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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
One-pot solvothermal synthesis of graphene wrapped rice-like ferrous carbonate nanoparticles as anode materials for high energy lithium-ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Well dispersed rice-like FeCO3 nanoparticles were produced and combined with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) via a one-pot solvothermal route. SEM characterization shows that rice-like FeCO3 nanoparticles are homogeneously anchored on the surface of the graphene nanosheets; the addition of RGO is helpful to form a uniform morphology and reduce the particle size of FeCO3 to nano-grade. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly improved lithium storage properties with a large reversible capacity of 1345 mA h g(-1) for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1224 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles with a good rate capability compared with pure FeCO3 particles. The superior electrochemical performance of the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposite electrode compared to the pure FeCO3 electrode can be attributed to the well dispersed RGO which enhances the electronic conductivity and accommodates the volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposite could be a suitable candidate for high capacity lithium-ion batteries.
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HSC capture and directional differentiation into vascular endothelial cells for metal stent coated chitosan/hyaluronic acid loading CD133 antibody.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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A series of metal stents coated with chitosan/hyaluronic acid (CS/HA) loading antibodies by electrostatic self-assembled method were prepared, and the types of cells captured by antibodies and their differentiation in vascular endothelial cells evaluated by molecular biology and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that CD133-stent can selectively capture hemopoietic stem cells (HSC)which directionally differentiate into vascular endothelial cells in peripheral blood by (CS/HA) induction, and simultaneously inhibit migration and proliferation of immune cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. CD34-stent can capture HSC, hemopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) that differentiate into vascular endothelial cells and immune cells, promoting smooth muscle cells growth, leading to thrombosis, inflammation and rejection. CD133-stent by implanting into miniature pig heart coronary can repair vascular by capturing own HSC, thus contributing to the rapid natural vascular repair, avoiding inflammation and rejection, thrombotic and restenosis. These studies demonstrated that CD133-stent of HSC capture will be an ideal coated metal stent providing a new therapeutic approach for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.
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Activatable Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticle as a Theranostic Agent for Optical/Photoacoustic Image-Guided Photothermal Therapy.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Photothermal therapy (PTT) is an emerging treatment modality that is under intensive preclinical investigations for the treatment of various medical conditions, including cancer. However, the lack of targeting function of PTT agents hampers its clinical application. An effective and nontoxic delivery vehicle that can carry PTT agents into tumor areas is still needed urgently. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocomposite by loading copper sulfide (CuS) into Cy5.5-conjugated hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HANP), obtaining an activatable Cy5.5-HANP/CuS (HANPC) nanocomposite. In this system, Cy5.5 fluorescent signal is quenched by CuS inside the particle until the whole nanocomposite is degraded by hyaluronidase present in tumor, giving strong fluorescence signals delineating the tumor. Importantly, CuS with strong NIR absorbance appears to be an excellent contrast agent for photoacoustic (PA) imaging and an effective PTT agent. After intravenous administration of HANPC into SCC7 tumor-bearing mice, high fluorescence and PA signals were observed in the tumor area over time, which peaked at the 6 h time point (tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of 3.25 ± 0.25 for optical imaging and 3.8 ± 0.42 for PA imaging). The tumors were then irradiated with a laser, and a good tumor inhibition rate (89.74% on day 5) was observed. Our studies further encourage application of this HA-based multifunctional nanocomposite for image-guided PTT in biomedical applications, especially in cancer theranostics.
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Interleukin-33 promotes disease progression in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.
Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a progressive autoimmune liver disease that can cause a series of complications, including cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is expressed in various non-hematopoietic cells and a certain population of immune cells, and exerts its biological effects by binding to the specific receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2). A soluble form of ST2 (sST2) has been postulated to act as a decoy receptor for IL-33. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of PBC. The study included 20 healthy controls and 68 patients with PBC. We thus found the increased serum IL-33 levels in PBC patients. Its elevated levels were positively correlated with serum alkaline phosphatase levels (a key parameter for the definition of PBC) and with Child-Pugh scores, which were used to determine the prognosis of liver cirrhosis. Moreover, the serum concentrations of sST2 were significantly higher in PBC patients compared with healthy subjects, irrespective of the disease severity. Importantly, the cells that express IL-33 and/or myeloperoxidase (a marker for neutrophils) were accumulated in the livers of PBC patients, and their number increased with the severity of liver lesions. Lastly, in vitro chemotaxis assays revealed that IL-33 enhanced the migration of neutrophils. These data suggest that IL-33 may affect the progress of PBC by recruiting neutrophils to the liver. This expanded knowledge of IL-33 in PBC patients is important for developing therapeutic strategies (e.g., neutralization of IL-33), selecting optimal clinical management, and predicting prognosis.
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A two-dimensional hybrid with molybdenum disulfide nanocrystals strongly coupled on nitrogen-enriched graphene via mild temperature pyrolysis for high performance lithium storage.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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A novel 2D hybrid with MoS2 nanocrystals strongly coupled on nitrogen-enriched graphene (MoS2/NGg-C3N4) is realized by mild temperature pyrolysis (550 °C) of a self-assembled precursor (MoS3/g-C3N4-H(+)/GO). With rich active sites, the boosted electronic conductivity and the coupled structure, MoS2/NGg-C3N4 achieves superior lithium storage performance.
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Psychometric Properties of the Coronary Heart Disease Scale of the Quality-of-Life Instruments for Chronic Diseases (QLICD-CHD): An Application to Cantonese Patients.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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The purpose of this study was to validate the applicability of our proposed disease-specific questionnaire to Cantonese coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. During the investigation from August 2010 to March 2012, 1000 Cantonese inpatients were recruited. The reliability of the scale was judged by the internal consistency, and the content and construct validity were assessed by using Pearson correlation and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively. Results showed that the Cronbach's ? coefficient for the whole scale and most domains/facets were larger than .70 (.59 to .93). Most items had moderate to strong Pearson correlations with their respective facets (r > 0.50). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the indices for goodness of fit were nearly acceptable. Overall, the QLICD-CHD scale has adequate psychometric properties when applied to Cantonese CHD patients.
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Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Regulate Immune Response in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection through PD-1-Induced IL-10.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Although myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are well known for their immunosuppressive function in several pathological conditions, the role of MDSCs in hepatitis B virus infection remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the frequency and function of MDSCs in the peripheral blood and liver of 91 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. A higher percentage of MDSCs, defined as CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low), was detected in peripheral blood of CHB patients than that of the healthy controls. Moreover, high expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1) and secretion of IL-10 in this population were determined. The frequency of MDSCs was positively correlated with serum viral load, but it was negatively correlated with liver inflammatory injury. These cells were also abundant in liver tissue of CHB patients and were related to necroinflammatory activity. Furthermore, we found that these cells could suppress hepatitis B virus-specific CD8(+) T cell response, including reduced proliferation and IFN-? production, and inhibit degranulation of CD8(+) T cells, including reduced production of granzyme B and perforin. Importantly, PD-1-induced IL-10 production by MDSCs was responsible for the suppressive activity. To our knowledge, for the first time our study proved that CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low)PD-1(+) MDSCs in CHB patients contribute to an inadequate immune response against the virus and lead to chronic infection, which represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
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Terabit Nyquist PDM-32QAM signal transmission with training sequence based time domain channel estimation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We propose a time domain structure of channel estimation for coherent optical communication systems, which employs training sequence based equalizer and is transparent to arbitrary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) formats. Enabled with this methodology, 1.02Tb/s polarization division multiplexed 32QAM Nyquist pulse shaping signal with a net spectral efficiency of 7.46b/s/Hz is transmitted over standard single-mode fiber link with Erbium-doped fiber amplifier only amplification. After 1190km transmission, the average bit-error rate is lower than the 20% hard-decision forward error correction threshold of 1.5 × 10-2. The transmission distance can be extended to 1428km by employing intra-subchannel nonlinear compensation with the digital back-propagation method.
