JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dynamic particle tracking via temporal focusing multiphoton microscopy with astigmatism imaging.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A three-dimensional (3D) single fluorescent particle tracking strategy based on temporal focusing multiphoton excitation microscopy (TFMPEM) combined with astigmatism imaging is proposed for delivering nanoscale-level axial information that reveals 3D trajectories of single fluorospheres in the axially-resolved multiphoton excitation volume without z-axis scanning. Whereas other scanning spatial focusing multiphoton excitation schemes induce optical trapping interference, temporal focusing multiphoton excitation produces widefield illumination with minimum optical trapping force on the fluorospheres. Currently, the lateral and axial positioning resolutions of the dynamic particle tracking approach are about 14 nm and 21 nm in standard deviation, respectively. Furthermore, the motion behavior and diffusion coefficients of fluorospheres in glycerol solutions with different concentrations are dynamically measured at a frame rate up to 100 Hz. This TFMPEM with astigmatism imaging holds great promise for exploring dynamic molecular behavior deep inside biotissues via its superior penetration, reduced trapping effect, fast frame rate, and nanoscale-level positioning.
Related JoVE Video
Systemic sclerosis and the risk of tuberculosis.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pulmonary involvement is common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and this condition causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Disrupted immunity from the disease or associated medication may render such patients subject to tuberculosis (TB) infection. However, the relationship between SSc and TB has not yet been investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Nonlinear structured-illumination enhanced temporal focusing multiphoton excitation microscopy with a digital micromirror device.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, the light diffraction of temporal focusing multiphoton excitation microscopy (TFMPEM) and the excitation patterning of nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy (NSIM) can be simultaneously and accurately implemented via a single high-resolution digital micromirror device. The lateral and axial spatial resolutions of the TFMPEM are remarkably improved through the second-order NSIM and projected structured light, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the lateral and axial resolutions are enhanced from 397 nm to 168 nm (2.4-fold) and from 2.33 ?m to 1.22 ?m (1.9-fold), respectively, in full width at the half maximum. Furthermore, a three-dimensionally rendered image of a cytoskeleton cell featuring ~25 nm microtubules is improved, with other microtubules at a distance near the lateral resolution of 168 nm also able to be distinguished.
Related JoVE Video
Galectin-3 promotes HIV-1 budding via association with Alix and Gag p6.
Glycobiology
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Galectin-3 has been reported to regulate the functions of a number of immune cell types. We previously reported that galectin-3 is translocated to immunological synapses in T cells upon T-cell receptor engagement, where it associates with ALG-2-interacting protein X (Alix). Alix is known to coordinate with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) to promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virion release. We hypothesized that galectin-3 plays a role in HIV-1 viral budding. Cotransfection of cells of the Jurkat T line with galectin-3 and HIV-1 plasmids resulted in increased HIV-1 budding, and suppression of galectin-3 expression by RNAi in Hut78 and primary CD4+ T cells led to reduced HIV-1 budding. We used immunofluorescence microscopy to observe the partial colocalization of galectin-3, Alix and Gag in HIV-1-infected cells. Results from co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that galectin-3 expression promotes Alix-Gag p6 association, whereas the results of Alix knockdown suggest that galectin-3 promotes HIV-1 budding through Alix. HIV-1 particles released from galectin-3-expressing cells acquire the galectin-3 protein in an Alix-dependent manner, with proteins primarily residing inside the virions. We also found that the galectin-3 N-terminal domain interacts with the proline-rich region of Alix. Collectively, these results suggest that endogenous galectin-3 facilitates HIV-1 budding by promoting the Alix-Gag p6 association.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of nucleosome unwrapping within chromatin fibers using magnetic tweezers.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nucleosomal arrays fold into chromatin fibers and the higher-order folding of chromatin plays a strong regulatory role in all processes involving DNA access, such as transcription and replication. A fundamental understanding of such regulation requires insight into the folding properties of the chromatin fiber in molecular detail. Despite this, the structure and the mechanics of chromatin fibers remain highly disputed. Single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments have the potential to provide such insight, but interpretation of the data has been hampered by the large variations in experimental force-extension traces. Here we explore the possibility that chromatin fibers are composed of both single-turn and fully wrapped histone octamers. By characterizing the force-dependent behavior of in vitro reconstituted chromatin fibers and reanalyzing existing data, we show the unwrapping of the outer turn of nucleosomal DNA at 3 pN. We present a model composed of two freely-jointed chains, which reveals that nucleosomes within the chromatin fiber show identical force-extension behavior to mononucleosomes, indicating that nucleosome-nucleosome interactions are orders-of-magnitude smaller than previously reported and therefore can be overcome by thermal fluctuations. We demonstrate that lowering the salt concentration externally increases the wrapping energy significantly, indicative of the electrostatic interaction between the wrapped DNA and the histone octamer surface. We propose that the weak interaction between nucleosomes could allow easy access to nucleosomal DNA, while DNA unwrapping from the histone core could provide a stable yet dynamic structure during DNA maintenance.
