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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
DNA Cleaving "Tandem-Array" Metallopeptides Activated With KHSO5: Towards the Development of Multi-Metallated Bioactive Conjugates and Compounds.
Curr Bioact Compd
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Amino terminal peptides of the general form Gly-Gly-His have been used to introduce single sites of metal binding and redox activity into a wide range of biomolecules to create bioactive compounds and conjugates capable of substrate oxidation. We report here that Gly-Gly-His-like peptides linked in a tandem fashion can also be generated leading to multi-metal binding arrays. While metal binding by the native Gly-Gly-His motif (typically to Cu(2+), Ni(2+), or Co(2+)) requires a terminal peptide amine ligand, previous work has demonstrated that an ornithine (Orn) residue can be substituted for the terminal Gly residue to allow solid-phase peptide synthesis to continue via the side chain N-?. This strategy thus frees the Orn residue N-? for metal binding and permits placement of a Gly-Gly-His-like metal binding domain at any location within a linear, synthetic peptide chain. As we show here, this strategy also permits the assembly of tandem arrays of metal binding units in linear peptides of the form: NH2-Gly-Gly-His-[(?)-Orn-Gly-His]n-(?)-Orn-Gly-His-CONH2 (where n = 0, 1, and 2). Metal binding titrations of these tandem arrays monitored by UV-vis and ESI-MS indicated that they bind Cu(2+), Ni(2+), or Co(2+) at each available metal binding site. Further, it was found that these systems retained their ability to modify DNA oxidatively and to an extent greater than their parent M(II)•Gly-Gly-His. These findings suggest that the tandem array metallopeptides described here may function with increased efficiency as "next generation" appendages in the design of bioactive compounds and conjugates.
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The sulfur-bubble template-mediated synthesis of uniform porous g-C3N4 with superior photocatalytic performance.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A facile sulfur-bubble template-mediated synthesis of uniform porous g-C3N4 has been developed for the first time. The obtained sulfur-mediated g-C3N4 presents a uniform porous structure with higher BET surface area and displays superior photocatalytic performance compared with pure g-C3N4.
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[Roles of STIM2 and TRPC3 in the CaR mediated Ca2+ entry and NO generation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To study the roles of stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM2) and transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) in extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR)-induced extracellular Ca2+ influx and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC).
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[Design of traditional Chinese medicines with antihypertensive components based on medicinal property combination modes].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Multi-component traditional Chinese medicines are an innovative research mode for traditional Chinese medicines. Currently, there are many design methods for developing multi-component traditional Chinese medicines, but their common feature is the lack of effective connection of the traditional Chinese medicine theory. In this paper, the authors discussed the multi-component traditional Chinese medicine design methods based on medicinal property combination modes, provided the combination methods with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine for the prescription combinations, and proved its feasibly with hypertension cases.
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[Study on prescription combination and design method based on dichotomy and greedy algorithm].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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The prescription combinations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) focuses on the taste and channel tropism, the Qi movement, as well as the compatibility according to multiple combination principles and medicinal property and flavor combination of several traditional Chinese medicines. With the in-depth study on the prescription compatibility, researchers have realized that the medicinal property theory is the core of TCM combinations. However, there is no definite method for combinations based on medicinal properties. In this paper, the authors put forward an method for designing prescription combinations based on bipartite graph and the greedy algorithm. With the medicinal property combinations of Siweilurong Pills for example, the authors proved this method could provide ideas for quickly choosing herbal medicines for prescription combinations, and discussed the prospect of this method in substituting previous and endangered herbal medicines and banned medicinal materials.
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Deletion of Drosophila Nopp140 induces subcellular ribosomopathies.
Chromosoma
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The nucleolar and Cajal body phosphoprotein of 140 kDa (Nopp140) is considered a ribosome assembly factor, but its precise functions remain unknown. To approach this problem, we deleted the Nopp140 gene in Drosophila using FLP-FRT recombination. Genomic PCR, reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the loss of Nopp140, its messenger RNA (mRNA), and protein products from all tissues examined. Nopp140-/- larvae arrested in the second instar stage and most died within 8 days. While nucleoli appeared intact in Nopp140-/- cells, the C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) methyltransferase, fibrillarin, redistributed to the nucleoplasm in variable amounts depending on the cell type; RT-PCRs showed that 2'-O-methylation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in Nopp140-/- cells was reduced at select sites within both the 18S and 28S rRNAs. Ultrastructural analysis showed that Nopp140-/- cells were deficient in cytoplasmic ribosomes, but instead contained abnormal electron-dense cytoplasmic granules. Immunoblot analysis showed a loss of RpL34, and metabolic labeling showed a significant drop in protein translation, supporting the loss of functional ribosomes. Northern blots showed that pre-RNA cleavage pathways were generally unaffected by the loss of Nopp140, but that R2 retrotransposons that naturally reside within the 28S region of normally silent heterochromatic Drosophila ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes were selectively expressed in Nopp140-/- larvae. Unlike copia elements and the related R1 retrotransposon, R2 expression appeared to be preferentially dependent on the loss of Nopp140 and not on environmental stresses. We believe the phenotypes described here define novel intracellular ribosomopathies resulting from the loss of Nopp140.
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Notch1-induced T cell leukemia can be potentiated by microenvironmental cues in the spleen.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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BackgroundLeukemia is a systemic malignancy originated from hematopoietic cells. The extracellular environment has great impacts on the survival, proliferation and dissemination of leukemia cells. The spleen is an important organ for extramedullary hematopoiesis and a common infiltration site in lymphoid malignancies. Splenomegaly, frequently observed in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), is associated with poor prognosis. However, how the spleen microenvironment distinctly affects T-ALL cells as opposed to bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has not been addressed.MethodsA Notch1-induced mouse T-ALL model was applied in this study. Flow cytometry and two-photon fluorescence microscopy were used to analyze early distribution of T-ALL cells. MILLIPLEX® MAP Multiplex Immunoassay was performed to measure cytokine/chemokine levels in different microenvironments. Transwell and co-culture experiments were used to test the effects of splenic microenvironment in vitro. Splenectomy was performed to assess the organ specific impact on the survival of T-ALL-bearing mice.ResultsMore leukemia cells were detected in the spleen than in the BM after injection of T-ALL cells by flow cytometry and two-photon fluorescence microscopy analysis. By screening a panel of cytokines/chemokines, a higher level of MIP-3ß was found in the splenic microenvironment than BM microenvironment. In vitro transwell experiment further confirmed that MIP-3ß recruits T-ALL cells which express a high level of MIP-3ß receptor, CCR7. Furthermore, the splenic microenvironment stimulates T-ALL cells to express a higher level of MIP-3ß, which further recruits T-ALL cells to the spleen. Co-culture experiment found that the splenic microenvironment more potently stimulated the proliferation and migration of T-ALL cells than BM. Moreover, the mice transplanted with T-ALL cells from the spleen had a shorter life span than those transplanted from BM, suggesting increased potency of the T-ALL cells induced by the splenic microenvironment. In addition, splenectomy prolonged the survival of leukemic mice.ConclusionsOur study demonstrates an organ specific effect on leukemia development. Specifically, T-ALL cells can be potentiated by splenic microenvironment and thus spleen may serve as a target organ for the treatment of some types of leukemia.
