2.31 ?M for mNav1.4, hNav1.5 and hNav1.7, respectively. In addition, the recombinant Lm?TX3 from the vector pET-14b had much less effect on the fast inactivation of mNav1.4, hNav1.5 and hNav1.7 channels, which indicated that the expression vector pET-14b likely played a critical role in toxin function. Together, these findings first highlighted that scorpion toxins from L. mucronatus were a new molecular resource of discovering pharmacological probes and prospective drugs targeting sodium channels in the future.
Related JoVE Video
A fluorescence glucose sensor based on pH induced conformational switch of i-motif DNA.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A facile fluorescence biosensor for the detection of glucose is proposed based on the pH-induced conformational switch of i-motif DNA in this paper. Glucose can be oxidized by oxygen (O2) in the presence of glucose oxidase (GOD), and the generated gluconic acid can decrease the pH value of the solution and then induce the fluorophore- and quencher-labeled cytosine-rich single-stranded DNA to fold into a close-packed i-motif structure. As a result, the fluorescence quenching occurs because of the resonance energy transfer between fluorophore and quencher. Based on this working principle, the concentration of glucose can be detected by the decrease of fluorescence density. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the assay shows a linear response range of 5-100 µM for the glucose concentration with a detection limit of 4 µM. This glucose biosensor was applied to determine glucose in real samples successfully, suggesting its potential in the practical applicability.
Related JoVE Video
An application of target profiling analyses in the hepatotoxicity assessment of herbal medicines: comparative characteristic fingerprint and bile acid profiling of Senecio vulgaris L. and Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The toxicity assessment of herbal medicines is important for human health and appropriate utilization of these medicines. However, challenges have to be overcome because of the complexity of coexisting multiple components in herbal medicines and the highly interconnected organismal system. In this study, a target profiling approach was established by combining the characteristic fingerprint analysis of herbal chemicals with potential toxicity through a precursor ion scan-based mass spectroscopy and the target profiling analysis of biomarkers responsible for the toxicity. Through this newly developed approach, the comparative hepatotoxicity assessment of two herbal medicines from the same genus, Senecio vulgaris L. and Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham, was performed. Significant differences were found between the two species in their chemical markers (i.e., pyrrolizidine alkaloids) and biomarkers (i.e., bile acids) responsible for their toxicities. This result was consistent with the conventional toxicity assessment conducted by histopathological examination and clinical serum index assay on experimental animal models. In conclusion, this study provided a new approach for the hepatotoxicity assessment of herbal medicines containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are widely distributed in various herbal medicines. The target profiling approach may shed light on the toxicity assessment of other herbal medicines with potential toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution of heavy metal pollution in sediments from an acid leaching site of e-waste.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The spatial distribution, bioavailability, potential risks and emission sources of 12 heavy metals in sediments from an acid leaching site of e-waste were investigated. The results showed that the sediments from the acid leaching site were significantly contaminated with Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb, especially in the middle sediments (30-50 cm), with average concentrations of 4820, 1260, 10.7, 2660, 5690 and 2570 mg/kg, respectively. Cu, Cd and Pb were mainly present in the non-residual fractions, suggesting that the sediments from the acid leaching site may exert considerable risks. Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn and Sb were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. Despite their low reactivity and bioavailability, uncommon pollutants, such as Sn and Sb, may exert environmental risks due to their extremely elevated total concentrations. All of these results indicate that there is an urgent need to control the sources of heavy metal emission and to remediate contaminated sediments.