Related JoVE Video
Latent TB infection in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients - A multicenter prospective observational study.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung cancer and tuberculosis (TB) share common risk factors and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Coexistence of lung cancer and TB were reported in previous studies, with uncertain pathogenesis. The association between lung cancer and latent TB infection (LTBI) remains to be explored.
Related JoVE Video
Consensus standards for introductory e-learning courses in human participants research ethics.
J Med Ethics
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper reports the results of a workshop held in January 2013 to begin the process of establishing standards for e-learning programmes in the ethics of research involving human participants that could serve as the basis of their evaluation by individuals and groups who want to use, recommend or accredit such programmes. The standards that were drafted at the workshop cover the following topics: designer/provider qualifications, learning goals, learning objectives, content, methods, assessment of participants and assessment of the course. The authors invite comments on the draft standards and eventual endorsement of a final version by all stakeholders.
Related JoVE Video
Plasma epidermal growth factor receptor mutation analysis and possible clinical applications in pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients treated with erlotinib.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tumor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis is significant for making treatment decisions for metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma. However, less than half of patients have adequate tumor samples for mutation analysis. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the lungs who were due to receive erlotinib treatment were included in the present study. Tumor EGFR mutation status was analyzed using DNA sequencing. Plasma specimens from the patients were collected prior to erlotinib treatment. The plasma-free DNA EGFR mutation status was analyzed using the PCR clamp method. A total of 54 consecutive patients were included in the study. The plasma-free DNA EGFR mutation status of the 54 patients was analyzed. Only 30 patients had adequate tumor samples for EGFR analysis, including 15 with activating mutations (exon 19 deletions or L858R). EGFR-activating mutations were detected in the plasma-free DNA in 25 of 54 patients. The response rate was 86.7 and 33.3% in patients with and without tumor activating mutations, respectively (p=0.002). The response rate was 68 and 31% based on the patients plasma-free DNA EGFR mutation status, respectively (p=0.013). No significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) was observed between patients with and without EGFR-activating mutations, according to data from tumor tissue or plasma-free DNA analysis, although the median PFS time was longer for those patients with EGFR-activating mutations in plasma samples. Plasma EGFR mutation analysis is useful for adenocarcinoma patients who have no or inadequate tumor samples available for EGFR examination. Patients with plasma EGFR-activating mutations had an improved response rate and a statistically insignificant longer PFS.
Related JoVE Video
Investigation of the growth of focal adhesions using protein nanoarrays fabricated by nanocontact printing using size tunable polymeric nanopillars.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here we describe a simple approach to create various sizes of protein nanoarrays for the investigation of cell adhesion. Using a combination of nanosphere lithography, oxygen plasma treatment, deep etching and nanomolding processes, well-ordered polymeric nanopillar arrays have been fabricated with diameters in the range of 50-600 nm. These nanopillar arrays were used as stamps for nanocontact printing to create fibronectin nanoarrays, which were used to study the size dependent formation of focal adhesion. It was found that cells can adhere and spread on fibronectin nanoarrays with a fibronectin pattern as small as 50 nm. It was also found that the average size of focal adhesion decreased as the size of the fibronectin pattern was reduced.
Related JoVE Video
Targeted nuclear delivery using peptide-coated quantum dots.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Core/shell quantum dots (CdSe/Zns) conjugated with various nuclear localization signaling (NLS) peptides, which could facilitate the transportation of quantum dots across the plasma membrane into the nucleus, have been utilized to investigate the uptake mechanism of targeted delivery. Because of their brightness and photostability, it was possible to trace the trajectories of individual quantum dots in living cells using both confocal and total internal reflection microscopes. We found that, when the quantum dots were added to a cell culture, the peptide-coated quantum dots entered the cell nucleus while the uncoated quantum dots remained in the cytoplasm. At 8 nM, most of the peptide coated quantum dots were found in the cytoplasm due to aggregation. However, at a lower concentration (0.08 nM), approximately 25% of the NLS peptide-coated quantum dots entered the cell nucleus. We also found that some quantum dots without NLS coating could also enter the nucleus, suggesting that the size of the quantum dots may play an important role in such a process.