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[Central nervous system infection caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a case and literature review].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To summarize the clinical features, imaging characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of a case with central nervous system infection caused by Exophiala dermatitidis, as well as to review the related literature.
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[Combination of acupressure and magnetic sticker improved the quality of life in patients with advanced gastroenteric tumor: a clinical observation].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To explore the clinical effect of combination of acupressure and magnetic sticker on the quality of life (QOL) including appetite, defecation, and sleep in patients with advanced gastroenteric tumor.
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Pollution of intensively managed greenhouse soils by nutrients and heavy metals in the Yellow River Irrigation Region, Northwest China.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The present study aimed to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and nutrient accumulation in polytunnel greenhouse soils in the Yellow River irrigation region (YRIR), Northwest China, and to identify the potential sources of these heavy metals using principal component analysis. Contents of available nitrogen (AN), phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) in the surface polytunnel greenhouse soils (0-20 cm) varied from 13.42 to 486.78, from 39.10 to 566.97, and from 21.64 to 1,156.40 mg kg(-1), respectively, as well as AP, soil organic matter (SOM) and AK contents tended to increase significantly at the 0-20- and 20-40-cm soil layers. Heavy metal accumulations occurred in the polytunnel greenhouse soils as compared to arable soils, especially at a depth of 20 cm where Cd, Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher than arable soil. Cd and As were found to be the two main polluting elements in the greenhouse soils because their contents exceeded the thresholds established for greenhouse vegetable production HJ333-2006 in China and the background of Gansu province. It has been shown that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at the 0-20-cm soil layer were derived mainly from agricultural production activities, whereas contents of Cr and Ni at the same soil layer were determined by 'natural' factors and As originated from natural sources, deposition and irrigation water.
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The effect of aging on the frequency, phenotype and cytokine production of human blood CD4?+?CXCR5?+?T follicular helper cells: comparison of aged and young subjects.
Immun Ageing
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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T cell-dependent B-cell responses decline with age, indicating declined cognate helper activity of aged CD4?+?T cells for B cells. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, a novel T helper subset, play an essential role in helping B cells differentiation into long-lived plasma cells in germinal center (GC) or short-lived plasma cells. In the present study, we proposed that there might existe changes of proportion, phenotype or cytokine production of blood Tfh cells in healthy elderly individuals compared with healthy young individuals.
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Clinical and molecular characteristics of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Chinese neonates.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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This study aims to characterize the clinical features of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in Chinese neonates, as well as the molecular characteristics and expression of key virulence genes of isolates. Clinical information and molecular characteristics of 130 cases were analyzed. Up to 83.8% patients were affected with late-onset infection. Cesarean delivery was the main delivery route, accounting for 74.6% of the total deliveries. Pneumonia (69, 53.1%) was the most common infection. A total of 38 patients (29.2%) suffered from complications. Moreover, 35 cases (26.9%) were invasive infections, among which 88.6% involved multiple organs and 45.7% suffered from complications. Cesarean section and premature birth were the risk factors for invasive CA-MRSA infection. ST59-MRSA-SCCmecIVa-t437 (54, 41.5%) was the most predominant CA-MRSA clone. The hla expression in the ST59 isolates was higher than that in ST910 (p = 0.02) and the hla expression in ST59-SCCmecV-t437 was higher than that in ST59-SCCmecIVa-t437. Approximately, 46.4% (13/28) of the infections caused by ST59-SCCmecV were invasive. This value is higher than that of ST59-SCCmecVa caused infections (14/59, 23.7%) (p = 0.03). This study showed that neonatal CA-MRSA infections in China readily become invasive, involve multiple organs, and are often accompanied by complications. The SCCmec V clone may be more pathogenic than the SCCmecVIa clone.
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Occurrence of glycosidically conjugated 1-phenylethanol and its hydrolase ?-primeverosidase in tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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A previous study found that 1-phenylethanol (1PE) was a major endogenous volatile compound in tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers and can be transformed to glycosically conjugated 1PE (1PE-Gly). However, occurrences of 1PE-Gly in plants remain unknown. In this study, four 1PE-Glys have been isolated from tea flowers. Three of them were determined as (R)-1PE ?-d-glucopyranoside ((R)-1PE-Glu), (S)-1PE-Glu, and (S)-1PE ?-primeveroside ((S)-1PE-Pri), respectively, on the basis of NMR, MS, LC-MS, and GC-MS evidence. The other one was identified as (R)-1PE-Pri on the basis of LC-MS and GC-MS data. Moreover, these 1PE-Glys were chemically synthesized as the authentic standards to further confirm their occurrences in tea flowers. 1PE-Glu had a higher molar concentration than 1PE-Pri in each floral stage and organ. The ratio of (R) to (S) differed between 1PE-Glu and 1PE-Pri. In addition, a 1PE-Gly hydrolase ?-primeverosidase recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli exhibited high hydrolysis activity toward (R)-1PE-Pri. However, ?-primeverosidase transcript level was not highly expressed in the anther part, which accumulated the highest contents of 1PE-Gly and 1PE. This suggests that 1PE-Gly may not be easily hydrolyzed to liberate 1PE in tea flowers. This study provides evidence of occurrences of 1PE-Glys in plants for the first time.
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Hydroxysafflor yellow a attenuates small airway remodeling in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Our previous studies found that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), an active ingredient in Carthamus tinctorius L., has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of HSYA on small airway remodeling (SAR) in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rat model induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). SAR is a common lesion in COPD characterized by thickening of the airway wall, mainly by subepithelial fibrosis. In this study the thickness of the small airway was determined by total wall area/basement membrane perimeter (WAt/Pbm). Collagen deposition of the small airway was assessed by Masson's trichrome staining. HSYA significantly attenuated the thickening and collagen deposition of the small airway and inhibited transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) mRNA and protein expression in COPD rat. In addition, HSYA inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in the lung tissue of rat. HSYA can attenuate experimentally induced airway remodeling and this attenuation may be attributed to suppression of TGF-?1 expression.
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Synthesis of amphiphilic aminated inulin via 'click chemistry' and evaluation for its antibacterial activity.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Inulins are a group of abundant, water-soluble, renewable polysaccharides, which exhibit attractive bioactivities and natural properties. Improvement such as chemical modification of inulin is often performed prior to further utilization. We hereby presented a method to modify inulin at its primary hydroxyls to synthesize amphiphilic aminated inulin via 'click chemistry' to facilitate its chemical manipulation. Additionally, its antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was also evaluated and the best inhibitory index against S. aureus was 58% at 1mg/mL. As the amphiphilic aminated inulin is easy to prepare and exhibits improved bioactivity, this material may represent as an attractive new platform for chemical modifications of inulin.
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Phase-corrected bipolar gradients in multi-echo gradient-echo sequences for quantitative susceptibility mapping.
MAGMA
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Large echo spacing of unipolar readout gradients in current multi-echo gradient-echo (GRE) sequences for mapping fields in quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) can be reduced using bipolar readout gradients thereby improving acquisition efficiency.