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Demonstration of 6.25 Gbaud advanced modulation formats with subcarrier multiplexed technique on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators (Si MZMs) with good linearity are designed and fabricated. 6.25 Gbaud Nyquist 16, 32 and 64-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) optical signals were successfully generated by intensity modulation from the Si MZM, and the effective data rates are 22.61 Gb/s, 28.26 Gb/s and 33.91 Gb/s respectively. The subcarrier multiplexed technique and direct detection scheme were employed in this experiment. After 53.1 km transmission, the BERs of 16-QAM and 32-QAM are both below the 7% hard-decision forward error correction limit, while the back-to-back BER of 64-QAM is well below the 20% soft-decision forward error correction limit. These results demonstrated that the Si MZM can be used in the high-capacity low-cost short-haul intensity modulation and direct detection system.
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PPARD rs2016520 Polymorphism Affects Repaglinide Response in Chinese Han Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Repaglinide is a short-acting insulin secretagogue, which often results in considerable inter-individual variability in therapeutic efficacy when widely used in clinical setting. Among various reasons under discussion is genetic polymorphism, especially the genes related to insulin secretion and resistance. Recent studies have described the importance of PPARD in regulating the secretion and resistance of insulin. However, little is known as to the impacts of PPARD genetic polymorphism on the efficacy of repaglinide. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the associations of PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism with T2DM susceptibility and repaglinide therapeutic efficacy in Chinese Han T2DM patients. A total of 338 T2DM patients and 200 healthy subjects were genotyped for PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Eighty-four patients with the same genotypes of CYP2C8*3 139Arg and OATP1B1 521TT were randomized to orally take repaglinide for eight weeks. Then the pharmacodynamic parameters of repaglinide and biochemical indicators were determined before and after repaglinide treatment. No significant difference was found in either allelic frequency (P = 0.298) or genotype distribution (P = 0.151) of PPARD rs2016520 between T2DM patients and healthy subjects. But T2DM patients carrying genotype TC exhibited a significantly lower increase in PINS (mU/l) than those with wild-type TT (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism may influence the therapeutic effect of repaglinide rather than T2DM susceptibility in Chinese Han T2DM patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Factors Associated With Uptake of the Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Monovalent Pandemic Vaccine in K-12 Public Schools, Maine 2009-2010.
J Public Health Manag Pract
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Maine implemented a statewide pre-K through 12-school vaccination program during the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The main objective of this study was to determine which school, nurse, consent form, and clinic factors were associated with school-level vaccination rates for the first dose of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine.
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Anisotropic growth-induced synthesis of dual-compartment janus mesoporous silica nanoparticles for bimodal triggered drugs delivery.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Multifunctional dual-compartment Janus mesoporous silica nanocomposites of UCNP@SiO2@mSiO2&PMO (UCNP = upconversion nanoparticle, PMO = periodic mesoporous organosilica) containing core@shell@shell structured UCNP@SiO2@mSiO2 nanospheres and PMO single-crystal nanocubes have been successfully synthesized via a novel anisotropic island nucleation and growth approach with the ordered mesostructure. The asymmetric Janus nanocomposites show a very uniform size of ?300 nm and high surface area of ?1290 m(2)/g. Most importantly, the Janus nanocomposites possess the unique dual independent mesopores with different pore sizes (2.1 nm and 3.5-5.5 nm) and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity for loading of multiple guests. The distinct chemical properties of the silica sources and the different mesostructures of the dual-compartments are the necessary prerequisites for the formation of the Janus nanostructure. With the assistance of the near-infrared (NIR) to ultraviolet/visible (UV-vis) optical properties of UCNPs and heat-sensitive phase change materials, the dual-compartment Janus mesoporous silica nanocomposites can be further applied into nanobiomedicine for heat and NIR light bimodal-triggered dual-drugs controllable release. It realizes significantly higher efficiency for cancer cell killing (more than 50%) compared to that of the single-triggered drugs delivery system (?25%).
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[A cadaveric study on establishing an individualized navigation template for the placement of occipital condyle screws using a three-dimensional printing technique].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To investigate the feasibility of establishing an individualized navigation template for occipital condyle screws insertion using a fused deposition modeling based three-dimensional printing forming technique, and to evaluate the accuracy and safety of template-assisted condyle screw insertion.
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New agar microspheres for the separation and purification of natural products.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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A new type of agar chromatography media has been prepared with a yield over 80% using a water-in-oil emulsion technique. These microspheres have regular spherical shapes and particle diameters in the range 40-165 ?m (average ?90 ?m). Cross-linking of the resulting agar microspheres with epichlorohydrin and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether enhanced their mechanical and thermal stability. The alkaline conditions used during the cross-linking reaction also decreased the content of ionized sulfate groups of the polysaccharide, thus reducing the nonspecific adsorption of positively charged molecules. The cross-linked agar microspheres were functionalized with (i) branched poly(ethyleneimine) to obtain a stationary phase useful for the separation of proteins in an anion-exchange mode and (ii) with poly-?-cyclodextrin enabling direct isolation and purification of puerarin from a crude extract of Radix puerariae. Using a 23.5 mL column loaded with 20 mg extract (0.85 mg/mL gel), puerarin with a purity of 96% was recovered with a yield of 86%.
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Vasoprotective effect of PDGF-CC mediated by HMOX1 rescues retinal degeneration.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Blood vessel degeneration is critically involved in nearly all types of degenerative diseases. Therefore strategies to enhance blood vessel protection and survival are highly needed. In this study, using different animal models and cultured cells, we show that PDGF-CC is a potent vascular protective and survival factor. PDGF-CC deficiency by genetic deletion exacerbated blood vessel regression/degeneration in various animal models. Importantly, treatment with PDGF-CC protein not only increased the survival of retinal blood vessels in a model of oxygen-induced blood vessel regression but also markedly rescued retinal and blood vessel degeneration in a disease model of retinitis pigmentosa. Mechanistically, we revealed that heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) activity is critically required for the vascular protective/survival effect of PDGF-CC, because blockade of HMOX1 completely abolished the protective effect of PDGF-CC in vitro and in vivo. We further found that both PDGF receptors, PDGFR-? and PDGFR-?, are required for the vasoprotective effect of PDGF-CC. Thus our data show that PDGF-CC plays a pivotal role in maintaining blood vessel survival and may be of therapeutic value in treating various types of degenerative diseases.
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[Determination of six phthalate acid esters in camellia oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid-phase extraction using single-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed for the simultaneous determination of six phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in camellia oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The samples were diluted by hexane and then cleaned up with a glass SWCNTs solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The PAEs were measured by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, using external standard method for quantitative analysis. The important factors affecting extraction efficiency, such as the dilution volume of hexane, the type of adsorbent material, the dosage of SWCNTs, the volume of wash solution, the type and volume of elution solution were optimized. The optimal conditions were as follows: the dilution volume of hexane was 5 mL, the dosage of SWCNTs was 0.6 g, the wash solution was 20 mL hexane, and the elution solution was 5 mL toluene. The six PAEs had a good linear range from 0.05 mg/L to 1.0 mg/L, with the correlation coefficients (r) all above 0.999 9. The average recoveries of the six targets in spiked camellia oil (from 0.05 mg/kg to 1.0 mg/kg) ranged from 86.4% to 111.7% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 4.2% to 10.4%. The developed method is accurate, quick and suitable for the determination of the six PAEs in camellia oil.