Related JoVE Video
Different efficacies of erlotinib and gefitinib in taiwanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a retrospective multicenter study.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used as effective first-line and salvage therapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in East Asia. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of gefitinib and erlotinib in Taiwanese patients with advanced NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
Exploring the formation of focal adhesions on patterned surfaces using super-resolution imaging.
Small
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The formation of focal adhesions on various sizes of fibronectin patterns, ranging from 200 ?m to 250 nm, was systematically investigated by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and super-resolution imaging. It was found that cells adhered to and spread on these micro/nanopatterns, forming focal adhesions. On a micrometer scale the shape of the focal adhesions was elongated. However, on the nanometer scale, the shape of focal adhesions became dotlike. To further explore the distribution of focal adhesion proteins formed on surfaces, a localization-based super-resolution imaging technique was employed in order to determine the position and density of vinculin proteins. A characteristic distance of 50 nm was found between vinculin molecules in the focal adhesions, which did not depend on the size of the fibronectin nanopatterns. This distance was found to be crucial for the formation of focal adhesions. In addition, the density of vinculin at the focal adhesions formed on the nanopatterns increased as the pattern size decreased. The density of the protein was found to be 425 ± 247, 584 ± 302, and 703 ± 305 proteins ?m(-2) on the 600, 400, and 250 nm fibronectin patterns respectively. Whereas 226 ± 77 proteins ?m(-2) was measured for the matured focal adhesions on homogeneous fibronectin coated substrates. The increase in vinculin density implies that an increase in mechanical load was applied to the focal adhesions formed on the smaller nanopatterns.
Related JoVE Video
A phase II randomized trial of gefitinib alone or with tegafur/uracil treatment in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma who had failed previous chemotherapy.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tegafur/uracil (UFT) is suitable for metronomic chemotherapy because of its underlying antiangiogenesis mechanism. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of adding daily oral UFT to gefitinib treatment in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma who had failed previous chemotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Localization imaging using blinking quantum dots.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The blinking phenomena of the quantum dots have been utilized in the super-resolution localization microscopy to map out the locations of individual quantum dots on a total internal reflection microscope. Our result indicated that the reconstructed image of quantum dots agreed with the topographic image measured by atomic force microscopy. Because of the superior optical properties of the quantum dots, the high localization resolution can be achieved in the shorter acquisition time with larger detected photon numbers. When the cells were labeled with quantum dots, the sub-cellular structures could be clearly seen in the reconstructed images taken by a commercial microscope without using complicated optical systems, special photo-switchable dye pairs or photo-activated fluorescence proteins.
Related JoVE Video
Development of lipid targeting Raman probes for in vivo imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A simple, sensitive, and highly specific lipid targeting Raman probe (Nile red coated silver nanoparticles) has been developed to image living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our idea of imaging lipids in C. elegans is to combine the specificity of the fluorescent dye, Nile red, and the highly enhanced Raman scattering on the silver nanoparticles. Our strategy involves the fabrication of a lipid targeting probe, which is incorporated into the intracellular intestinal granules of C. elegans by incubating these worms in the solution containing Raman probes, resulting in an uptake and subsequent incorporation of these Raman probes into the intestinal granule, thus allowing fast visualization of lipid droplets through a conventional confocal imaging technique.
Related JoVE Video
Surface plasmonic effects of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have systematically explored how plasmonic effects influence the characteristics of polymer photovoltaic devices (OPVs) incorporating a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). We blended gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) into the anodic buffer layer to trigger localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), which enhanced the performance of the OPVs without dramatically sacrificing their electrical properties. Steady state photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed a significant increase in fluorescence intensity, which we attribute to the increased light absorption in P3HT induced by the LSPR. As a result, the rate of generation of excitons was enhanced significantly. Furthermore, dynamic PL measurements revealed that the LSPR notably reduced the lifetime of photogenerated excitons in the active blend, suggesting that interplay between the surface plasmons and excitons facilitated the charge transfer process. This phenomenon reduced the recombination level of geminate excitons and, thereby, increased the probability of exciton dissociation. Accordingly, both the photocurrents and fill factors of the OPV devices were enhanced significantly. The primary origin of this improved performance was local enhancement of the electromagnetic field surrounding the Au NPs. The power conversion efficiency of the OPV device incorporating the Au NPs improved to 4.24% from a value of 3.57% for the device fabricated without Au NPs.