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[Expression of CD48 as a live marker to distinguish division of hematopoietic stem cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Hematopoietic stem cells are capable of self-renewal or differentiation when they divide. Three types of cell divisions exist. A dividing stem cell may generate 2 new stem cells (symmetrical renewal division), or 2 differentiating cells (symmetrical differentiation division), or 1 cell of each type (asymmetrical division). This study was aimed to explore an efficient and stable method to distinguish the way of cell division in hematopoietic stem cells. Previous studies showed that the distribution of Numb in a cell could be used to distinguish the type of cell division in various kinds of cells. Therefore, the distribution of Numb protein was detected by immunofluorescence in mitotic CD48(-)CD150(+)LSK cells of mice exploring the relationship between Numb protein and centrosomes. Since CD48 positive marks the HSC that have lost the ability to reconstitute the blood system in mice, CD48 marker could be used to distinguish cell fate decision between self-renewal and differentiation as a living marker. In this study, the CD48(-)CD150(+)LSK cells were sorted from bone marrow cells of mice and the cells were directly labeled with Alexa Fluor (AF) 488-conjugated anti-CD48 antibody in living cultures. After 3 days, the percentage of AF488(+) cells was evaluated under microscope and by FACS. Then colony forming cell assay (CFC) was perfomed and the ability of cell proliferation were compared between AF488(+) and AF488(-) cells. The results showed that Numb could be used to distinguish different cell division types of hematopoietic stem cells, which was symmetrically or asymmetrically segregated in mitotic CD48(-)CD150(+)LSK cells. The self-labeled fluorochrome could be detected both by FACS as well as microscope. There were about 40% AF488(+) cells after 3 day-cultures in medium titrated with self-labeled AF 488-conjugated anti-CD48 antibody, and the results were consistent between confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. The colony forming ability of AF488(+) cells was significantly higher than that of AF488(-) cells (P < 0.05). The proliferation ability of AF488(-) cells was also significantly higher than AF488(+) cells (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the expression of CD48 can distinguish cell division of hematopoietic stem cells and can be used as a live marker for the loss of stemness. In comparison with the Numb protein staining, this method can be used in living cells, thus provides greater convenience for subsequent cell culture studies and cell transplantation experiments.
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Leukodystrophy associated with mitochondrial complex I deficiency due to a novel mutation in the NDUFAF1 gene.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Abstract Mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder is one of the important reasons of leukodystrophy. Mutations of mitochondrial complex I genes have been implicated in more common neurological disorders such as Leigh syndrome. We describe a case of a child manifested as regression of mental and motor development, aggravated obviously after suffering infection. Physical and auxiliary examinations demonstrated that a series of changes including white matter lesions of magnetic resonance imaging, peripheral neuropathy with high muscle tension and hyperreflexia of limbs pointed to the diagnosis of leukodystrophy, with what can't explain the high levels of lactate and creatine kinase. Spontaneously, genetic analysis covered known leukodystrophy and mitochondrial genes were adapted for this child and his parents. Results showed the child was compound heterozygous mutation (c.278A?>?G; c.247G?>?A) within exon 2 in the NDUFAF1 gene, his parents carried a heterozygous mutation each. The authors report a case of leukodystrophy associated with mitochondrial complex I deficiency due to a novel mutation in the NDUFAF1 gene. This is the first report that NDUFAF1 mutations cause leukodystrophy.
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Repeated inhalation of sevoflurane inhibits airway inflammation in an OVA-induced mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Repeated inhalation of sevoflurane (SVF) can benefit asthmatic patients by bronchodilation. However, the impact of repeated inhalation of SVF on allergic airway inflammation has not been clarified. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of repeated inhalation of SVF on airway inflammation in mice.
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[Mechanism of signal molecule high mobility group box protein 1 mediated by Toll-like receptor 2 in murine asthma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To explore the role and mechanism of signal molecule high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) mediated by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a murine asthma model.
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Clinical and molecular characteristics of invasive community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections in Chinese children.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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This study aims to investigate the clinical features of invasive community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infection in Chinese children and analyze its molecular features.
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Recruited metastasis suppressor NM23-H2 attenuates expression and activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) in human cholangiocarcinoma.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a versatile regulator of distinct biological processes and overexpression of PPAR? in cancer may be partially related to its suppression of its own co-regulators.
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Facile approach to synthesize g-PAN/g-C3N4 composites with enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution activity.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Novel composites consisting of graphitized polyacrylonitrile (g-PAN) nanosheets grown on layered g-C3N4 sheets were synthesized through a facile one-step thermal condensation of PAN and melamine for the first time. Photoluminescence spectroscopy and the photoelectrochemical measurements reveal that g-PAN nanosheets act as effective electron transfer channels to facilitate charge carrier separation in g-PAN/g-C3N4 composites. The g-PAN/g-C3N4 composites exhibit significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance for H2 evolution over pristine g-C3N4. The 5.0 wt % g-PAN/g-C3N4 composite has optimal H2 evolution rate of 37 ?mol h(-1), exceeding 3.8 times over pristine g-C3N4. We have proposed a possible mechanism for charge separation and transfer in the g-PAN/g-C3N4 composites to explain the enhanced photocatalytic performance.
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Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran) after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.
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TDP-43 suppresses CGG repeat-induced neurotoxicity through interactions with HnRNP A2/B1.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Nucleotide repeat expansions can elicit neurodegeneration as RNA by sequestering specific RNA-binding proteins, preventing them from performing their normal functions. Conversely, mutations in RNA-binding proteins can trigger neurodegeneration at least partly by altering RNA metabolism. In Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a CGG repeat expansion in the 5'UTR of the fragile X gene (FMR1) leads to progressive neurodegeneration in patients and CGG repeats in isolation elicit toxicity in Drosophila and other animal models. Here, we identify the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated RNA-binding protein TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) as a suppressor of CGG repeat-induced toxicity in a Drosophila model of FXTAS. The rescue appears specific to TDP-43, as co-expression of another ALS-associated RNA-binding protein, FUS, exacerbates the toxic effects of CGG repeats. Suppression of CGG RNA toxicity was abrogated by disease-associated mutations in TDP-43. TDP-43 does not co-localize with CGG RNA foci and its ability to bind RNA is not required for rescue. TDP-43-dependent rescue does, however, require fly hnRNP A2/B1 homologues Hrb87F and Hrb98DE. Deletions in the C-terminal domain of TDP-43 that preclude interactions with hnRNP A2/B1 abolish TDP-43-dependent rescue of CGG repeat toxicity. In contrast, suppression of CGG repeat toxicity by hnRNP A2/B1 is not affected by RNAi-mediated knockdown of the fly TDP-43 orthologue, TBPH. Lastly, TDP-43 suppresses CGG repeat-triggered mis-splicing of an hnRNP A2/B1-targeted transcript. These data support a model in which TDP-43 suppresses CGG-mediated toxicity through interactions with hnRNP A2/B1 and suggest a convergence of pathogenic cascades between repeat expansion disorders and RNA-binding proteins implicated in neurodegenerative disease.