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Vaccination with tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine of pregnant women enrolled in Medicaid--Michigan, 2011-2013.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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In October 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) first recommended the routine administration of a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) during pregnancy as a strategy to protect infants from pertussis (also known as whooping cough). This recommendation applied to women previously unvaccinated with Tdap and specified the optimal vaccination time as late second or third trimester (after 20 weeks' gestation). By vaccinating pregnant women, infants, who are at highest risk for mortality and morbidity from pertussis, gain passive immunity from maternal antibodies transferred to them in utero. Since this recommendation was made, little has been published on the percentage of women receiving Tdap during pregnancy. In Michigan, Medicaid pays for costs of pregnancy for approximately 40% of births. Infants enrolled in Medicaid are a particularly vulnerable population; in Michigan, their all-cause mortality is higher than that of privately insured infants. To assess vaccination coverage among pregnant women enrolled in a publicly funded insurance program in Michigan, Medicaid administrative claims data and statewide immunization information system data for mothers of infants born during November 2011-February 2013 were analyzed. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that only 14.3% of these women received Tdap during pregnancy, with rates highest (17.6%) among non-Hispanic, non-Arab whites and lowest (6.8%) among Arab women. Vaccination was related to maternal age and gestational age at birth, but not to adequacy of prenatal care. In 2013, recognizing the importance of Tdap for every pregnancy, ACIP revised its guidelines to include a Tdap dose during every pregnancy. Ensuring that all infants receive the protection against pertussis afforded by maternal vaccination will require enhanced efforts to vaccinate pregnant women.
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Spontaneous layer-pseudospin domain walls in bilayer graphene.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Bilayer graphene is susceptible to a family of unusual broken symmetry states with spin and valley dependent layer polarization. We report on a microscopic study of the domain walls in these systems, demonstrating that they have interesting microscopic structure related to the topological character of the ordered states. We use our results to show that the metal-insulator transition temperature in bilayer graphene is reduced from mean-field estimates by thermal excitation of domain walls.
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MicroRNA-21 Mediates Stretch-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation in Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short 20- to 22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level. The expression of specific miRNAs and their roles in the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exposed to mechanical stretch remain unclear. Here, we found that stretch induced both osteogenic differentiation and the differential expression of miR-21 in PDLSCs. Furthermore, we identified activin receptor type IIB (ACVR2B) as a target gene of miR-21. Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-21 interacts directly with the 3'-untranslated repeat sequence of ACVR2B mRNA. Mechanical stretch suppressed ACVR2B protein levels in PDLSCs, and this suppressive effect was modulated when endogenous miR-21 levels were either enhanced or inhibited. Both stretch and the expression of miR-21 altered endogenous ACVR2B protein levels and thus the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. In addition, gain- and loss of function of ACVR2B mediated the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. This study demonstrates that miR-21 is a mechanosensitive gene that plays an important role in the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs exposed to stretch.
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[Expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase modulates macrophage polarization in THP-1 cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Objective To investigate whether indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) has an effect on macrophage polarization of differentiated THP-1 (dTHP-1) cells. Methods The macrophage model was established through incubating the human monocyte line (THP-1 cells) with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (10 ng/mL) for 48 hours. To generate M1/M2-polarized macrophages, dTHP-1 cells were cultured with IFN-? (100 U/mL) and M-CSF (100 ng/mL), respectively. The expressions of molecular markers of macrophages (including HLA-DR, CCR7, IL-12p35, IL-10, CXCR4) and IDO were examined by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry, and Western blotting. To investigate the role of IDO in the dTHP-1 cell polarization, the plasmid pEGFP-N1-IDO and siRNA-IDO were respectively transfected into cells. The mRNA levels of molecular markers of macrophages were examined by qRT-PCR. Results IFN-? could induce the differentiation of THP-1 cells into M1 phenotype and up-regulate the IDO expression. Interestingly, our results also indicated that the ectopic IDO could trigger the transformation of dTHP-1 cells to M2 phenotype. In contrast, the knockdown of IDO expression in dTHP-1 cells resulted in increased M1 markers and lower M2 markers. Conclusion The expression intensity of IDO could modulate macrophage polarization in THP-1 cells.
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Arsenite binds to the RING finger domains of RNF20-RNF40 histone E3 ubiquitin ligase and inhibits DNA double-strand break repair.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Arsenic is a widespread environmental contaminant. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenic effects of arsenic remain incompletely understood. Core histones can be ubiquitinated by RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligases, among which the RNF20-RNF40 heterodimer catalyzes the ubiquitination of histone H2B at lysine 120. This ubiquitination event is important for the formation of open and biochemically accessible chromatin fiber that is conducive for DNA repair. Herein, we found that arsenite could bind directly to the RING finger domains of RNF20 and RNF40 in vitro and in cells, and treatment with arsenite resulted in substantially impaired H2B ubiquitination in multiple cell lines. Exposure to arsenite also diminished the recruitment of BRCA1 and RAD51 to laser-induced DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites, compromised DNA DSB repair in human cells, and rendered cells sensitive toward a radiomimetic agent, neocarzinostatin. Together, the results from the present study revealed, for the first time, that arsenite may exert its carcinogenic effect by targeting cysteine residues in the RING finger domains of histone E3 ubiquitin ligase, thereby altering histone epigenetic mark and compromising DNA DSB repair. Our results also suggest arsenite as a general inhibitor for RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligases.
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The functional proteomics analysis of VEGF-treated human epithelial ovarian cancer cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the most important angiogenic factor, can impact the tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but the mechanism remains unclear. This study is to investigate the key proteins which may play an important role in the VEGF-induced progress of ovarian cancer cells. The total protein from HO-8910 cells was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and PDQuest image analysis software. Furthermore, real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry were also used to confirm different expression levels of differential proteins. Morphological changes and invasion capability were evaluated by electron microscope and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. The highly reproducible and well-resolved 2-DE patterns of both HO-8910/VEGF and HO-8910 cells were acquired. A total of 17 expressed differential proteins were identified, 8 proteins were upregulated (ACTB, TIM, PDIA3, PDIA1, DCTN2, KIC17, SIAS, and KIC10) and 9 downregulated (KIC18, GRP78, CAPG, PPIA, ROA2, LMNA, EZRI, ADRM1, and ENOA). Ultrastructure of VEGF-treated group showed more malignant characteristic compared with control group, an obvious increase in the number of cells penetrating the Matrigel membrane in VEGF-treated group (P?
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Characteristics of CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1-A20-NF-?B expression in T cell-acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Knowledge of the oncogenic signaling pathways of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) remains limited. Constitutive aberrant activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathway has been detected in various lymphoid malignancies and plays a key role in the development of these carcinomas. The zinc finger-containing protein, A20, is a central regulator of multiple NF-?B-activating signaling cascades. A20 is frequently inactivated by deletions and/or mutations in several B-and T-cell lymphoma subtypes. However, few A20 mutations and polymorphisms have been reported in T-ALL. Thus, it is of interest to analyze the expression characteristics of A20 and its regulating factors, including upstream regulators and the CBM complex, which includes CARMA1, BCL10, and MALT1.