Related JoVE Video
Third-line or fourth-line chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with relatively good performance status.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our aim here was to explore treatment efficacy of pemetrexed and docetaxel in non-small-cell lung cancer patients who had failed previous chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Polymeric nanopillar arrays for cell traction force measurements.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper reports the development of a novel force measurement device based on polymeric nanopillar arrays. The device was fabricated by a process combining nanosphere lithography, oxygen plasma treatment, deep etching and nano-molding. Well-ordered polymeric nanopillar arrays with various diameters and aspect ratios were fabricated and used as cell culture substrates. Cell traction forces were measured by the deflection of the nanopillars. Since the location of the nanopillars can be monitored at all times, this device allows for the measurement of the evolution of adhesion forces over time.
Related JoVE Video
Rapid induction of orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma in immune-competent rats by non-invasive ultrasound-guided cells implantation.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The fact that prognoses remain poor in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma highlights the demand for suitable animal models to facilitate the development of anti-cancer medications. This study employed a relatively non-invasive approach to establish an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model in immune-competent rats. This was done by ultrasound-guided implantation of cancer cells and the model was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of short-term and low-dose epirubicin chemotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Monitoring the 3D nanostructures of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells using confocal lifetime imaging.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, the exciton lifetime images within the photoactive layers of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are revealed by confocal optical microscopy combined with the fluorescence module. The images reveal that the active layers during slow solvent evaporation provide 3D pathways for charge transport and the concentration gradient through the film which reflects the better cell performance. This technique offers a great help to investigate the 3D optical-physical property without destroying the blends.
Related JoVE Video
Second-line therapy for elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer who failed previous chemotherapy is as effective as for younger patients.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It was found that second-line or thereafter therapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who failed previous chemotherapy yielded a modest survival benefit. However, whether elderly patients (> or =70 years) benefit and are as suitable for salvage therapy as nonelderly patients (<70 years) are unknown. Whether epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) is more favorable than chemotherapeutic agents as a salvage therapy agent in elderly patients with NSCLC is also undetermined.
Related JoVE Video
10 years of tension on chromatin: results from single molecule force spectroscopy.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The compact, yet dynamic organization of chromatin plays an essential role in regulating gene expression. Although the static structure of chromatin fibers has been studied extensively, the controversy about the higher order folding remains. In the past ten years a number of studies have addressed chromatin folding with single molecule force spectroscopy. By manipulating chromatin fibers individually, the mechanical properties of the fibers were quantified with piconewton and nanometer accuracy. Here, we review the results of force induced chromatin unfolding and compare the differences between experimental conditions and single molecule manipulation techniques like force and position clamps. From these studies, five major features appeared upon forced extension of chromatin fibers: the elastic stretching of chromatins higher order structure, the breaking of internucleosomal contacts, unwrapping of the first turn of DNA, unwrapping of the second turn of DNA, and the dissociation of histone octamers. These events occur sequentially at the increasing force. Resolving force induced structural changes of chromatin fibers at the single molecule level will help to provide a physical understanding of processes involving chromatin that occur in vivo and will reveal the mechanical constraints that are relevant for processing and maintenance of DNA in eukaryotes.
Related JoVE Video
Revealing the spatial distribution of the site enhancement for the surface enhanced Raman scattering on the regular nanoparticle arrays.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The spatial distribution of the site enhancement for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on the regular nanoparticle arrays has been investigated by the confocal Raman microscopy. It was found that the spatial distribution of the Raman signals on the well-ordered nanoparticle arrays was very inhomogeneous and concentrated on the defects of the nanoparticle arrays. The SERS signals were also observed to depend on the thickness of silver film and the defect density. It has been demonstrated that the number of SERS active sites can be increased ten folds by trimming the size of nanoparticles using oxygen plasma.