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Nut consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease risk and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Many prospective cohort studies have investigated the association between nut consumption and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, results have been inconsistent.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between nut consumption and risk of CAD, stroke, hypertension, and T2D.DESIGN: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to October 2013. All prospective cohort studies of nut consumption and risk of CAD, stroke, hypertension, and T2D were included. Summary RRs with 95% CIs were estimated by using a fixed- or random-effects model.RESULTS: A total of 23 prospective studies (9 studies for CAD, 4 studies for stroke, 4 studies for hypertension, and 6 studies for T2D) from 19 publications were included in the meta-analysis. There were 179,885 participants and 7236 CAD cases, 182,730 participants and 5669 stroke cases, 40,102 participants and 12,814 hypertension cases, and 342,213 participants and 14,400 T2D cases. The consumption of each 1 serving of nuts/d was significantly associated with incident CAD (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.91; P < 0.001) and hypertension (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.00; P = 0.049). However, there was no association between the consumption of each 1 serving of nuts/d and risk of stroke (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.14) or T2D (RR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.57, 1.14).CONCLUSIONS: A higher consumption of nuts was associated with reduced risk of CAD and hypertension but not stroke or T2D. Large randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm the observed associations.
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Whole Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paracasei N1115, Isolated from Traditional Chinese Fermented Milk.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 is a new strain with probiotic properties isolated from traditional homemade dairy products in Inner Mongolia, China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. paracasei N1115, which shows high similarity to the well-studied probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and 3 structures turned out to be inversions, according to the colinearity analysis of the BLAST alignment.
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Hybrid silver nanoparticle/conjugated polyelectrolyte nanocomposites exhibiting controllable metal-enhanced fluorescence.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Metal-enhanced fluorescence of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPs) is realized using a simple, green hybrid Ag nanocomposite film. Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are pre-prepared by sodium citrate reduction and incorporated into agarose by mixing to form an Ag-containing agarose film (Ag@agarose). Through variation of the amount of Ag NPs in the Ag@agarose film as well as the thickness of the interlayer between CPs and the Ag@agarose film prepared of layer-by-layer assembly of chitosan and sodium alginate, a maximum 8.5-fold increase in the fluorescence of CPs is obtained. After introducing tyrosinase, this system also can be used to detect phenolic compounds with high sensitivity and good visualization under ultraviolet light.
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Lung function and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after improved cooking fuels and kitchen ventilation: a 9-year prospective cohort study.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Biomass smoke is associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few studies have elaborated approaches to reduce the risk of COPD from biomass burning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improved cooking fuels and ventilation have effects on pulmonary function and the incidence of COPD.
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Selective removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil washing effluents using biochars produced at different pyrolytic temperatures.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Wheat straw biochars produced at 400, 600 and 800°C (BC400, BC600 and BC800) were used to selectively adsorb PAHs from soil washing effluents. For soil washing effluents contained Phenanthrene (PHE), Fluoranthene (FLU), Pyrene (PYR) and Triton X-100 (TX100), biochars at 2 (for BC800) or 6 g L(-1) (for BC400 and BC600) can remove 71.8-98.6% of PAHs while recover more than 87% of TX100. PAH removals increase with increasing biochar dose. However, excess biochar is detrimental to the recovery of surfactant. For a specific biochar dose, PAH removal and TX100 loss increase with increasing pyrolytic temperature. For BC400 and BC600, PAH removal follows the order of PHE>FLU>PYR, while the order is reversed with PYR>FLU>PHE for BC800. Biochars have much higher sorption affinity for PAHs than for TX100. It is therefore suggested that biochar is a good alternative for selective adsorption of PAHs and recovery of TX100 in soil washing process.
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The association of PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism and CTLA-4 rs231775 polymorphism with LADA risks: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Acta Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Although the polymorphisms of PTPN22 and the variants of CTLA-4 have been reported to be the susceptibility genes, which increased risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), the results remained inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between the polymorphisms of two genes and LADA. We performed a systematic review by identifying relevant studies and applied meta-analysis to pool gene effects. Data from ten studies published between 2001 and 2013 were pooled for two polymorphisms: rs2476601 in the PTPN22 gene and rs231775 in the CTLA-4 gene. Data extraction and assessments for risk of bias were independently performed by two reviewers. Fixed-effect model and random-effect model were used to pool the odds ratios; meanwhile, heterogeneity test, publication bias and sensitive analysis were explored. The minor T allele at rs2476601 and the minor G at rs231775 carried estimated relative risks (odds ratio) of 1.52 (95 % CI 1.29-1.79) and 1.39 (95 % CI 1.11-1.74), respectively. These alleles contributed to an absolute lowering of the risk of all LADA by 4.88 and 14.93 % when individuals do not carry these alleles. The estimated lambdas were 0.49 and 0.63, suggesting a codominant model of effects was most likely for two genes. In summary, our systematic review has demonstrated that PTPN22 rs2476601 and CTLA-4 rs231775 are potential risk factors for LADA. An updated meta-analysis is required when more studies are published to increase the power of these polymorphisms and LADA.
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[Influence of hepatocyte growth factor on iNOS, NO and IL-1? in the cerebrum during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To explore the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in the cerebrum of rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R).
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Square wave anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Cd²? and Pb²? at bismuth-film electrode modified with electroreduced graphene oxide-supported thiolated thionine.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Graphene oxide (GO)-thionine (TH) nanocomposite was prepared by ?-? stacking. The nanocomposite was cast-coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to prepare an electroreduced GO (ERGO)-TH/GCE, then 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES) was covalently tethered to ERGO-TH by potentiostatic anodization to form an ERGO-TH-MES/GCE. The thiolation reaction was monitored by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was used to determine Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) at the ERGO-TH-MES/GCE further modified with Nafion and Bi. Under the optimal conditions, the linear calibration curves for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) are from 1 to 40 ?g L(-1), with limits of detection (S/N=3) of 0.1 ?g L(-1) for Cd(2+) and 0.05 ?g L(-1) for Pb(2+), respectively. The electrode was used for the simultaneous analysis of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) in water samples with satisfactory recovery.
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CCL5 secreted from bone marrow stromal cells stimulates the migration and invasion of Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells via the PI3K-Akt pathway.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) seem to be increasing. Previous studies showed that soluble factors secreted by host cells and direct cell-to-cell interactions contributed to the preferential metastasis and growth of cancer cells in bone, while the underlying mechanism(s) of the metastasis of HCC in the bone are poorly understood. Here, we determined the effect of HS-5 cells on Huh7 cell proliferation, and investigated the role of CCL5 from HS-5 cells on the development of Huh7 cells. In addition, the underlying mechanisms on the influence in Huh7 cells were investigated. Our results showed that HS-5 cells could promote the proliferation, migration and invasion of Huh7 cells, and inhibited apoptosis. CCL5 downregulation was able to inhibit the effects of HS-5 cells on Huh7 cell migration and invasion via the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and reduce MMP-2 expression. Therefore, these findings suggest that CCL5 secreted from MSCs can promote the migration and invasion of Huh7 cells and could be an important factor in HCC related to occurrence of bone metastases.