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Efficient approach to electron-deficient 1,2,7,8-tetraazaperylene derivatives.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Using an efficient synthetic strategy, a novel class of 1,2-diazine-embedded perylenes, namely 1,2,7,8-tetraazaperylene derivatives, have been successfully synthesized. These molecules were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, optical spectroscopy, and electrochemistry. The low-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of these molecules suggests their potential as good electronic acceptors.
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RISK FACTORS FOR MORTALITY IN CHINESE PATIENTS ON CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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? Objective: The intent of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome and risk factors affecting mortality of the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients in a single peritoneal dialysis (PD) center over a period of 10years. ? Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients on PD from June 2001 to June 2011. The clinical and biochemical data were collected from the medical records. Clinical variables included gender, age at the start of PD, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), presence of diabetes mellitus and blood pressure. Biochemical variables included hemoglobin, urine volume, residual renal function (RRF), serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, comorbidities, and outcomes. Survival curves were made by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses to identify mortality risk factors were performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. ? Results: A total of 421 patients were enrolled, 269 of whom were male (63.9%). The mean age at the start of PD was 57.9 ± 14.8 years. Chronic glomerulonephritis was the most common cause of ESRD (39.4%). Estimation of patient survival by Kaplan-Meier was 92.5%, 80.2%, 74.4%, and 55.7% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Patient survival was associated with age (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.641 [1.027 - 2.622], p = 0.038), cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.731 [1.08 - 2.774], p = 0.023), hypertriglyceridemia (HR: 1.782 [1.11 - 2.858], p = 0.017) in the Cox proportional hazards model analysis. Estimation of technique survival by Kaplan-Meier was 86.7%, 68.8%, 55.7%, and 37.4% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. In the Cox proportional hazards model analysis, age (HR: 1.672 [1.176-2.377], p=0.004) and hypertriglyceridemia (HR: 1.511 [1.050-2.174], p = 0.026) predicted technique failure. ? Conclusion: The PD patients in our center exhibited comparable or even superior patient survival and technical survival rates, compared with reports from other centers in China and other countries.
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Reduction of AUF1-mediated follistatin mRNA decay during glucose starvation protects cells from apoptosis.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Follistatin (FST) performs several vital functions in the cells, including protection from apoptosis during stress. The expression of FST is up-regulated in response to glucose deprivation by an unknown mechanism. We herein showed that the induction of FST by glucose deprivation was due to an increase in the half-life of its mRNA. We further identified an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3'UTR of FST mRNA that mediated its decay. The expression of FST was elevated after knocking down AUF1 and reduced when AUF1 was further expressed. In vitro binding assays and RNA pull-down assays revealed that AUF1 interacted with FST mRNA directly via its ARE. During glucose deprivation, a majority of AUF1 shuttled from cytoplasm to nucleus, resulting in dissociation of AUF1 from FST mRNA and thus stabilization of FST mRNA. Finally, knockdown of AUF1 decreased whereas overexpression of AUF1 increased glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis. The apoptosis promoting effect of AUF1 was eliminated in FST expressing cells. Collectively, this study provided evidence that AUF1 is a negative regulator of FST expression and participates in the regulation of cell survival under glucose deprivation.
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[Analysis of ND4 gene mutations in acute myelogenous leukemia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To investigate the relationship of the mutational status of the ND4 gene and the clinical features of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients with ND4 mutations.
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Identification and quantification of shipping emissions in Bohai Rim, China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Rapid development of port and shipbuilding industry in China has badly affected the ambient air quality of coastal zone due to shipping emissions. A total of 60 ambient air samples were collected from background site of Tuoji Island in Bohai Sea strait. The air samples were analyzed for PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), inorganic elements, and water-soluble ions. The maximum concentration of PM2.5 was observed during spring (73.6 ?g·m(-3)) compared to winter (39.0 ?g·m(-3)) with mean of 54.6 ?g·m(-3). Back trajectory air mass analysis together with temporal distribution of vanadium (V) showed that V could be the typical tracer of shipping emissions at Tuoji Island. Furthermore, the ratios of vanadium to nickel (V/Ni), vanadium to lead (V/Pb) and vanadium to zinc (V/Zn) also suggest shipping emissions at Tuoji Island. The annual average primary PM2.5 estimate of shipping emissions was 0.65 ?g·m(-3) at Tuoji Island, accounting for 2.94% of the total primary PM2.5, with a maximum of 3.16% in summer and a minimum of 2.39% in autumn.
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Two-Dimensional Soft Nanomaterials: A Fascinating World of Materials.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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The discovery of graphene has triggered great interest in two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials for scientists in chemistry, physics, materials science, and related areas. In the family of newly developed 2D nanostructured materials, 2D soft nanomaterials, including graphene, Bx Cy Nz nanosheets, 2D polymers, covalent organic frameworks (COFs), and 2D supramolecular organic nanostructures, possess great advantages in light-weight, structural control and flexibility, diversity of fabrication approaches, and so on. These merits offer 2D soft nanomaterials a wide range of potential applications, such as in optoelectronics, membranes, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, sensing, biotechnology, etc. This review article provides an overview of the development of 2D soft nanomaterials, with special highlights on the basic concepts, molecular design principles, and primary synthesis approaches in the context.
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Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications.
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ZmCIPK21, a maize CBL-interacting kinase, enhances salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Salt stress represents an increasing threat to crop growth and yield in saline soil. In this study, we identified a maize calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase (CIPK), ZmCIPK21, which was primarily localized in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of cells and displayed enhanced expression under salt stress. Over-expression of ZmCIPK21 in wild-type Arabidopsis plants increased their tolerance to salt, as supported by the longer root lengths and improved growth. The downstream stress-response genes, including dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) genes were also activated in transgenic plants over-expressing ZmCIPK21. In addition, introduction of the transgenic ZmCIPK21 gene into the Arabidopsis mutant cipk1-2 rescued the salt-sensitive phenotype under high salt stress. Measurement of Na+ and K+ content in transgenic plants showed that over-expression of ZmCIPK21 decreased accumulation of Na+ and allowed retention of relatively high levels of K+, thereby enhancing plant tolerance to salt conditions.
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Immunohistochemical detection of RET proto-oncogene product in tumoral and nontumoral mucosae of gastric cancer.
Anal Quant Cytopathol Histpathol
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To detect RET (REarranged during Transfection) protein by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in gastric cancer.
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Integrated analysis of transcriptomes of cancer cell lines and patient samples reveals STK11/LKB1-driven regulation of cAMP phosphodiesterase-4D.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The recent proliferation of data on large collections of well-characterized cancer cell lines linked to therapeutic drug responses has made it possible to identify lineage- and mutation-specific transcriptional markers that can help optimize implementation of anticancer agents. Here, we leverage these resources to systematically investigate the presence of mutation-specific transcription markers in a wide variety of cancer lineages and genotypes. Sensitivity and specificity of potential transcriptional biomarkers were simultaneously analyzed in 19 cell lineages grouped into 228 categories based on the mutational genotypes of 12 cancer-related genes. Among a total of 1,455 category-specific expression patterns, the expression of cAMP phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D) with 11 isoforms, one of the PDE4(A-D) subfamilies, was predicted to be regulated by a mutant form of serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11)/liver kinase B1 (LKB1) present in lung cancer. STK11/LKB1 is the primary upstream kinase of adenine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Subsequently, we found that the knockdown of PDE4D gene expression inhibited proliferation of STK11-mutated lung cancer lines. Furthermore, challenge with a panel of PDE4-specific inhibitors was shown to selectively reduce the growth of STK11-mutated lung cancer lines. Thus, we show that multidimensional analysis of a well-characterized large-scale panel of cancer cell lines provides unprecedented opportunities for the identification of unexpected oncogenic mechanisms and mutation-specific drug targets.