Related JoVE Video
Production and characterization of polypropylene composites filled with glass fibre recycled from pyrolysed waste printed circuit boards.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are composed of nearly 70% non-metals, which are generally recycled as low-value filling materials or even directly dumped in landfills. In this study, polypropylene (PP) composites reinforced by recycled pure glass fibres (RGF) from pyrolysed WPCBs were successfully produced. The manufacturing process, mechanical properties and thermal behaviour of the composites were investigated. The results showed that the appropriate addition of RGF in the composites can significantly improve the mechanical properties and thermal behaviour. When the added content of RGF was 30%, the maximum increment of tensile strength, impact strength, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the glass fibre (GF)/PP composites are 25.93%, 41.38%, 31.16% and 68.42%, respectively, and the vicat softening temperature could rise by 4.6°C. Furthermore, leaching of the GF/PP composites was also investigated. The GF/PP composites exhibited high performance and non-toxicity, offering a promising method to recycle RGF from pyrolysed WPCBs with high-value applications.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Antiviral Prophylaxis Strategy for Chemotherapy-Associated Hepatitis B Reactivation in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent data indicates that nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NUC) is effective in preventing and controlling hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in HBV-carrying cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy, but the ideal antiviral agent and optimal application protocol still needs to be determined. Meanwhile, it is uncertain whether those with past HBV infection require antiviral prophylaxis during chemotherapy. This report retrospectively analyzed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients seen from January, 2004 to June, 2009 in West China Hospital. We found that the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in our NHL patients was 20.7 % while that of past HBV infection was 21.05 %. Compared with the high rate (25.6 %) of HBV reactivation in patients with chronic HBV infection, none of those with past HBV infection in fact had occult HBV infection thus none experienced reactivation. Of the 82 patients with chronic HBV infection who received chemotherapy, antiviral prophylaxis could significantly reduce the incidence of HBV reactivation (5.0 vs. 45.2 % in the control group) and the incidence of liver function damage (32.5 vs. 73.8 % in the control group). The results of the current study confirmed previous reports that prophylactic NUCs administration can effectively prevent HBV reactivation and significantly reduce the incidence of HBV reactivation especially for patients receiving rituximab-containing regimens. Due to the fact that none of individuals who had past HBV infection developed HBV reactivation reported in our study, antiviral prophylaxis may not be required for patients with past HBV infection. Close observation of alanine aminotransferase and HBV-DNA contributes to early diagnosis and timely treatment of HBV reactivation.
Related JoVE Video
A new strategy for sperm isolation and STR typing from multi-donor sperm mixtures.
Forensic Sci Int Genet
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mixed semen stains from multiple contributors are challenging samples in sexual assault casework, and it is crucial to obtain the DNA profiles of different donors to allow the evidence to play an important role in investigations and judicial proceedings. Current standard procedures, including preferential lysis, are incapable of separating single-source sperm from multiple male donors. Mixed profiles are often obtained and may not directly exclude or identify suspects. In this case, computational methods for mixture interpretation are often used, which rely on different types of calculation models. Here, we explored a new strategy for sperm cell isolation and detection from mixtures. It is a direct way to obtain genotypes of different sperm donors compared to computation-based mixture interpretation. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) and low volume-PCR (LV-PCR) were used for single sperm isolation and detection. The platform was sensitive; profiling of a single sperm cell generated a minimum of 13-16 loci in 73.1% of Y short tandem repeat (Y-STR) assays. A new Y-STR and autosomal STR multiplex system (YA-STR) were optimized by the combination of the Y-STR locus and 10 autosomal STR (auto STR) loci. The Y-STR locus acted as a tag to discriminate profile groups from different donors. Subsequently, consensus auto STR profiles of various persons could be received. The accuracy and availability of this method were evaluated on a three-donor semen mixture and found to be effective for the resolution of a multi-donor sperm mixture.
Related JoVE Video
Construction of a shared system-based real-world clinical research system.
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine established research outpatient clinics to contribute to the major disease-entity research conducted by the National Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Research Base and to the construction of the National Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment and Clinical Research Information Sharing System. With a view of developing a "real-world traditional Chinese medicine clinical research paradigm," these clinics explored the mode of constructing research outpatient clinics from the aspects of clinical research, health management, and characteristics diagnosis and treatment.
Related JoVE Video
The efficacy of nimodipine drug delivery using mPEG-PLA micelles and mPEG-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to develop and compare mPEG-PLA micelles and mPEG-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles, with the intention to develop a highly efficient formulation for nimodipine (NIM), NIM-loaded micelles and mixed micelles were made and their pharmacokinetics were studied.