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Cross-protective efficacy of baculovirus displayed hemagglutinin against highly pathogenic influenza H7 subtypes.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The outbreak of human infections with avian-origin H7N9 influenza has raised global concerns about a potential human pandemic. Therefore, the generation of simple and reliable newer vaccines is high priority for pandemic preparedness. In this study, we aimed to develop a recombinant vaccine by expressing HA of H7N9 (A/Shanghai/2/2013) on the surface of baculovirus (BacHA). Further, live or inactive form of BacHA (H7N9) vaccine was immunized twice either intranasally or subcutaneously into mice. The immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy of the BacHA (H7N9) vaccine was assessed against H7N9 or H7N7 subtype challenge. The results showed that mice immunized subcutaneously with adjuvanted inactive BacHA (H7N9) induced robust cross-neutralizing antibody responses against H7 subtypes (H7N9, H7N7 and H7N3) compared to subcutaneous or intranasal immunization of live BacHA. In contrast, mice immunized intranasally with live BacHA stimulated higher HA-specific mucosal IgA levels in the upper airways, the port of virus entry. Also, intranasal immunization of BacHA of either H7N9 or H7N7 completely protected against 5 MLD50 of both H7N9 and H7N7 infections. An overall study revealed that intranasal administration of HA expressed on the baculovirus envelope is alternative way to prime the immune system against influenza infection during a pandemic situation.
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KITLG is a novel target of miR-34c that is associated with the inhibition of growth and invasion in colorectal cancer cells.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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MiR-34c is considered a potent tumour suppressor because of its negative regulation of multiple target mRNAs that are critically associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. In the present study, we demonstrated a novel target of miR-34c, KITLG, which has been implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC). First, we found a significant negative relationship between miR-34c and KITLG mRNA expression levels in CRC cell lines, including HT-29, HCT-116, SW480 and SW620 CRC cell lines. In silico analysis predicted putative binding sites for miR-34c in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of KITLG mRNA. A dual-luciferase reporter assay further confirmed that KITLG is a direct target of miR-34c. Then, the cell lines were infected with lentiviruses expressing miR-34c or a miR-34c specific inhibitor. Restoration of miR-34c dramatically reduced the expression of KITLG mRNA and protein, while silencing of endogenous miR-34c increased the expression of KITLG protein. The miR-34c-mediated down-regulation of KITLG was associated with the suppression on proliferation, cellular transformation, migration and invasion of CRC cells, as well as the promotion on apoptosis. Knockdown of KITLG by its specific siRNA confirmed a critical role of KITLG down-regulation for the tumour-suppressive effects of miR-34c in CRC cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that miR-34c might interfere with KITLG-related CRC and could be a novel molecular target for CRC patients.
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Synthesis, characterization, and antioxidant properties of novel inulin derivatives with amino-pyridine group.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A series of novel inulin derivatives were synthesized via reaction of chloracetyl inulin (CAIL) with amino-pyridines, including 2-(2-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (2APAIL), 2-(3-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (3APAIL), 2-(4-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (4APAIL), 2-(2,3-diamino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (2,3DAPAIL), and 2-(3,4-diamino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin (3,4DAPAIL). The antioxidant property of the products and 2-pyridylacetyl inulin chloride (PAIL) against hydroxyl radicals (·OH), superoxide radicals (O2·), and DPPH radicals (DPPH·) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. Results showed that 4APAIL and 3,4DAPAIL exhibited remarkable improvement on scavenging ·OH and DPPH·, which can scavenge the radical of OH completely at 0.4 mg/mL. Besides, the scavenging activity of 2,3DAPAIL to O2· was excellent among all of the tested samples, reaching 85% at 1.6 mg/mL. These data indicate that all of the inulin derivatives have better antioxidant activities than inulin, and the scavenging effect indices are affected by the number and position of the amino group on pyridine grafted to the inulin derivatives.
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Enhanced activity of doxorubicin in drug resistant A549 tumor cells by encapsulation of P-glycoprotein inhibitor in PLGA-based nanovectors.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Effective chemotherapy remains an important issue in the treatment of drug resistant cancer. The aim of the present study was to establish novel polymeric nanoparticles composed of the antitumor drug, doxorubicin (DOX), and an inhibitor of the drug efflux pump-associated protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in order to overcome drug resistance in tumor cells. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), DOX-loaded PLGA (PLGA-DOX), P-gp inhibitor (cyclosporin A; CsA)-coated PLGA (PLGA-CsA) and DOX and CsA co-loaded PLGA (PLGA-DOX-CsA) nanoparticles were prepared using solvent evaporation. The size distribution, ? potential and electron microscopy observations of the nanoparticles were characterized. Accumulation and efflux assays were performed using confocal and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and the pump activity of P-gp was detected through FACS. The uptake of the nanoparticles and the viability of Taxol-resistant A549 cells treated with various nanoparticles were analyzed via FACS in vitro. Furthermore, the tumor growth and survival rates of A549-Taxol-bearing mice were monitored in vivo. Prepared particles were nanosized and the efflux rates of PLGA-DOX and PLGA-DOX-CsA were significantly decreased compared with the free DOX. Drug efflux pump activity was effectively inhibited by the PLGA-CsA and PLGA-DOX-CsA groups compared with the PLGA, PLGA-DOX and free DOX groups. Cell viability results demonstrated that PLGA-DOX and PLGA-DOX-CsA induced the increased death of A549-Taxol cells. In vivo tumor models demonstrated that PLGA-DOX and PLGA-DOX-CsA markedly inhibited the tumor growth and improved the survival rate of A549-Taxol-bearing mice. Antitumor drug and drug efflux pump inhibitor co-loaded nanoparticles offer advantages to overcome the drug resistance of tumors and highlight new therapeutic strategies to control drug resistant tumors.
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Monovalent H5 vaccine based on epitope-chimeric HA provides broad cross-clade protection against variant H5N1 viruses in mice.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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H5N1 HPAI virus continues to be a severe threat for public health, as well as for the poultry industry, due to its high mortality and antigenic drift rate. There is no monovalent vaccine available which provides broad protection against those major circulating strains. In the present study, a monovalent H5 vaccine strain was developed with antigenic sequence analysis and epitope mutations. H5 from Indonesia strain (A/Indonesia/CDC669/2006) was used as backbone sequence. Three amino acids were mutated to express immunogenic epitopes from other circulating H5N1s in the backbone. RG influenza virus expressing the epitope-chimeric H5 can react in HI with multiple H5 monoclonal antibodies which fail to neutralize wild type CDC669. High titers in HI and virus neutralization against different clades H5N1s (clade 1, 2, 4 and 7) were detected using sera from mice immunized with the epitope-chimeric H5N1. The monovalent vaccine with RG-epitope-chimeric H5N1 protected mice from lethal challenge with H5N1s of different clades, including clade 1.0, 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3. This study indicates that the broad immune response elicited by this single H5N1 virus allows it to be a promising candidate for a monovalent H5 universal vaccine.
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Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of ?-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10-3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.
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Surgical management of urolithiasis in patients after urinary diversion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To present our experience in surgical management of urolithiasis in patients after urinary diversion.
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Progress toward a universal H5N1 vaccine: a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara-expressing trivalent hemagglutinin vaccine.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The rapid evolution of new sublineages of H5N1 influenza poses the greatest challenge in control of H5N1 infection by currently existing vaccines. To overcome this, an MVAtor vector expressing three H5HA antigens A/Vietnam/1203/04, A/Indonesia/669/06 and A/Anhui/01/05 (MVAtor-tri-HA vector) was developed to elicit broad cross-protection against diverse clades by covering amino acid variations in the major neutralizing epitopes of HA among H5N1 subtypes.