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Permanent draft genome sequence of Bacillus flexus strain T6186-2, a multidrug-resistant bacterium isolated from a deep-subsurface oil reservoir.
Mar Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Previous studies suggest that antibiotic resistance genes have an ancient origin, which is not always linked to the use of antibiotics but can be enhanced by human activities. Bacillus flexus strain T6186-2 was isolated from the formation water sample of a deep-subsurface oil reservoir. Interestingly, antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that this strain is susceptible to kanamycin, however, resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, vancomycin, fosfomycin, fosmidomycin, tetracycline and teicoplanin. To explore our knowledge about the origins of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the relatively pristine environment, we sequenced the genome of B. flexus strain T6186-2 as a permanent draft. It represents the evidence for the existence of a reservoir of ARGs in nature among microbial populations from deep-subsurface oil reservoirs.
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Permanent draft genome sequence of Geobacillus thermocatenulatus strain GS-1.
Mar Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Geobacillus thermocatenulatus strain GS-1 is a thermophilic bacillus having a growth optimum at 60°C, capable of degrading alkanes. It was isolated from the formation water of a high-temperature deep oil reservoir in Qinghai oilfield, China. Here, we report the draft genome sequence with an estimated assembly size of 3.5Mb. A total of 3371 protein-coding sequences, including monooxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, fatty acid-CoA ligase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydrogenase, hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and thiolase, were detected in the genome, which are involved in the alkane degradation pathway. Our results may provide insights into the genetic basis of the adaptation of this strain to high-temperature oilfield ecosystems.
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Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5 promotes the accuracy of start codon recognition by regulating Pi release and conformational transitions of the preinitiation complex.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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eIF5 is the GTPase activating protein (GAP) for the eIF2 · GTP · Met-tRNAi (Met) ternary complex with a critical role in initiation codon selection. Previous work suggested that the eIF5 mutation G31R/SUI5 elevates initiation at UUG codons by increasing GAP function. Subsequent work implicated eIF5 in rearrangement of the preinitiation complex (PIC) from an open, scanning conformation to a closed state at AUG codons, from which Pi is released from eIF2 · GDP · Pi. To identify eIF5 functions crucial for accurate initiation, we investigated the consequences of G31R on GTP hydrolysis and Pi release, and the effects of intragenic G31R suppressors on these reactions, and on the partitioning of PICs between open and closed states. eIF5-G31R altered regulation of Pi release, accelerating it at UUG while decreasing it at AUG codons, consistent with its ability to stabilize the closed complex at UUG. Suppressor G62S mitigates both defects of G31R, accounting for its efficient suppression of UUG initiation in G31R,G62S cells; however suppressor M18V impairs GTP hydrolysis with little effect on PIC conformation. The strong defect in GTP hydrolysis conferred by M18V likely explains its broad suppression of Sui(-) mutations in numerous factors. We conclude that both of eIF5's functions, regulating Pi release and stabilizing the closed PIC conformation, contribute to stringent AUG selection in vivo.
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Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by an intravascular infection with parasitic Schistosoma haematobium worms. The adult worms typically migrate to the venous plexus of the human bladder and excrete eggs which the infected person passes in their urine. Chronic infection can cause substantial morbidity and long-term complications as the eggs become trapped in human tissues causing inflammation and fibrosis. We summarised evidence of drugs active against the infection. This is new edition of a review first published in 1997.
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Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of an autoparasitoid Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).
Micron
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a parasitoid utilized for biological control of Bemisia tabaci, with selection of prey aided by chemoreceptor organs. The morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla (chemoreceptors) of E. sophia were examined using Transmission electron micrographs. The total antennal length for E. sophia was 429.28±0.95 ?m for females and 437.19±8.21 for males, and each antennae was found to consist of seven sensilla of different types. Both sexes possessed sensilla chaetica, sensilla trichodea, basiconic capitate peg sensilla, multiporous grooved-surface placoid sensilla (MG-PS), uniporous rod-like sensilla, nonporous finger-like sensilla, and sensilla coeloconica. Transmission electron micrographs of longitudinal sections of female antennae showed that they were composed of fat body, cuticle, mesoscutello-metanotal muscles, neurons, and glandular tissue, and cross-sections of the basal MG-PS showed sensillar lymph cavities and dendrites. The MG-PSs were imbedded in an electron-dense mass with cuticular invaginations which acted as pores that connected to a central lumen. The possible function of each type of sensilla is discussed.
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Propofol inhibits inflammatory cytokine-mediated glutamate uptake dysfunction to alleviate learning/memory impairment in depressed rats undergoing electroconvulsive shock.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for major depression, but can result in memory impairment. Several studies have shown that anesthetic propofol can alleviate the impairment of memory induced by ECT. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of propofol and electroconvulsive shock (ECS, analog of ECT in animals) on hippocampal inflammatory cytokines and glutamate uptake in depressed rats. The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) procedure was adopted to establish a model of depression. Sixty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with the following assignments (n=12 for each group): group C: control group without treatment; group D: CUMS+sham ECS; group DE: CUMS+ECS; group DP: CUMS+propofol (80mg/kg, i.p.); group DPE: CUMS+propofol (80mg/kg, i.p.)+ECS. Sucrose preference test and Morris water maze were used to assess behavioral changes. Hippocampal glutamate levels were measured with high performance liquid chromatography and the expression levels of IL-1?, TNF-?, GLAST and GLT-1 was quantificational analyzed by real time PCR or Western Blotting. The results demonstrated that ECS increased the levels of IL-1? and TNF-?, down-regulated the expression of GLT-1, GLAST expression remains stable, heightened the concentration of glutamate in the hippocampus and aggravated learning and memory impairment of depressed rats. Propofol suppressed IL-1? and TNF-? production, up-regulated the expression of GLT-1, decreased the concentration of glutamate in the hippocampus and attenuated the impairment of learning and memory induced by ECS. Propofol alleviate the learning and memory impairment induced by ECS could be partly attributed to its anti-inflammatory effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain and Memory.
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[ISSR analysis for genetic polymorphism of Aconitum leucostomum from different habitats].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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To investigate the genetic diversities and variations of Aconitum leucostomum,and to supply essential characteristics for identifying Aconitum crude drugs.
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Radiofrequency ablation versus partial nephrectomy for clinical T1b renal cell carcinoma: long-term clinical and oncologic outcomes.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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To compare outcomes in patients treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and partial nephrectomy(PN) for clinical T1b(cT1b) renal cell carcinoma(RCC) .
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Genome sequence of Brevibacillus agri strain 5-2, isolated from the formation water of petroleum reservoir.