Related JoVE Video
White-light emission from an upconverted emission with an organic triplet sensitizer.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An energy upconversion system based on triplet-triplet annihilation exploiting an organic triplet sensitizer is devised and has achieved a white-light emission with a low power laser excitation.
Related JoVE Video
Single-molecule force spectroscopy reveals a highly compliant helical folding for the 30-nm chromatin fiber.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The compaction of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin has been implicated in the regulation of all DNA processes. To unravel the higher-order folding of chromatin, we used magnetic tweezers and probed the mechanical properties of single 197-bp repeat length arrays of 25 nucleosomes. At forces up to 4 pN, the 30-nm fiber stretches like a Hookian spring, resulting in a three-fold extension. Together with a high nucleosome-nucleosome stacking energy, this points to a solenoid as the underlying topology of the 30-nm fiber. Unexpectedly, linker histones do not affect the length or stiffness of the fiber but stabilize its folding. Fibers with a nucleosome repeat length of 167 bp are stiffer, consistent with a two-start helical arrangement. The observed high compliance causes extensive thermal breathing, which forms a physical basis for the balance between DNA condensation and accessibility.
Related JoVE Video
Antimicrobial drug-resistant microbes associated with hospitalized community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia: a multi-center study in Taiwan.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) may be caused by potential antimicrobial drug-resistant (PADR) microbes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidences and risk factors associated with PADR microbes observed in patients with pneumonia occurring outside the hospital setting in Taiwan.
Related JoVE Video
Hybrid contact and interfacial adhesion on well-defined periodic hierarchical pillars.
Nanoscale
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herein, we describe a simple fabrication procedure for creating artificial hierarchical micro/nanopillars on silicon substrates that allows an effective, precise control of the interfacial adhesion and surface hydrophobicity. These well-defined hierarchical micro/nanostructures have four possible wetting states: Cassie-Cassie (C-C), Cassie-Wenzel (C-W), Wenzel-Cassie (W-C) and Wenzel-Wenzel (W-W). By controlling the critical height of the micro/nanopillars, it is possible to fabricate hierarchical micro/nanostructures in these four states. Thus, the hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces proposed and fabricated in this study are promising for mimicking either lotus leaves with low adhesion or rose petals with high adhesion.
Related JoVE Video
Development of chitosan oligosaccharide-modified gold nanorods for in vivo targeted delivery and noninvasive imaging by NIR irradiation.
Bioconjug. Chem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present study, we demonstrate the synthesis and applications of multifunctional gold nanorod-based probes for specific targeting and noninvasive imaging based on localized heating generated by gold nanorods after NIR irradiation. The structural design of the probe consists of MUA (11-mercaptoundecanoic acid)-capped gold nanorods covalently linked with low-molecular-weight chitosan oligosaccharide (M(w) ~5000) via carbodiimide (EDC) coupling agent. This surface modification is performed for complete replacement of toxic CTAB (hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium chloride) and acid-responsive delivery of gold nanorods in acidic environment as known to be present at tumor surrounding areas. The resulting chitosan oligosaccharide-modified gold nanorods (CO-GNRs) were further conjugated with tumor targeting monoclonal antibody against EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) to provide localized targeting functionality owing to the overexpression of EGFR in human oral adenosquamous carcinoma cell line CAL 27. Initial in vitro and in vivo toxicity assessments indicated that CO-GNRs did not induce any significant toxicity and are thus suitable for biological applications. Furthermore, selective targeting and accumulation of CO-GNRs were observed in vitro via two-photon luminescence imaging studies in CAL 27, which was also observed through in vivo targeting studies performed via NIR (near-infrared) laser irradiation in CAL 27 xenografts of BALB/c nude mice. Hence, the CO-GNRs that we have developed are biocompatible and nontoxic and can be a potential candidate for in vivo targeted delivery, noninvasive imaging based on localized hyperthermia, and photothermal-related therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of a novel function of the clathrin-coated structure at the plasma membrane in facilitating GM-CSF receptor-mediated activation of JAK2.