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Upregulation of gelatinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in small airway remodeling associated with chronic exposure to wood smoke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Peribronchiolar fibrosis is an important feature of small airway remodeling (SAR) in cigarette smoke-induced COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gelatinases (MMP9, MMP2) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SAR related to wood smoke (WS) exposure in a rat model.
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The pro-proliferative effects of nicotine and its underlying mechanism on rat airway smooth muscle cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies have shown that nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke, can stimulate the proliferation of non-neuronal cells. Cigarette smoking can promote a variety of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), atherosclerosis, and cancer. A predominant feature of COPD is airway remodeling, which includes increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. The mechanisms underlying ASM remodeling in COPD have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we show that nicotine induces a profound and time-dependent increase in DNA synthesis in rat airway smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) in vitro. Nicotine also significantly increased the number of RASMCs, which was associated with the increased expression of Cyclin D1, phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) and was dependent on the activation of Akt. The activation of Akt by nicotine occurred within minutes and depended upon the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs). Activated Akt increased the phosphorylation of downstream substrates such as GSK3?. Our data suggest that the binding of nicotine to the nAchRs on RASMCs can regulate cellular proliferation by activating the Akt pathway.
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Female-biased symbionts and tomato yellow leaf curl virus infections in Bemisia tabaci.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The female-biased infection of facultative symbionts has been found in Bemisia tabaci; however, whether there are any differences in tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and obligate symbiont infection rates between females and males is unknown. Determining whether such differences exist would be very important for understanding the spread of the plant virus and of the symbionts. We compared both symbiont infection types, including obligate and facultative symbionts, and the rates of TYLCV infection in both sexes in five field populations from Jiangsu Province, China. The obligate symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum was not found in every whitefly tested. In all tested populations, more females than males were found to harbor P. aleyrodidarum; and more females than males also harbored Hamiltonella defense, the most common facultative symbiont as well as Cardinium. In addition to female-biased symbiont infections, there were also female-biased TYLCV infections, and the infection frequencies of this plant virus in females were higher than those in males. Taken together, these results suggested that both the female-biased symbiont infections and female-biased TYLCV infections promoted the rapid spread of TYLCV in China.
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[Retrospective analysis of effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy or not for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To analyze the effectiveness and toxicity of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with chemotherapy or not for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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[Impacts of electroacupuncture on ubiquitin-proteasome system in rats with Parkinsons disease].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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To explore action mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) on treatment and prevention of Parkinsons disease (PD).
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[Optimization of wine-roasting technology of coptidis rhizoma using orthogonal design].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To optimize the processing technology of Coptidis Rhizoma roasting with yellow rice wine.
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Association of apolipoprotein A1 -75 G/A polymorphism with susceptibility to the development of acute lung injury after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) is the major apoprotein constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL) which exerts innate protective effects in systemic inflammation. However, its role in the acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential association between APOA1 -75 G/A polymorphism and the development of ALI after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery.Materials and methods: A hospital-based case--control study was conducted in patients with ALI (n = 300), patients without ALI (n = 300) and healthy controls (n = 300). Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was applied to assess the APOA1 -75 G/A genotypes.
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[Involvement of store-operated calcium channels and receptor-operated calcium channels in Ca(2+)-sensing receptor-evoked extracellular Ca(2+) influx and NO generation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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This paper aims to investigate the effect of store-operated calcium channels (SOC) and receptor-operated calcium channels (ROC) on Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR)-induced extracellular Ca(2+) influx and nitric oxide (NO) generation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). SOC blocker, non-selective cation channel blocker, ROC agonist and ROC blocker were used separately and combined. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) was measured by Fura-2/AM loading. The activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the production of NO were determined by the DAF-FM diacetate (DAF-FM DA). The results showed that increases of [Ca(2+)]i, eNOS activity and NO generation induced by CaR agonist Spermine were all reduced after single blocking the SOC or ROC, respectively (P < 0.05). ROC agonist can partially abolish the ROC blockers effect (P < 0.05). The above mentioned effects evoked by CaR agonist Spermine were further reduced when blocking both SOC and ROC than single blocking SOC or ROC in HUVEC (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that the SOC and ROC participate in the processes of CaR-evoked extracellular Ca(2+) influx and NO generation by a synergistic manner in HUVEC.
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[Analysis of resistance tendency of bloodstream-infecting pathogens in China].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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To investigate the resistance profiles and the trend of bloodstream-infecting pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients during 2004-2010.
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[Effects of pregnancy on the ROS, NO, cytokine levels and lymphocytes activation from mouse peripheral blood].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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To investigate the influence of pregnancy on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mouse peripheral blood neutrophils (PMN), the levels of NO and cytokines from serum, the activation of T lymphocytes, and initially find the immune regulation effects of pregnancy on the mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes.
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Contribution of cytochrome P450 isoforms to gliquidone metabolism in rats and human.
Xenobiotica
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Abstract 1.? Gliquidone, a second generation sulfonylurea, is a widely used oral antidiabetic drug. Due to the differences in its rate of metabolism, gliquidone shows inter-subject variability in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. 2.? Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoforms are involved in the metabolism of a majority of drugs in clinical use and plays a significant role in reducing possible drug interactions. This research aimed to systematically study the contribution of various human CYP450 isoforms to gliquidone metabolism in vitro in rats and human. 3.? In rat liver microsomes, gliquidone was metabolized mainly by the most abundant CYP2C. The other isoforms involved in the metabolism included CYP3A, CYP2D, CYP1A and CYP2E. 4.? Further investigation of rat recombinant enzymes showed that CYP3A1 and CYP2C11 played a major role in gliquidone metabolism in vitro, while CYP2D1, CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 were also involved. 5.? But the metabolism of gliquidone in the human liver microsomes was mainly mediated by CYP3A4. The other isoforms involved in this process were CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. 6.? The further study of human recombinant enzymes demonstrated that CYP3A4 was the principal isoform enzyme for the metabolism of gliquidone. The intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 during gliquidone metabolism was 3-12 times greater than that of other CYP450 isoforms including CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. 7.? These findings may assist in valuable prediction of potential interactions of gliquidone with other drugs that are CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers and help to design more efficacious and safer pharmacotherapy for patients of diabetes mellitus.
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Citrate-induced aggregation of conjugated polyelectrolytes for Al(3+)-ion-sensing assays.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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This work shows the sodium citrate induced efficient interpolymer ?-stacking aggregation of the planar cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte poly[{9,9-bis[6-(N,N-trimethylamino)hexyl]-2,7-fluorenyleneethynylene}-alt-co-(1,4-phenylene)] dibromide (PFE) in aqueous solution, which results in the self-quenching of fluorescence. Using the citrate-induced aggregation properties of PFE and the strong chelation ability of citrate with aluminum ions (Al(3+)), a sensitive and selective Al(3+)-ion detection assay in aqueous solution was developed through monitoring of the fluorescence recovery of PFE. The fluorescence intensity recovery of PFE depends on the concentration of Al(3+) ions, and linear fluorescence recovery was observed in the range of 0.5-9 ?M. The limit of detection of this assay is 0.37 ?M. Its simplicity and rapidity mean this assay shows promise for the real-time detection of Al(3+).