Mar Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Brevibacillus agri strain 5-2 was isolated from the formation water of a deep oil reservoir in Changqing Oilfield, China. This bacterium was found to have a capacity for degrading tetradecane, hexadecane and alkanesulfonate. To gain insights into its efficient metabolic pathway for degrading hydrocarbon and organosulfur compounds, here, we report the high quality draft genome of this strain. Two putative alkane 1-monooxygenases, one putative alkanesulfonate monooxygenase, one putative alkanesulfonate transporter, one putative sulfate permease and five putative sulfate transporters were identified in the draft genome. The genomic data of strain 5-2 may provide insights into the mechanism of microorganisms adapt to the petroleum reservoir after chemical flooding.
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Traditional Chinese medicine for stable angina pectoris via TCM pattern differentiation and TCM mechanism: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Stable angina pectoris is experienced as trans-sternal or retro-sternal pressure or pain that may radiate to the left arm, neck or back. Although available evidence relating to its effectiveness and mechanism are weak, traditional Chinese medicine is used as an alternative therapy for stable angina pectoris. We report a protocol of a randomized controlled trial using traditional Chinese medicine to investigate the effectiveness, mechanism and safety for patients with stable angina pectoris.
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Epitaxial Seeded Growth of Rare-Earth Nanocrystals with Efficient 800?nm Near-Infrared to 1525?nm Short-Wavelength Infrared Downconversion Photoluminescence for In?Vivo Bioimaging.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Novel ?-NaGdF4 /Na(Gd,Yb)F4 :Er/NaYF4 :Yb/NaNdF4 :Yb core/shell?1/shell?2/shell?3 (C/S1/S2/S3) multi-shell nanocrystals (NCs) have been synthesized and used as probes for in?vivo imaging. They can be excited by near-infrared (800?nm) radiation and emit short-wavelength infrared (SWIR, 1525?nm) radiation. Excitation at 800?nm falls into the "biological transparency window", which features low absorption by water and low heat generation and is considered to be the ideal excitation wavelength with the least impact on biological tissues. After coating with phospholipids, the water-soluble NCs showed good biocompatibility and low toxicity. With efficient SWIR emission at 1525?nm, the probe is detectable in tissues at depths of up to 18?mm with a low detection threshold concentration (5?nM for the stomach of nude mice and 100?nM for the stomach of SD rats). These results highlight the potential of the probe for the in?vivo monitoring of areas that are otherwise difficult to analyze.
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Dirac and Weyl superconductors in three dimensions.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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We introduce the concept of three-dimensional Dirac (Weyl) superconductors (SC), which have protected bulk fourfold (twofold) nodal points and surface Majorana arcs at zero energy. We provide a sufficient criterion for realizing them in centrosymmetric SCs with odd-parity pairing and mirror symmetry. Pairs of Dirac nodes appear in a mirror-invariant plane when the mirror winding number is nontrivial. Breaking mirror symmetry may gap Dirac nodes producing a topological SC. Each Dirac node evolves to a nodal ring when inversion-gauge symmetry is broken, whereas it splits into a pair of Weyl nodes when, and only when, time-reversal symmetry is broken.
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Time-reversal-invariant Z4 fractional Josephson effect.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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We study the Josephson junction mediated by the quantum spin Hall edge states and show that electron-electron interactions lead to a dissipationless fractional Josephson effect in the presence of time-reversal symmetry. Surprisingly, the periodicity is 8?, corresponding to a Josephson frequency eV/2?. We estimate the magnitude of interaction-induced many-body level splitting responsible for this effect and argue that it can be measured by using tunneling spectroscopy. For strong interactions we show that the Josephson effect is associated with the weak tunneling of charge e/2 quasiparticles between the superconductors. Our theory describes a fourfold ground state degeneracy that is similar to that of coupled "fractional" Majorana modes but is protected by time-reversal symmetry.
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Role of NLRP3 and NLRP1 inflammasomes signaling pathways in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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To investigate the role of NLRP3 and NLRP1 inflammasomes signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Combined detection of serum UL16-binding protein 2 and macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 improves early diagnosis and prognostic prediction of pancreatic cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. There is no effective serum biomarker for the early diagnosis of PC at present. Although serum UL16-binding protein 2 (ULBP2) and macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) levels are reported to be elevated in PC patients, the diagnostic and prognostic value of ULBP2 and MIC-1 alone or in combination remains unknown. The aim of the present case-control study was to compare the diagnostic value of ULBP2, MIC-1 and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in 359 serum samples, consisting of 152 cases of PC, 20 cases of pre-pancreatic cancer, 91 cases of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and 96 normal controls (NC). All patients were followed up for a median of 2 years. It was found that the serum levels of ULBP2, MIC-1 and CA19-9 were significantly higher in the PC patients compared with those in the NC group. In distinguishing PC from the CP, the highest sensitivity and specificity were ULBP2 (0.878) and CA19-9 (0.816), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of ULBP2 was 0.923, which was the highest of the three biomarkers. MIC-1 was the optimal choice for the diagnosis of early-stage PC (area under the curve, 0.831). Overall, MIC-1 in combination with ULBP2 improved the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating PC from CP and NC. In addition, a higher level of MIC-1 was correlated with a poorer prognosis, as calculated by the Kaplan-Meier test (P=0.039). Patients with serum MIC-1 levels of ?1,932 ng/ml had a median survival time of 15.62±2.44 months (mean ± standard deviation) vs. 18.66±2.43 months in patients with a lower level of MIC-1. Overall, combined detection of serum MIC-1 and ULBP2 improved the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating PC from CP and NC, and serum MIC-1 level alone was a predictor of survival in the patients with PC.
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Age-related changes of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters of the normal cervical spinal cord.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the cervical spinal cord (CSC) changes with age. However, previous studies only examined specific CSC areas.
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Historical sediment record and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from tidal flats of Haizhou Bay, China.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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The spatial and temporal variations and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment of tidal flat from Haizhou Bay, China were investigated. PCBs concentrations in surface sediments ranged from 1.33 to 6.27ngg(-1) dry weight. Low-chlorinated PCBs, dominated by the tri-PCB homologs, were identified as the prevalent contaminate of surface sediments. These results were in agreement with the fact that tri-PCB homologs are the dominant contaminants in China. In surface sediment, the highest level appeared in the estuary, and it decreased with distance from the Linhong River estuary. PCBs concentrations started to rise from the mid-1950s, and reached a maximum in 2005. PCBs in sediment might originate from surface runoff and discharges of local source as well as slight atmospheric deposition, based on PCA. Additionally, the PCBs levels in the sediments were considered to rarely pose hazard to the aquatic and human health, based on Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs).
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Quantification of heteroclitin D in rat plasma: validation of an LC/MS/MS method and its application in a preclinical pharmacokinetic study.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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A rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of heteroclitin D in rat plasma after using gambogic acid as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was done on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD column (30 × 2.1 mm, 3 µm) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-formic acid (80:20:0.1, v/v/v). The mass spectrometer worked with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode, using target ions at [M + H](+) m/z 483.3 for heteroclitin D and [M + H](+) m/z 629.3 for the IS. The standard curve was linear (R(2) ?0.995) over the concentration range 9.98-2080 ng/mL and had good back-calculated accuracy and precision. The intra- and interday precision and accuracy determined on three quality control samples (29.94, 166.4 and 1872 ng/mL) were ?12.8 and -8.9-3.6%, respectively. The extraction recovery was ?88.2% and the lower limit of quantification was 9.98 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to evaluate pharmacokinetics of heteroclitin D in Sprague-Dawley rats following a single intravenous bolus injection of 2.0 mg/kg heteroclitin. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Destabilization of akt promotes the death of myeloma cell lines.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Constitutive activation of Akt is believed to be an oncogenic signal in multiple myeloma and is associated with poor patient prognosis and resistance to available treatment. The stability of Akt proteins is regulated by phosphorylating the highly conserved turn motif (TM) of these proteins and the chaperone protein HSP90. In this study we investigate the antitumor effects of inhibiting mTORC2 plus HSP90 in myeloma cell lines. We show that chronic exposure of cells to rapamycin can inhibit mTORC2 pathway, and AKT will be destabilized by administration of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-geldanamycin (17-AAG). Finally, we show that the rapamycin synergizes with 17-AAG and inhibits myeloma cells growth and promotes cell death to a greater extent than either drug alone. Our studies provide a clinical rationale of use mTOR inhibitors and chaperone protein inhibitors in combination regimens for the treatment of human blood cancers.