Related JoVE Video
In vivo distribution and pharmacokinetics of multiple active components from Danshen and Sanqi and their combination via inner ear administration.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae sp. plant, Chinese name Danshen) and Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (Araliaceae plant, Chinese name Sanqi) have a long history in treating coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and inner ear disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. To provide a rational basis for the use of these herbs in clinical practice, we investigated the in vivo distribution and pharmacokinetics of marker agents in Danshen and Sanqi via intravenous and inner ear administration and explored the potential interactions of these agents in compound prescription.
Related JoVE Video
Biological significance and therapeutic implication of resveratrol-inhibited Wnt, Notch and STAT3 signaling in cervical cancer cells.
Genes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cervical cancers/CCs are one of the commonest malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Resveratrol inhibits CC cell growth but its molecular target(s) remains unclear. Since the signaling pathways mediated by STAT3, Notch1 and Wnt2 play beneficial roles in CC formation and progression, the effects of resveratrol on them in cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and squamous cell carcinoma (SiHa) cells were analyzed. The biological significances of the above signaling for HeLa and SiHa cells were evaluated by treating the cells with STAT3, Wnt or Notch selective inhibitors. The frequencies of STAT3, Notch and Wnt activations in 68 cases of CC specimens and 38 non-cancerous cervical epithelia were examined by tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical staining. The results revealed that HeLa and SiHa cells treated by 100?M resveratrol showed extensive apoptosis, accompanied with suppression of STAT3, Notch and Wnt activations. Growth inhibition and apoptosis were found in HeLa and SiHa populations treated by AG490, a STAT3/JAK3 inhibitor but not the ones treated by Notch inhibitor L-685,458 or by Wnt inhibitor XAV-939. Immunohistochemical staining performed on the tissue microarrays showed that the frequencies of Notch1, Notch2, Hes1, Wnt2, Wnt5a and p-STAT3 detection as well as ?-catenin nuclear translocation in CC samples were significantly higher than that of noncancerous group (p<0.01), while the expression rate of PIAS3 was remarkably low in cancer samples (p<0.01). Our results thus demonstrate that STAT3, Wnt and Notch signaling are frequently co-activated in human CC cells and specimens and resveratrol can concurrently inhibit those signaling activations and meanwhile lead cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cells to growth arrest and apoptosis. STAT3 signaling is more critical for CC cells and is the major target of resveratrol because selective inhibition of STAT3 rather than Wnt or Notch activation commits SiHa and HeLa cells to apoptosis.
Related JoVE Video
Alterations of regional homogeneity in pediatric bipolar depression: a resting-state fMRI study.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has attracted increasing attentions due to its high prevalence and great influence on social functions of children and adolescents. However, the pathophysiology underlying PBD remains unclear. In the present study, the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to detect abnormalities of baseline brain functions in depressed PBD youth.
Related JoVE Video
A feedback loop between RUNX2 and the E3 ligase SMURF1 in regulation of differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) is a transcription factor that is indispensable for bone and tooth development. Smad ubiquitylation regulatory factor-1 (SMURF1) promotes RUNX2 degradation and negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation, whereas RUNX2 activates SMURF1 transcription in osteoblasts. However, the relationship between RUNX2 and SMURF1 in tooth development is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the potential relationship between RUNX2 and SMURF1 in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs).
Related JoVE Video
NR4A1 is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common disorder characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. In the present study, the expression levels of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1) and the correlation with inflammatory cytokine production and free fatty acids (FFAs) in patients with T2D and healthy participants were investigated. NR4A1 expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with T2D (n=30) and healthy controls (n=34) were analyzed. In addition, the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting plasma insulin (FIN), FFAs, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were analyzed, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to estimate the insulin resistance (IR). Additionally, PBMCs from healthy subjects were cultured with or without 250 ?M palmitic acid (PA). Levels of NR4A1, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the PBMCs were also analyzed. The basal expression levels of NR4A1, TNF-? and IL-6 were higher in the T2D patients when compared with the controls. In addition, the levels of FFAs, TG and LDL-C, as well as the HOMA-IR, were higher in T2D patients. Furthermore, NR4A1 expression was demonstrated to positively correlate with the HOMA-IR and the levels of FFAs, TNF-?, IL-6, FIN and FBG. Furthermore, 250 ?M PA stimulation was shown to increase NR4A1 expression and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in the cultured PBMCs. Therefore, increased NR4A1 expression levels are correlated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and the disorder of lipid metabolism in patients with T2D.