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Evaluation of ERG responsive proteome in prostate cancer.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
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Gene fusion between TMPRSS2 promoter and the ERG proto-oncogene is a major genomic alteration found in over half of prostate cancers (CaP), which leads to aberrant androgen dependent ERG expression. Despite extensive analysis for the biological functions of ERG in CaP, there is no systematic evaluation of the ERG responsive proteome (ERP). ERP has the potential to define new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate tumors stratified by ERG expression.
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Development of dual-function ELISA for effective antigen and antibody detection against H7 avian influenza virus.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Outbreaks in poultry involving influenza virus from H7 subtype have resulted in human infections, thus causing a major concern for public health, as well as for the poultry industry. Currently, no efficient rapid test is available for large-scale detection of either antigen or antibody of H7 avian influenza viruses.
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Changes in Microglial Inflammation-Related and Brain-Enriched MicroRNAs Expressions in Response to In Vitro Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Microglia plays important role in central nervous system immune surveillance and has emerged as an essential cellular component for understanding brain diseases. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional expression of protein-coding mRNAs, which may have key roles in microglial activation in response to brain ischemia and other stressors. Primary cultured rat microglial cells were prepared, and then microglial activation model was established by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) method. Morphological observation, CD11b/c immunofluorence, MTT assay and Propidium iodide staining were done to test microglia viability at different OGD time points (0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 min). qPCR were performed to detect the dynamic changes in expressions of inflammation-related miRs (146a, 21, 181a, 221, and 222) and brain-enriched miRs (124, 134, 9, 132, and 138) in resting microglia and after challenge with OGD for the same time points. The activation and viability of the microglia was time dependent. Similarly, expressions of different miRs in microglia were significantly upregulated and reached the peak at different time points before reaching the baseline level with extension of OGD. Our data demonstrates for the first time that OGD as a model of an ischemic insult modulates the expressions of some inflammation-related and brain-enriched miRs. These changes may help to explore the molecular basis of microglia activation on the post-transcriptional level in response to different time points of OGD.
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[Morphology and differentially expressed proteins in hippocampus of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy model of immature rats induced by pilocarpine].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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To examine the changes of morphology and differentially expressed proteins in hippocampus at the latent stage of chronic mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) in immature rats, and to explore the global mechanism of chronic MTLE at a new point.
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Effective intranasal therapeutics and prophylactics with monoclonal antibody against lethal infection of H7N7 influenza virus.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Recurrence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H7 in humans and poultry continues to be a serious concern to public health. No effective prevention and treatment are currently available against H7 infection. One H7 monoclonal antibody, Mab 62 was selected and characterized. Mab 62 presented efficient neutralization activity against all six representative H7 strains tested, including the H7N9 strain from the recent outbreak in China. The epitope of 62 identified on H7 HA1 exists in all the human H7 strains, including the recent H7N9 strains from China. Mab 62 when administered passively, pre or post challenge with 5 MLD50 (50% mouse lethal dose) HPAI H7N7 influenza viruses could protect 100% of the mice from death. The efficacy of intranasal administration of the Mab was evaluated versus the intraperitoneal route. In the therapeutic study, body weight loss and virus load were reduced in intranasally inoculated mice, as compared to the intraperitoneal group. Intranasal administration results in early clearance of the virus from the lungs and completely prevents lung pathology of H7N7. The study confirmed that intranasal administration of Mab 62 is either an effective prophylactic or therapeutic means against H7 lethal infection. The results of epitope analysis suggest the potential of Mab 62 to be used for the efficacious prevention and treatment against the recent human H7N9 strains.
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Controllable metal-enhanced fluorescence in organized films and colloidal system.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to better understand the unique emission properties of fluorophores enhanced by the localized surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles (NPs), due to the widespread applications of fluorescence techniques. It is demonstrated by experiment and theoretical calculation that the enhancement efficiency strongly depends on the morphology of the metal NPs, the spectral overlap between metal and fluorophores, the separation distance between them, and other factors. Among these aspects to be considered are suitable spacer material and assembling methods to control the spatial arrangement of plasmonic NPs and fluorophore with proper optical properties and interactions. In this contribution, we provide a brief overview on recent progress of metal-enhanced fluorescence in organized films and colloidal systems.
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Conjugated oligomer-based fluorescent nanoparticles as functional nanocarriers for nucleic acids delivery.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Oligonucleotides such as siRNA and plasmid DNA (pDNA) have great potential for gene therapies. Multifunctional, environment-resistant carriers with imaging capabilities are required to track the assembly and disassembly of oligonucleotides, monitor the delivery processes, and develop new delivery systems. Conjugated polymers and oligomers can potentially be used as novel materials for functional nanocarriers with both delivery and imaging abilities. In this work, a novel ?-conjugated oligomer 4,7-(9,9-bis(6-adenine hexyl)fluorenyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (OFBT-A) modified with nucleotide adenine (A) groups in its side chains is synthesized and characterized. Fluorescent nanoparticles based on the ?-conjugated oligomers OFBT-A are developed as novel functional nanocarriers for oligonucleotides. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) TR-T5 labeled with Texas Red (TR) fluorescent dye is selected as a model payload oligonucleotide. The capture abilities and stability of OFBT-A are investigated by monitoring the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency between the OFBT-A nanoparticles and TR labels in solution. The OFBT-A/TR-T5 composites are stable in solution at high ionic strengths (0-500 mM) and have a wide working pH range, from 3.0 to 9.5. The in vitro profile demonstrates that the release of the TR-DNA is induced by the ssDNA A43, which has a high charge density. The release process is monitored by measuring the changes in FRET efficiency and fluorescence color for the OFBT-A/TR-T5 composites. Using this carrier, the uptake of TR-DNA by A549 lung cancer cells is observed. Both the OFBT-A nanoparticles and the OFBT-A/TR-T5 composites show high cytocompatibility. We anticipate that these novel functional nanocarriers will provide a safe strategy for monitoring the gene delivery process.
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Synthesis, characterization, and antifungal activity of novel inulin derivatives with chlorinated benzene.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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A group of novel inulin derivatives containing benzene or chlorinated benzene were synthesized by reaction of chloracetyl inulin (CAIL) with the Schiff bases of 4-amino-pyridine, including (2-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (PAIL), 2-[4-(2-chlorobenzylideneamino)-pyridyl]acetyl inulin chloride (2CPAIL), 2-[4-(4-chlorobenzylideneamino)-pyridyl]acetyl inulin chloride (4CPAIL), and 2-[4-(2,4-dichlorobenzylideneamino)-pyridyl]acetyl inulin chloride (2,4DCPAIL). Their antifungal activity against three kinds of phytopathogens was estimated by hypha measurement in vitro. Of all the synthesized chitosan derivatives, 2,4DCPAIL inhibited the growth of the tested phytopathogens with inhibitory indices of 67%, 47%, and 43% against Colletotrichum lagenarium (Pass) Ell.et halst, Phomopsis asparagi (Sacc.) Bubak and Fusarium oxysporum (schl.) F.sp. niveum (F. oxysporum) respectively at 1.0mg/mL. The results indicate that all the inulin derivatives have better antifungal activity than inulin, and the inhibitory index is affected by the chlorine atom grafted to the inulin derivatives.