Cell Cycle
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is well known that ligand binding to the high-affinity GM-CSF receptor (GMR) activates JAK2. However, how and where this event occurs in a cellular environment remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that clathrin- but not lipid raft-mediated endocytosis is crucial for GMR signaling. Knockdown expression of clathrin heavy chain or intersectin 2 (ITSN2) attenuated GMR-mediated activation of JAK2, whereas inhibiting clathrin-coated pits or plagues to bud off the membrane by the dominant-negative mutant of dynamin enhanced such event. Moreover, unlike the wild-type receptor, an ITSN2-non-binding mutant of GMR defective in targeting to clathrin-coated pits or plagues [collectively referred to as clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) here] failed to activate JAK2 at such locations. Additional experiments demonstrate that ligand treatment not only enhanced JAK2/GMR association at CCSs, but also induced a conformational change of JAK2 which is required for JAK2 to be activated by CCS-localized CK2. Interestingly, ligand-independent activation of the oncogenic mutant of JAK2 (JAK2V617F) also requires the targeting of this mutant to CCSs. But JAK2V617F seems to be constitutively in an open conformation for CK2 activation. Together, this study reveals a novel functional role of CCSs in GMR signaling and the oncogenesis of JAK2V617F.
Related JoVE Video
The impact of development of population-based study in the biomedical field on laws and regulations: a cross-strait experience on biobank development.
J Int Bioethique
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Together with the completion of the Human Genome Project, biomedical research has marched into the "Post-Genomic Era." In order to take advantage of this extracted gene related information extensively and precisely so as to realize mans biological phenomena as well as the mechanism of pathogenesis, consequentially, a large scale sample collection of different geological areas and/or ethnic groups becomes necessary for the future population based genetic research of a country and, in turn, the construction of population-based genetic database (Biobank). In recent years, both mainland China and Taiwan have not only made great progress in information and computation technologies, but have also gradually taken a close look into the quality of medicine delivery. Thus, it becomes unavoidable for both sides to create each ones population-based genetic databases (Biobank). Theoretically speaking, the Biobank development shall benefit the study on the correlation between genes and disease and also the solution for disease treatment as well. At the same time, medical diagnostic technology has also been significantly improved. It is believable that the population-based genetic database might be utilized to promote medical quality and to reduce the cost of public health delivery. Further; in the near future, it might become the "raw materials "for medical research application. However when taking promotion of public welfare as the premises for a Biobank development, the severe and multi challenge occurred against the traditional legal rules in terms of the privacy protection, public trust development, the compliance of informed consent principle, the implementation of benefit-sharing doctrine and the possible discrimination concern about the population/participants selection and some other ELSI issues. In this paper, the major legal issues encountered by the Biobank development will first be reviewed accompanied by the background information concerning the Biobank development scenario crossing the Taiwan Strait. Also, mainly following the realm of comparative policy or legal approaches, the paper learning from the fruits of this comparative study, tries to propose some recommendations for future legislative consideration by both mainland China and Taiwan. Its been this authors wish that, when establishing a large scale population based Biobank, the promotion of public trust shall be placed as the primary goal together with the emphasis on supporting publicity and transparency on the administrative practices, so as to encourage the public participation in observing the principle of altruism and, in turn, benefit the future biomedicine development.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis of tunable and multifunctional Ni-doped near-infrared QDs for cancer cell targeting and cellular sorting.
Bioconjug. Chem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here, we report the facile preparation of tunable magnetic Ni-doped near-infrared (NIR) quantum dots (MNIR-QDs) as an efficient probe for targeting, imaging, and cellular sorting applications. We synthesized the MNIR-QDs via a hot colloidal synthesis approach to yield monodisperse and tunable QDs. These hydrophobic QDs were structurally and compositionally characterized and further functionalized with amino-PEG and carboxyl-PEG to improve their biocompatibility. Since QDs are known to be toxic due to the presence of cadmium, we have evaluated the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of our surface-functionalized MNIR-QDs. Our results revealed that surface-functionalized MNIR-QDs did not exhibit significant toxicity at the concentrations used in the experiments and are therefore suitable for biological applications. For further in vitro applications, we covalently linked folic acid to the surface of amino-PEG-coated MNIR-QDs through NHS chemistry to target the folate receptors largely present in the HeLa cells to demonstrate the specific targeting and magnetic behavior of these MNIR-QDs. Improved specificity has been observed with treatment of HeLa cells with the folic acid-linked amino PEG-coated MNIR QDs (FA-PEG-MNIR-QDs) compared to the one without folic acid. Since the synthesized probe has magnetic property, we have also successfully demonstrated sorting between the cells which have taken up the probe with the use of a magnet. Our findings strongly suggest that these functionalized MNIR-QDs can be a potential probe for targeting, cellular sorting, and bioimaging applications.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.