Related JoVE Video
Post-stroke pain hypersensitivity induced by experimental thalamic hemorrhage in rats is region-specific and demonstrates limited efficacy of gabapentin.
Neurosci Bull
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intractable central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is one of the most common sequelae of stroke, but has been inadequately studied to date. In this study, we first determined the relationship between the lesion site and changes in mechanical or thermal pain sensitivity in a rat CPSP model with experimental thalamic hemorrhage produced by unilateral intra-thalamic collagenase IV (ITC) injection. Then, we evaluated the efficacy of gabapentin (GBP), an anticonvulsant that binds the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel ?2? and a commonly used anti-neuropathic pain medication. Histological case-by-case analysis showed that only lesions confined to the medial lemniscus and the ventroposterior lateral/medial nuclei of the thalamus and/or the posterior thalamic nucleus resulted in bilateral mechanical pain hypersensitivity. All of the animals displaying CPSP also had impaired motor coordination, while control rats with intra-thalamic saline developed no central pain or motor deficits. GBP had a dose-related anti-allodynic effect after a single administration (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg) on day 7 post-ITC, with significant effects lasting at least 5 h for the higher doses. However, repeated treatment, once a day for two weeks, resulted in complete loss of effectiveness (drug tolerance) at 10 mg/kg, while effectiveness remained at 100 mg/kg, although the time period of efficacious analgesia was reduced. In addition, GBP did not change the basal pain sensitivity and the motor impairment caused by the ITC lesion, suggesting selective action of GBP on the somatosensory system.
Related JoVE Video
The tetramerization domain potentiates Kv4 channel function by suppressing closed-state inactivation.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A-type Kv4 potassium channels undergo a conformational change toward a nonconductive state at negative membrane potentials, a dynamic process known as pre-open closed states or closed-state inactivation (CSI). CSI causes inhibition of channel activity without the prerequisite of channel opening, thus providing a dynamic regulation of neuronal excitability, dendritic signal integration, and synaptic plasticity at resting. However, the structural determinants underlying Kv4 CSI remain largely unknown. We recently showed that the auxiliary KChIP4a subunit contains an N-terminal Kv4 inhibitory domain (KID) that directly interacts with Kv4.3 channels to enhance CSI. In this study, we utilized the KChIP4a KID to probe key structural elements underlying Kv4 CSI. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer two-hybrid mapping and bimolecular fluorescence complementation-based screening combined with electrophysiology, we identified the intracellular tetramerization (T1) domain that functions to suppress CSI and serves as a receptor for the binding of KID. Disrupting the Kv4.3 T1-T1 interaction interface by mutating C110A within the C3H1 motif of T1 domain facilitated CSI and ablated the KID-mediated enhancement of CSI. Furthermore, replacing the Kv4.3 T1 domain with the T1 domain from Kv1.4 (without the C3H1 motif) or Kv2.1 (with the C3H1 motif) resulted in channels functioning with enhanced or suppressed CSI, respectively. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel (to our knowledge) role of the T1 domain in suppressing Kv4 CSI, and that KChIP4a KID directly interacts with the T1 domain to facilitate Kv4.3 CSI, thus leading to inhibition of channel function.