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Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd(2+)) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (?-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd(2+) concentration and rescued Cd(2+)-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd(2+) stress conditions, NAA increased Cd(2+) retention in the roots and most Cd(2+) in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd(2+), whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd(2+) retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd(2+) concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd(2+) or NAA+Cd(2+) treatment for 1 to 7d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd(2+) in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd(2+) toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd(2+) fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd(2+) from roots to shoots.
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Role of mammalian sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in lipids metabolism and cell proliferation of goose primary hepatocytes.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Our result showed in the fatty liver formation induced-by overfeeding goose, it was accompanied by an activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and cell proliferation. Recent studies have suggested a crucial role for mammalian sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in regulating lipid metabolism and cell proliferation, so we hypothesize that resveratrol -activated and nicotinamide -inhibited SIRT1 acts goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism and cell proliferation by mTOR signal pathway. Here we show that both resveratrol and nicotinamide could evidently affect the DNA synthesis rate, the lipids accumulation, the mRNA level and protein content of genes involved in the lipids metabolism, mTOR signal pathway, and the cell cycle progression of goose primary hepatocytes. Moreover, rapamycin decreased the effect of nicotinamide on lipids accumulation and cell proliferation. These findings suggest that SIRT1 functions as a regulator for mTOR signaling and plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatocyte lipid metabolism and cell proliferation.
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P53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism and glioma risk: an updated meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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P53 codon 72 Arg/Pro is a C/G variation upstream of the p53 gene on human chromosome 17p13. Many case-control studies have investigated the association between p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism and glioma risk but provided inconsistent findings. To better understand the pathogenesis of glioma, we performed the current meta-analysis by pooling data from all available individual studies. According to the inclusion criteria, ten independent publications with 11 case-control studies were included into this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was calculated to estimate the effect of p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro variant on the development of glioma. Overall, no appreciable correlation was observed among the total studies in all gene models (ORPro allele vs. Arg allele = 1.04, 95 % CI = 0.90-1.20, P OR = 0.581; ORPro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg = 0.95, 95 % CI = 0.80-1.14, P OR = 0.614; ORPro/Arg vs. Arg/Arg = 1.01, 95 % CI = 0.79-1.29, P OR = 0.993; ORPro/Arg + Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg = 1.03, 95 % CI = 0.82-1.29, P OR = 0.799; ORPro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg + Pro/Arg = 1.02, 95 % CI = 0.86-1.22, P OR = 0.785). In stratified analyses by ethnicity, source of controls, and glioma subtypes, the p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism did not alter the risk for glioma in population-based, hospital-based, astrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma studies among Caucasian. Interestingly, the Pro/Pro genotype seemed to be negatively associated with the glioma risk among patients with glioblastoma (ORPro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.48-0.95, P OR = 0.026). Our study suggests that the polymorphism of p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro may play a protective role in the development of glioblastoma. The relationship of p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism with the susceptibility to glioma needs further estimation by more individual studies with high quality across ethnicities.
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Myoloid-Related Protein 8, an Endogenous Ligand of Toll-Like Receptor 4, Is Involved in Epileptogenesis of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Via Activation of the Nuclear Factor-?B Pathway in Astrocytes.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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The role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the activation of innate immunity has been extensively studied in the past several years. Here, we are the first to report that myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8), an endogenous TLR4 ligand, is involved in the epileptogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We find that the expression of MRP8, TLR4, and interleukin 1-? (IL-1?) was upregulated in a MTLE model during both acute and chronic disease stages. We next investigated the possible roles played by astrocytes, which have been shown to be the major source of IL-1? during epilepsy. Stimulation via MRP8 led to the induction of IL-1? in astrocytes in vitro, accompanied by the activation of Nuclear Factor-?B, while knockdown of TLR4 or inhibition of NF-?B in astrocytes prevented this IL-1? induction. Thus, MRP8 may potentiate the perpetuation of MTLE by activating the NF-?B pathway in astrocytes, and could be a new target for anticonvulsant therapies.
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Preparation of bimetallic nanoparticles using a facile green synthesis method and their application.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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A straightforward, economically viable, and green approach for the synthesis of well-stabilized Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles is described; this method uses nontoxic and renewable degraded pueraria starch (DPS) as a matrix and mild reaction conditions. The DPS acted as both a reducing agent and a capping agent for the bimetallic nanoparticles. Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles were successfully grown within the DPS matrixes, and the bimetallic structures were characterized using various methods, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, it was shown that these DPS-capped Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles could function as catalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4 and were more effective than Au or Ag monometallic nanoparticles.
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Screening and identification of dynamin-1 interacting proteins in rat brain synaptosomes.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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Dynamin-1 is a multi-domain GTPase that is crucial for the fission stage of synaptic vesicle recycling and vesicle trafficking. In this study, we constructed prokaryotic expression plasmids for the four functional domains of dynamin-1, which are pGEX-4T-2-PH, pGEX-4T-2-PRD, pGEX-4T-2-GED and pGEX-4T-2-GTPase. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to screen and identify dynamin-1 interacting proteins in rat brain synaptosomes. We identified a set of 63 candidate protein interactions, including 36 proteins interacting with dynamin-1 C-terminal proline-rich domain (PRD), 14 with pleckstrin-homology domain (PH), 7 with GTPase effector domain (GED) and 6 with GTPase domain, consisting of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and other proteins. We selected three previously unreported dynamin-1 interacting proteins to verify their interaction with dynamin-1 under native conditions. Using co-IP, we found that Rab GDP-dissociation inhibitor (Rab GDI) and chloride channel 3 (ClC-3) do interact with dynamin-1, but not with TUC-4b (the TOAD-64/Ulip/CRMP (TUC) family member). Those novel interactions detected in our study offer valuable insight into the protein-protein interacting network that could enhance our understanding of dynamin-1 mediated synaptic vesicle recycling.
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CGG repeat-associated translation mediates neurodegeneration in fragile X tremor ataxia syndrome.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) results from a CGG repeat expansion in the 5 UTR of FMR1. This repeat is thought to elicit toxicity as RNA, yet disease brains contain ubiquitin-positive neuronal inclusions, a pathologic hallmark of protein-mediated neurodegeneration. We explain this paradox by demonstrating that CGG repeats trigger repeat-associated non-AUG-initiated (RAN) translation of a cryptic polyglycine-containing protein, FMRpolyG. FMRpolyG accumulates in ubiquitin-positive inclusions in Drosophila, cell culture, mouse disease models, and FXTAS patient brains. CGG RAN translation occurs in at least two of three possible reading frames at repeat sizes ranging from normal (25) to pathogenic (90), but inclusion formation only occurs with expanded repeats. In Drosophila, CGG repeat toxicity is suppressed by eliminating RAN translation and enhanced by increased polyglycine protein production. These studies expand the growing list of nucleotide repeat disorders in which RAN translation occurs and provide evidence that RAN translation contributes to neurodegeneration.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.