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Piezoelectricity of single-atomic-layer MoS2 for energy conversion and piezotronics.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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The piezoelectric characteristics of nanowires, thin films and bulk crystals have been closely studied for potential applications in sensors, transducers, energy conversion and electronics. With their high crystallinity and ability to withstand enormous strain, two-dimensional materials are of great interest as high-performance piezoelectric materials. Monolayer MoS2 is predicted to be strongly piezoelectric, an effect that disappears in the bulk owing to the opposite orientations of adjacent atomic layers. Here we report the first experimental study of the piezoelectric properties of two-dimensional MoS2 and show that cyclic stretching and releasing of thin MoS2 flakes with an odd number of atomic layers produces oscillating piezoelectric voltage and current outputs, whereas no output is observed for flakes with an even number of layers. A single monolayer flake strained by 0.53% generates a peak output of 15 mV and 20 pA, corresponding to a power density of 2 mW m(-2) and a 5.08% mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency. In agreement with theoretical predictions, the output increases with decreasing thickness and reverses sign when the strain direction is rotated by 90°. Transport measurements show a strong piezotronic effect in single-layer MoS2, but not in bilayer and bulk MoS2. The coupling between piezoelectricity and semiconducting properties in two-dimensional nanomaterials may enable the development of applications in powering nanodevices, adaptive bioprobes and tunable/stretchable electronics/optoelectronics.
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Superlattice valley engineering for designer topological insulators.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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A topological insulator is a novel state of quantum matter, characterized by symmetry-protected Dirac interfacial states within its bulk gap. Tremendous effort has been invested into the search for topological insulators. To date, the discovery of topological insulators has been largely limited to natural crystalline solids. Therefore, it is highly desirable to tailor-make various topological states of matter by design, starting with but a few accessible materials or elements. Here, we establish that valley-dependent dimerization of Dirac surface states can be exploited to induce topological quantum phase transitions, in a binary superlattice bearing symmetry-unrelated interfacial Dirac states. This mechanism leads to a rich phase diagram and allows for rational design of strong topological insulators, weak topological insulators, and topological crystalline insulators. Our ab initio simulations further demonstrate this mechanism in [111] and [110] superlattices of calcium and tin tellurides. While our results reveal a remarkable phase diagram for the binary superlattice, the mechanism is a general route to design various topological states.
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AKT/GSK-3? regulates stability and transcription of snail which is crucial for bFGF-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of prostate cancer cells.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a pivotal role in the development of metastatic cancers. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is significantly elevated in metastatic prostate cancers, which has been mentioned mainly to induce EMT in normal cells. However, there is no description about bFGF induced EMT and its underlying mechanism in prostate cancer cells.
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Assessing Immunization Interventions in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Vaccination promotion strategies are recommended in Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) settings for eligible children at risk for under-immunization due to their low-income status.
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Sequential enrichment with titania-coated magnetic mesoporous hollow silica microspheres and zirconium arsenate-modified magnetic nanoparticles for the study of phosphoproteome of HL60 cells.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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As one of the most important types of post-translational modifications, reversible phosphorylation of proteins plays crucial roles in a large number of biological processes. However, owing to the relatively low abundance and dynamic nature of phosphorylation and the presence of the unphosphorylated peptides in large excess, phosphopeptide enrichment is indispensable in large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis. Metal oxides including titanium dioxide have become prominent affinity materials to enrich phosphopeptides prior to their analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the current study, we established a novel strategy, which encompassed strong cation exchange chromatography, sequential enrichment of phosphopeptides using titania-coated magnetic mesoporous hollow silica microspheres (TiO2/MHMSS) and zirconium arsenate-modified magnetic nanoparticles (ZrAs-Fe3O4@SiO2), and LC-MS/MS analysis, for the proteome-wide identification of phosphosites of proteins in HL60 cells. In total, we were able to identify 11,579 unique phosphorylation sites in 3432 unique proteins. Additionally, our results suggested that TiO2/MHMSS and ZrAs-Fe3O4@SiO2 are complementary in phosphopeptide enrichment, where the two types of materials displayed preferential binding of peptides carrying multiple and single phosphorylation sites, respectively.
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Mangiferin Attenuates Renal Fibrosis Through Down-Regulation of Osteopontin in Diabetic Rats.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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This study was designed to investigate the effects of mangiferin on renal fibrosis, osteopontin production, and inflammation in the kidney of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced through the single administration of streptozotocin (55?mg/kg, i.p.). Diabetic rats were treated with mangiferin (15, 30, and 60?mg/kg/day, i.g.) for 9?weeks. The kidney was fixed in 10% formalin for glomerulus fibrosis examination using Masson trichrome staining. Kidney and blood were obtained for assays of the associated biochemical parameters. Chronic mangiferin treatment prevented renal glomerulus fibrosis evidenced by decreases in Mason-stained positive area of glomeruli, protein expression of type IV collagen, and ?-smooth muscle actin in the kidney of diabetic rats, in comparison with decreases in mRNA and protein expression of osteopontin as well as protein expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and NF-?B p65 subunit in the renal cortex of diabetic rats. Moreover, mangiferin reduced the levels of interleukin 1? in both the serum and the kidney of diabetic rats. Our findings demonstrate that mangiferin prevents the renal glomerulus fibrosis of diabetic rats, which is realized through the suppression of osteopontin overproduction and inflammation likely via inactivation of NF-?B. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Is replacement of the supraclavicular fossa with the lower level classification based on magnetic resonance imaging beneficial in nasopharyngeal carcinoma?
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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To investigate the pattern of lymph node metastasis and treatment outcome after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and assess the possibility of replacing Ho's supraclavicular fossa (SCF) with the lower level (LL; cervical extension below caudal edge of cricoid cartilage) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a criterion for N3 disease.
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Symbiotic archaea in marine sponges show stability and host specificity in community structure and ammonia oxidation functionality.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Archaea associated with marine sponges are active and influence the nitrogen metabolism of sponges. However, we know little about their occurrence, specificity, and persistence. We aimed to elucidate the relative importance of host specificity and biogeographic background in shaping the symbiotic archaeal communities. We investigated these communities in sympatric sponges from the Mediterranean (Ircinia fasciculata and Ircinia oros, sampled in summer and winter) and from the Caribbean (Ircinia strobilina and Mycale laxissima). PCR cloning and sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes showed that the archaeal community composition and structure were different from that in seawater and varied among sponge species. We found that the communities were dominated by ammonia-oxidizing archaea closely related to Nitrosopumilus. The community in M. laxissima differed from that in Ircinia spp., including the sympatric sponge I. strobilina; yet, geographical clusters within Ircinia spp. were observed. Whereas archaeal phylotypes in Ircinia spp. were persistent and belong to 'sponge-enriched' clusters, archaea in M. laxissima were closely related with those from diverse habitats (i.e. seawater and sediments). For all four sponge species, the expression of the archaeal amoA gene was confirmed. Our results indicate that host-specific processes, such as host ecological strategy and evolutionary history, control the sponge-archaeal communities.