Related JoVE Video
Polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis alleviate neuronal cell injury caused by oxidative stress.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Angelica sinensis has antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of polysaccharides isolated from Angelica sinensis. In a preliminary experiment, Angelica sinensis polysaccharides not only protected PC12 neuronal cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, but also reduced apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, and increased the mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H2O2 treatment. In a rat model of local cerebral ischemia, we further demonstrated that Angelica sinensis polysaccharides enhanced the antioxidant activity in cerebral cortical neurons, increased the number of microvessels, and improved blood flow after ischemia. Our findings highlight the protective role of polysaccharides isolated from Angelica sinensis against nerve cell injury and impairment caused by oxidative stress.
Related JoVE Video
Highly sensitive impedimetric immunosensor based on single-walled carbon nanohorns as labels and bienzyme biocatalyzed precipitation as enhancer for cancer biomarker detection.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on functionalized nanomaterial labels and bienzyme (horseradish peroxidase and glucose oxidase) biocatalyzed precipitation was developed for the detection of ?-fetoprotein (AFP). The enzymes linked to functionalized nanomaterials as biocatalysts could accelerate the oxidation of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) by H2O2 to yield the insoluble product on the electrode surface; the mass loading of the precipitates on the device led to a significant enhanced signal. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to monitor the enhanced precipitation of 4-CN that accumulated on the electrode surface and subsequent decrement in the electrode surface area by monitoring the reduction process of the Fe(CN)6(4-/3-) redox couple. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor showed a high sensitivity and a wide linear range from 0.001 to 60 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.33 pg mL(-1). Moreover, the immunosensor exhibited good selectivity, acceptable stability and reproducibility. The amplification strategy showed good promise for clinical screening of tumor biomarkers.
Related JoVE Video
The catalytic region and PEST domain of PTPN18 distinctly regulate the HER2 phosphorylation and ubiquitination barcodes.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The tyrosine phosphorylation barcode encoded in C-terminus of HER2 and its ubiquitination regulate diverse HER2 functions. PTPN18 was reported as a HER2 phosphatase; however, the exact mechanism by which it defines HER2 signaling is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that PTPN18 regulates HER2-mediated cellular functions through defining both its phosphorylation and ubiquitination barcodes. Enzymologic characterization and three crystal structures of PTPN18 in complex with HER2 phospho-peptides revealed the molecular basis for the recognition between PTPN18 and specific HER2 phosphorylation sites, which assumes two distinct conformations. Unique structural properties of PTPN18 contribute to the regulation of sub-cellular phosphorylation networks downstream of HER2, which are required for inhibition of HER2-mediated cell growth and migration. Whereas the catalytic domain of PTPN18 blocks lysosomal routing and delays the degradation of HER2 by dephosphorylation of HER2 on pY(1112), the PEST domain of PTPN18 promotes K48-linked HER2 ubiquitination and its rapid destruction via the proteasome pathway and an HER2 negative feedback loop. In agreement with the negative regulatory role of PTPN18 in HER2 signaling, the HER2/PTPN18 ratio was correlated with breast cancer stage. Taken together, our study presents a structural basis for selective HER2 dephosphorylation, a previously uncharacterized mechanism for HER2 degradation and a novel function for the PTPN18 PEST domain. The new regulatory role of the PEST domain in the ubiquitination pathway will broaden our understanding of the functions of other important PEST domain-containing phosphatases, such as LYP and PTPN12.
Related JoVE Video
Association between Tissue Characteristics of Coronary Plaque and Distal Embolization after Coronary Intervention in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Insights from a Meta-Analysis of Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The predictive value of plaque characteristics assessed by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) including fibrous tissue (FT), fibrofatty (FF), necrotic core (NC) and dense calcium (DC) in identifying distal embolization after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the association of pre-PCI plaque composition and post-PCI distal embolization in acute coronary syndrome patients.
Related JoVE Video
Increased expressions of integrin subunit ?1, ?2 and ?3 in patients with venous thromboembolism: new markers for venous thromboembolism.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the core proteins (integrin subunits ?1, ?2 and ?3) in the acute venous thrombi and validate the specificity and sensitivity of increased expression of integrin subunits ?1, ?2 and ?3 in patients with venous thromboembolism.
Related JoVE Video
Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.