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Uncertainties of 4-dimensional computed tomography-based tumor motion measurement for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy.
Pract Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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To evaluate how well tumor motion measured prior to treatment based on 4-dimensional computer tomography (4DCT) reflects actual tumor motion during beam-on throughout the course of treatment.
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Temporal changes in the diazotrophic bacterial communities associated with Caribbean sponges Ircinia stroblina and Mycale laxissima.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sponges that harbor microalgal or, cyanobacterial symbionts may benefit from photosynthetically derived carbohydrates, which are rich in carbon but devoid of nitrogen, and may therefore encounter nitrogen limitation. Diazotrophic communities associated with two Caribbean sponges, Ircinia strobilina and Mycale laxissima were studied in a time series during which three individuals of each sponge were collected in four time points (5:00 AM, 12:00 noon, 5:00 PM, 10:00 PM). nifH genes were successfully amplified from the corresponding gDNA and cDNA pools and sequenced by high throughput 454 amplicon sequencing. In both sponges, over half the nifH transcripts were classified as from cyanobacteria and the remainder from heterotrophic bacteria. We found various groups of bacteria actively expressing the nifH gene during the entire day-night cycle, an indication that the nitrogen fixation potential was fully exploited by different nitrogen fixing bacteria groups associated with their hosts. This study showed for the first time the dynamic changes in the activity of the diazotrophic bacterial communities in marine sponges. Our study expands understanding of the diazotrophic groups that contribute to the fixed nitrogen pool in the benthic community. Sponge bacterial community-associated diazotrophy may have an important impact on the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle in the coral reef ecosystem.
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Mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescence: a case report and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mesothelial/monocytic incidental cardiac excrescence (MICE) is a rare and distinctive benign lesion often found during cardiac valve replacement. To date, 43 cases have been reported in the English literature. This lesion is important because of the potential for confusion with primary or metastatic malignancy. We report a case of MICE in a 47-year-old Chinese man with rheumatic heart disease whose MICE was discovered during mitral and aortic valve replacement. Histopathological examination of the lesion combined with immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of MICE.
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Potentiated Interaction between Ineffective Doses of Budesonide and Formoterol to Control the Inhaled Cadmium-Induced Up-Regulation of Metalloproteinases and Acute Pulmonary Inflammation in Rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The anti-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids are well known but their protective effects exerted with a low potency against heavy metals-induced pulmonary inflammation remain unclear. In this study, a model of acute pulmonary inflammation induced by a single inhalation of cadmium in male Sprague-Dawley rats was used to investigate whether formoterol can improve the anti-inflammatory effects of budesonide. The cadmium-related inflammatory responses, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, were evaluated. Compared to the values obtained in rats exposed to cadmium, pretreatment of inhaled budesonide (0.5 mg/15 ml) elicited a significant decrease in total cell and neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) associated with a significant reduction of MMP-9 activity which was highly correlated with the number of inflammatory cells in BALF. Additionally, cadmium-induced lung injuries characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration within alveoli and the interstitium were attenuated by the pre-treatment of budesonide. Though the low concentration of budesonide (0.25 mg/15 ml) exerted a very limited inhibitory effects in the present rat model, its combination with an inefficient concentration of formoterol (0.5 mg/30 ml) showed an enhanced inhibitory effect on neutrophil and total cell counts as well as on the histological lung injuries associated with a potentiation of inhibition on the MMP-9 activity. In conclusion, high concentration of budesonide alone could partially protect the lungs against cadmium exposure induced-acute neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation via the inhibition of MMP-9 activity. The combination with formoterol could enhance the protective effects of both drugs, suggesting a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of heavy metals-induced lung diseases.
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Photostimulable near-infrared persistent luminescent nanoprobes for ultrasensitive and longitudinal deep-tissue bio-imaging.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In vivo fluorescence imaging suffers from suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio and shallow detection depth, which is caused by the strong tissue autofluorescence under constant external excitation and the scattering and absorption of short-wavelength light in tissues. Here we address these limitations by using a novel type of optical nanoprobes, photostimulable LiGa5O8:Cr(3+) near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence nanoparticles, which, with very-long-lasting NIR persistent luminescence and unique photo-stimulated persistent luminescence (PSPL) capability, allow optical imaging to be performed in an excitation-free and hence, autofluorescence-free manner. LiGa5O8:Cr(3+) nanoparticles pre-charged by ultraviolet light can be repeatedly (>20 times) stimulated in vivo, even in deep tissues, by short-illumination (~15 seconds) with a white light-emitting-diode flashlight, giving rise to multiple NIR PSPL that expands the tracking window from several hours to more than 10 days. Our studies reveal promising potential of these nanoprobes in cell tracking and tumor targeting, exhibiting exceptional sensitivity and penetration that far exceed those afforded by conventional fluorescence imaging.
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Comparative metabolite profiling of two rice genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance at the seedling stage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rice is sensitive to salt stress, especially at the seedling stage, with rice varieties differing remarkably in salt tolerance (ST). To understand the physiological mechanisms of ST, we investigated salt stress responses at the metabolite level.
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[Adsorption characteristics of the antibiotic sulfanilamide onto rice husk ash].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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Under different conditions of initial rice husk ash (RHA) dosage, oscillating temperature, oscillating frequency and solution pH, the adsorption characteristics of sulfanilamide on RHA with the change of time and its adsorption kinetics were investigated. RHA was characterized by SEM and FTIR before and after sulfanilamide adsorption. The results indicated that the adsorption characteristics of sulfanilamide on RHA was influenced by RHA dosage, oscillating temperature, oscillating frequency and solution pH. Within the RHA dosing range (0. 1-2.0 g.L-1) in this experiment, the optimal temperature for the adsorption was 25C , and with the increase of RHA dosage, the removal efficiency of sulfanilamide increased, the time required to reach adsorption equilibrium was shortened and the adsorptive quantity of sulfanilamide by per unit mass of RHA decreased. A high oscillating frequency was used to ensure the adsorption effect when the RHA concentration was high. Strong acidic and strong alkaline conditions were conducive to the adsorption of sulfanilamide. The analysis of adsorption dynamics showed that for the adsorption process with high RHA dosage ( >or= 1.0 g.L-1), the pseudo-second-order model fitted the adsorption behavior well, and the process was controlled by physical and chemical adsorption. Intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process was controlled by both membrane diffusion and internal diffusion, and the influence of the former became more obvious with the increase of the adsorbent concentration. Both the SEM and FTIR spectra proved the effective adsorption of sulfanilamide by RHA.
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[Suppression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation on in vitro maturation, fertilization and developmental competence of oocytes].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To investigate the roles of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development.
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Effects of NOS1AP rs12742393 Polymorphism on Repaglinide Response in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Pharmacotherapy
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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To investigate the associations of NOS1AP rs12742393 polymorphism with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and repaglinide therapeutic efficacy in Chinese patients with T2DM.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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